World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sandwich tern

Article Id: WHEBN0000361093
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sandwich tern  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Lesser crested tern, Norderoog, Greater crested tern, Tern, Orange-billed tern
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Sandwich tern

Sandwich tern
Nominate subspecies T. s. sandvicensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Sternidae
Genus: Thalasseus
Species: T. sandvicensis
Binomial name
Thalasseus sandvicensis
(Latham, 1787)
Range of T. sandvicensis      Breeding range     Year-round range     Wintering range

Sterna sandvicensis

The Sandwich tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis)[2] is a seabird of the tern family, Sternidae. It is very closely related to the lesser crested tern (T. bengalensis), Chinese crested tern (T. bernsteini), Cabot's tern (T. acuflavidus), and elegant tern (T. elegans) and has been known to interbreed with the lesser crested.

The Sandwich tern is a medium-large tern with grey upperparts, white underparts, a yellow-tipped black bill and a shaggy black crest which becomes less extensive in winter with a white crown. Young birds bear grey and brown scalloped plumage on their backs and wings. It is a vocal bird. It nests in a ground scrape and lays one to three eggs.

Like all Thalasseus terns, the Sandwich tern feeds by plunge diving for fish, usually in marine environments, and the offering of fish by the male to the female is part of the courtship display.


  • Taxonomy 1
  • Description 2
  • Behaviour 3
  • Status 4
  • Footnotes 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


The terns, family Sternidae, are small to medium-sized seabirds, gull-like in appearance, but usually with a more delicate, lighter build and shorter, weaker legs. They have long, pointed wings, which gives them a fast buoyant flight, and often a deeply forked tail. Most species are grey above and white below, and have a black cap which is reduced or flecked with white in the winter.[3]

The Sandwich tern was originally described by ornithologist John Latham in 1787 as Sterna sandvicensis, but was recently moved to its current genus Thalasseus (Boie, 1822) following mitochondrial DNA studies which confirmed that the three types of head pattern (white crown, black cap, and black cap with a white blaze on the forehead) found amongst the terns corresponded to distinct clades.[2] The current genus name is derived from Greek Thalassa, "sea", and sandvicensis refers to Sandwich, Kent, Latham's type locality. In birds, the specific name sandvicensis usually denotes that the species was first described from Hawaii, formerly known as the "Sandwich Islands", but the Sandwich tern does not occur there.

This bird has no subspecies. Two former subspecies are now treat as a separate species called the Cabot's tern (T. acuflavidus), which breeds on the Atlantic coasts of North America, wintering in the Caribbean and further south, and has wandered to Western Europe. The former species, T. s. eurygnatha (Saunders 1876), is sometimes treated as a separate species called the Cayenne tern (T. eurygnatha), which breeds on the Atlantic coast of South America from Argentina north to the Caribbean, intergrading with T. acuflavidus in the north of its range. The DNA analysis showed that Cayenne tern differed genetically from T. acuflavidus, but the difference was not sufficient to confirm it as a definite separate species.[2]


Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

This is a medium-large tern, 37–43 cm (15–17 in) long with an 85–97 cm (33–38 in) wingspan, which is unlikely to be confused within most of its range, although the South American race could be confused with the elegant tern.

The Sandwich tern's thin sharp bill is black with a yellow tip, except in the yellow or orange billed South American race. Its short legs are black. Its upperwings are pale grey and its underparts white, and this tern looks very pale in flight, although the primary flight feathers darken during the summer.[4]

The lesser crested tern and elegant tern differ in having all-orange bills; lesser crested also differs in having a grey rump and marginally stouter bill, and elegant in having a slightly longer, slenderer bill. Chinese crested tern is the most similar to Sandwich, but has a reversal of the bill colour, yellow with a black tip; it does not overlap in range with Sandwich tern so confusion is unlikely.

In winter, the adult Sandwich tern's forehead becomes white. Juvenile Sandwich terns have dark tips to their tails, and a scaly appearance on their back and wings, like juvenile roseate terns.[4]

The Sandwich tern is a vocal bird; its call is a characteristic loud grating kear-ik or kerr ink.[4]


This species breeds in very dense colonies on coasts and islands, and exceptionally inland on suitable large freshwater lakes close to the coast. It nests in a ground scrape and lays one to three eggs. Unlike some of the smaller white terns, it is not very aggressive toward potential predators, relying on the sheer density of the nests—often only 20–30 cm (7.9–11.8 in) apart and nesting close to other more aggressive species such as Arctic terns and black-headed gulls to avoid predation.

Like all Thalasseus terns, the Sandwich tern feeds by plunge-diving for fish, almost invariably from the sea. It usually dives directly, and not from the "stepped-hover" favoured by Arctic tern. The offering of fish by the male to the female is part of the courtship display.


The Sandwich tern has an extensive global range estimated at 100,000–1,000,000 million square kilometres km2. (0.04–0.38 million square miles). It has a population estimated at 460,000–500,000 individuals. Population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.[1]

The Sandwich tern is among the taxa to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.[5] Parties to the Agreement are required to engage in a wide range of conservation actions which are describes in a detailed action plan. This plan should address key issues such as species and habitat conservation, management of human activities, research, education, and implementation.[6]


  1. ^ a b  
  2. ^ a b c Bridge, Eli S.; Jones, Andrew W.; Baker, Allan J. (2005). "A phylogenetic framework for the terns (Sternini) inferred from mtDNA sequences: implications for taxonomy and plumage evolution" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35 (2): 459–469.  
  3. ^ Snow & Perrins (1998) p.764
  4. ^ a b c Hume R (2002). RSPB Birds of Britain and Europe. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 186.  
  5. ^ "Annex 2: Waterbird species to which the Agreement applies" (PDF). Agreement on the conservation of African-Eurasian migratory Waterbirds (AEWA). UNEP/ AEWA Secretariat. Retrieved 4 July 2008. 
  6. ^ "Introduction". African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement. UNEP/ AEWA Secretariat. Retrieved 8 July 2008. 


  • Snow, David; Perrins, Christopher M., eds. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic (BWP) concise edition (2 volumes). Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
  • Harrison, Peter (1988). Seabirds (2nd edition). Christopher Helm, London ISBN 0-7470-1410-8
  • National Geographic Society (2002). Field Guide to the Birds of North America. National Geographic, Washington DC. ISBN 0-7922-6877-6
  • Olsen, Klaus Malling & Larsson, Hans (1995). Terns of Europe and North America. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-4056-1
  • Stienen, Eric WM (2006). Living with gulls: trading of food and predation in the Sandwich Tern Sterna sandvicencis. PhD Thesis University Groningen. [2]

External links

  • Sandwich Tern Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
  • Sandwich tern videos, photos, and sounds at the Internet Bird Collection
  • Sandwich tern photo gallery at VIREO (Drexel University)
  • Sandwich tern species account at NeotropicalBirds (Cornell University)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.