Optic fundus

For other uses, see Fundus (disambiguation).
Fundus photographs of the right eye (left image) and left eye (right image), seen from front so that left in each image is to the person's right.


Each fundus has no sign of disease or pathology. The gaze is into the camera, so in each picture the macula is in the center of the image, and the optic disk is located towards the nose. Both optic disks have some pigmentation at the perimeter of the lateral side, which is considered non-pathological. The left image (right eye) shows lighter areas close to larger vessels, which has been regarded as a normal finding in younger people.

The fundus of the eye is the interior surface of the eye, opposite the lens, and includes the retina, optic disc, macula and fovea, and posterior pole.[1] The fundus can be examined by ophthalmoscopy[1] and/or fundus photography. The term fundus may also be inclusive of Bruch's membrane and the choroid.

The color of the fundus varies both between and within species. In one study[2] of primates the retina is blue, green, yellow, orange, and red; only the human fundus (from a lightly pigmented blond person) is red. The major differences noted among the "higher" primate species where size and regularity of the border of macular area, size and shape of the optic disc, apparent 'texturing' of retina, and pigmentation of retina.

The eye's fundus is the only part of the human body where the microcirculation can be observed directly.[3] The diameter of the blood vessels around the optic disc is about 150 μm, and an ophthalmoscope allows observation of blood vessels with diameters as small as 10 μm.[3]

Medical signs that can be detected from observation of eye fundus (generally by funduscopy) include hemorrhages, exudates, cotton wool spots, blood vessel abnormalities (tortuosity, pulsation and new vessels) and pigmentation.[4] Arteriolar constriction, seen as `silver wiring` and vascular tortuosities are seen in hypertensive retinopathy.


See also