World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Proboscidea

Article Id: WHEBN0000023560
Reproduction Date:

Title: Proboscidea  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Elephant, Evolution of mammals, Eritherium, African forest elephant, African bush elephant
Collection: Proboscideans, Selandian First Appearances
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Proboscidea

The Proboscidea (from the Greek προβοσκίς and the Latin proboscis) are a taxonomic order containing one living family, Elephantidae, and several extinct families. This order, first described by J. Illiger in 1811, encompasses the trunked mammals.[2][3] Later proboscideans are distinguished by tusks and long, muscular trunks; these features are less developed or absent in early proboscideans.

The earliest known proboscidean is Eritherium,[4] followed by Phosphatherium, a small animal about the size of a fox. These both date from late Paleocene deposits of Morocco.

Proboscideans diversified during the Eocene and early Oligocene. Several primitive families from these epochs have been described, including Numidotheriidae, Moeritheriidae, and Barytheriidae in Africa. (Anthracobunidae from the Indian subcontinent has also been included, but was excluded from Proboscidea by Shoshani & Tassy (2005)[1] and has more recently been assigned to Perissodactyla.[5]) These were followed by the earliest Deinotheriidae, or "hoe tuskers", which thrived during the Miocene and into the early Quaternary. Proboscideans from the Miocene also included Stegolophodon, an early genus of the disputed family Stegodontidae; the diverse family of Gomphotheriidae, or "shovel tuskers", such as Platybelodon and Amebelodon; and the Mammutidae, or mastodons.

Most families of Proboscidea are now extinct, many since the end of the last glacial period. Recently extinct species include the last examples of gomphotheres in Central and South America, the American mastodon of family Mammutidae in North America, numerous stegodonts once found in Asia, the last of the mammoths, and several island species of dwarf elephants.[6]

The classification of proboscideans is unstable and frequently revised, and some relationships within the order remain unclear. As of 2005, at least 177 species and subspecies of proboscideans, classified in 43 genera, are recognized; the order is summarized as:[1]

Proboscidea
incertae sedis Moeritheriidae
Moeritherium
Plesielephantiformes
Numidotheriidae
Phosphatherium
Daouitherium
Numidotherium
Barytheriidae
Barytherium
Deinotheriidae
Chilgatherium[7]
Prodeinotherium
Deinotherium
Elephantiformes
incertae sedis Hemimastodon
Palaeomastodontidae
Palaeomastodon
Phiomiidae
Phiomia
Elephantimorpha
incertae sedis Eritreum [8]
Mammutida (mastodons)
Mammutoidea
Mammutidae
Eozygodontinae
Eozygodon
Mammutinae
Zygolophodon
Mammut
Elephantida
Gomphotherioidea
Gomphotheriidae (gomphotheres)
incertae sedis Gnathabelodon
incertae sedis Progomphotherium
incertae sedis Afromastodon
Choerolophodontinae
Choerolophodon
Gomphotheriinae
Gomphotherium
Amebelodontinae
Archaeobelodon
Serbelodon
Protanancus
Amebelodon
Platybelodon
incertae sedis Sinomastodon
incertae sedis Eubelodon
Rhynchotheriinae
Rhynchotherium
Cuvieroniinae
Cuvieronius
Stegomastodon
Haplomastodon
Notiomastodon
Elephantoidea
incertae sedis Tetralophodon
incertae sedis Morrillia
incertae sedis Anancus
incertae sedis Paratetralophodon
Stegodontidae
Stegolophodon
Stegodon
Elephantidae
Stegotetrabelodontinae
Stegotetrabelodon
Stegodibelodon
Elephantinae (elephants and mammoths)
Primelephas
Loxodontini
Loxodonta
Elephantini
Palaeoloxodon
Elephas
Mammuthus

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c Shoshani, Jeheskel; Pascal Tassy (2005). "Advances in proboscidean taxonomy & classification, anatomy & physiology, and ecology & behavior". Quaternary International. 126-128: 5–20.  
  2. ^ Vergiev, S.; Markov, G. (2010). "A mandible of Deinotherium (Mammalia - Proboscidea) from Aksakovo near Varna, Northeast Bulgaria". Palaeodiversity 3: 241–247. 
  3. ^ "Proboscidea". Retrieved 13 September 2011. 
  4. ^ Gheerbrant, E. (2009). "Paleocene emergence of elephant relatives and the rapid radiation of African ungulates". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (26): 10717–10721.  
  5. ^ Cooper, L. N.; Seiffert, E. R.; Clementz, M.; Madar, S. I.; Bajpai, S.; Hussain, S. T.; Thewissen, J. G. M. (2014-10-08). "Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls". PLoS ONE 9 (10): e109232.  
  6. ^ Bjorn Kurten, Elaine Anderson (17 May 2005). Pleistocene mammals of North America - Google Books.  
  7. ^ Sanders, William J.; John Kappelman; D. Tab Rasmussen (2004). "New large-bodied mammals from the late Oligocene site of Chilga, Ethiopia". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (3): 365–392. 
  8. ^ Shoshani, Jeheskel; Robert C. Walter, Michael Abraha, Seife Berhe, Pascal Tassy, William J. Sanders, Gary H. Marchant, Yosief Libsekal, Tesfalidet Ghirmai and Dietmar Zinner (2006). "A proboscidean from the late Oligocene of Eritrea, a "missing link" between early Elephantiformes and Elephantimorpha, and biogeographic implications". PNAS 103 (46).  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.