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Robert W. Paul

Robert William Paul
Born (1869-10-03)3 October 1869
Liverpool Road, Highbury, Islington Vestry
Died 28 March 1943(1943-03-28) (aged 73)
Putney, Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth
Occupation filmmaker
Known for Theatrograph

Robert W. Paul (3 October 1869 – 28 March 1943) was an English electrician, scientific instrument maker and early pioneer of British film.


  • Early career 1
  • Film innovation 2
  • Extended career 3
  • Filmography 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Early career

He was born in Highbury, in present-day Inner London, and began his technical career learning instrument-making skills at the Elliott Brothers, a firm of London instrument makers founded in 1804, followed by the Bell Telephone Company in Antwerp. In 1891, he established an instrument-making company, Robert W. Paul Instrument Company, initially with a workshop at 44 Hatton Garden, London, later his office.

In 1894, he was approached by two Greek businessmen who wanted him to make copies of an Georges Méliès.

However, the only films available were 'bootleg' copies of those produced for the Edison machines. As Edison had patented his camera (the details of which were a closely guarded secret), Paul resolved to solve this bottleneck by creating his own camera. He was introduced to Birt Acres, a photographic expert, who had invented a device to move film as part of the developing process. Paul thought that Acre's principle could be used in a camera. This camera, dubbed the Paul-Acres Camera, invented in March 1895, would be the first camera made in England.[1]

Film innovation

R.W. Paul obtained a concession to operate a kinetoscope parlour at the Earls Court Exhibition Centre, and the success of this inspired him to contemplate the possibilities of projecting a moving image on to a screen, something that Edison had never considered. And while Paul and Birt Acres would share innovator status for England's first camera, soon after conception both men would dissolve the partnership and become competitors in the film camera and projector markets.[1]

Acres would present his projector, England's first, on 14 January 1896. Paul would present his own, the more influential Theatrograph shortly after on 20 February. Ironically this is exactly the same day the Lumieres' films would first be projected in London.[1]

In 1896, he pioneered in the UK a system of projecting motion pictures onto a screen, using a self-developed Maltese cross system. This coincided with the advent of the projection system devised by the Lumiere Brothers. After some demonstrations before scientific groups, he was asked to supply a projector and staff to the Alhambra Music Hall in Leicester Square, and he presented his first theatrical programme on 25 March 1896. This included films featuring cartoonist Tom Merry drawing caricatures of the German Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II (1895),[2] and Prince Bismarck (1895).[3] Merry had previously performed his lightning-fast drawing as part of a music hall stage act. (The Lumieres were appearing on the bill at the Empire Music Hall, nearby.) The use of his 'Theatrograph' in music halls up and down the country popularised early cinema in Britain. There were many showmen who wished to imitate Paul's success, and some of these wanted to make their own films of 'local interest'. It was necessary to set up a completely separate manufacturing department producing cameras, projectors, and cinema equipment, with its own office and showroom.

Paul would also continue his innovations in the portable camera field. His 'Cinematograph Camera No. 1', built in April 1896, would be the first camera to feature reverse-cranking. This mechanism allowed for the same film footage to be exposed several times. The ability to create super-positions and

  • Robert W. Paul at the Internet Movie Database
  • Robert William Paul (Who's Who of Victorian Cinema)
  • 1895-1897 - Robert W. Paul - Early silent films on YouTube

External links

  1. ^ a b c d However this distincction has also been claimed by Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince (28 August 1841 – vanished 16 September 1890) who was a French inventor and shot the first moving pictures on paper film using a single lens camera.[1][2] He has been heralded as the "Father of Cinematography" since 1930.[3] Mast, Gerald; Kawin, Bruce F. (2007). "Birth". In Costanzo, William. A Short History of the Movies (Abridged 9th ed.). Pearson Education, inc. pp. 23–24. 
  2. ^ , Birt Acres (1895) (BFI)Tom Merry Lightning Cartoonist, sketching Kaiser Wilhelm II accessed 3 Nov 2007
  3. ^ , Birt Acres (1895) (BFI)Tom Merry Lightning Cartoonist, sketching Bismarck accessed 3 Nov 2007


Hyde Park Bicycling Scene 1896


Coincidentally and without prior knowledge of the above, in 1994 a technology company called Kinetic took over the building at 44 Hatton Garden and renamed it Kinetic House. In 1999, the British film industry commemorated the work of Paul by erecting a commemorative plaque on the building attended by members of the film industry, unions and Lord Samuelson.

Paul continued to make his own films, selling them either directly or through the new distribution companies that were springing up. He was a very innovate director and cameraman, pioneering techniques such as the close up and cutting from one scene to another. However, his growing business interests crowded out film, and he moved out of the infant industry as early as 1910. Nevertheless, his importance was always recognized by contemporaries, who often referred to him as 'Daddy Paul'.

In the meantime, he continued with his original business, focusing on his internationally renowned Unipivot galvanometer. Paul’s instruments were internationally renowned: he won gold medals at the St Louis Exposition in 1904 and the Brussels Exhibition in 1910, among others. Upon the outbreak of World War I, he began producing military instruments including early wireless telegraphy sets, and instruments for submarine warfare. In December 1919, the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company took over the smaller but successful Robert W. Paul Instrument Company and became The Cambridge and Paul Instrument Company Ltd. The name was shortened to the Cambridge Instrument Co Ltd in 1924 when it was converted to a public company.

Extended career

In 1898 he designed and constructed Britain's first film studio in Muswell Hill, north London.


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