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Siegfried von Forstner

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Siegfried von Forstner

Siegfried von Forstner
File:Siegfried von Forstner.jpg
Born (1910-09-19)19 September 1910
Hannover
Died 13 October 1943(1943-10-13) (aged 33)
Atlantic Ocean  
Allegiance Germany Weimar Republic (to 1933)
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Service/branch  Reichsmarine
 Kriegsmarine
Years of service 1930–1943
Rank Korvettenkapitän
posthumously promoted to Fregattenkapitän
Unit SSS Niobe
cruiser Emden
survey vessel Meteor
battleship Hessen
cruiser Admiral Scheer
cruiser Nürnberg
Panzerschiff Deutschland
U-99
Commands held U-402
Battles/wars

World War II

Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Korvettenkapitän Siegfried Freiherr von Forstner[a] (19 September 1910 – 13 October 1943[b]) was a German U-boat commander during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. He and his entire crew of U-402 were killed in action on 13 October 1943.

Background

Von Forstner was the son of an aristocratic Prussian family whose men had served for generations as Army and Navy officers. His younger brother Wolfgang Friedrich (*1916) was also a U-boat commander, and two other brothers (Ernst Richard and Hans Dietrich) were Army officers. Wolfgang was the only brother to survive World War II.[1] Their great-grandfather and grandfather had been army officers, and their father was a general, Ernst Freiherr von Forstner (1869–1950), who had won the Pour le Mérite with cluster as a regimental commander during World War I.[2] Their uncle George Gunther von Forstner had commanded U-1 and U-28 during World War I,[1] and another uncle of the Imperial Navy had died in that conflict.[2]

Career

Siegfried von Forster joined the Kriegsmarine in 1930 and served four years on the German cruiser Nürnberg following training as an artillery technical officer. Many of his year group were already at sea in submarines when he entered U-boat school in 1940. Von Forstner received training as a student commander aboard U-99 under his Naval School classmate Otto Kretschmer.[1] After a 5-month tour in U-59, von Forstner assumed command of U-402. Von Forstner carried out eight combat patrols in U-402 sinking 14 merchantmen and one warship and damaging three other ships.

Von Forstner married in Hamburg in December, 1940, while waiting to take command of U-402. His wife Annamaria made distinctive red pom-poms for the crew of U-402 to wear on their uniform hats.[3] The Baron and Baroness saved their home in Hamburg from burning during August, 1943, air-raids by staying on the roof and extinguishing incendiary bombs.[4]

No ships were sunk during the first U-402 patrol from 26 October 1941 to 9 December 1941. On the second patrol von Forstner damaged the 12000-ton troopship Llangibby Castle off the Bay of Biscay on 16 January 1942 but the damaged troopship was able to make repairs in the Azores.[5]

Von Forstner then made two patrols off the Atlantic coast of the United States. He sank a 4800-ton ship en route and then sank the 5300-ton Russian tanker Ashkabad and the 1000-ton converted yacht USS Cythera (PY-26) off Cape Hatteras on 2 May 1942.[6] On the next patrol, U-402 was depth charged by patrol bombers off Cape Hatteras in mid-July and suffered a battery explosion.[1]

Von Forstner received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for torpedoing twelve ships from convoy SC 107 and convoy SC 118. Baron von Forstner sank two ships during a submerged daylight attack on convoy SC 129 before U-402 was depth charged and damaged by the corvette Gentian.[7]

Baron von Forstner shot down an attacking RAF 172 Squadron Vickers Wellington bomber over the Bay of Biscay following departure for his last patrol on 4 September 1943.[8] U-402 provided flak protection for U-377 when the latter was attacked by a B-24 Liberator bomber during the battle of Convoy ON 202.[9] A U-boat believed by the Allied Anti-Submarine Assessment Committee to be U-402 was sunk with all hands on 13 October 1943 by a Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo dropped by TBF Avenger aircraft from USS Card (CVE-11).[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Summary of career

Ships attacked

As a U-boat commander of U-402 Siegfried von Forstner is credited with the sinking of 14 ships for a total of 70,434 gross register tons (GRT), further damaging three ships of 28,682 GRT and sinking one auxiliary warship of 602 metric tons (592 long tons; 664 short tons).

Date Ship Nationality Tonnage Fate[17]
16 May 1941 Llangibby Castle  Great Britain 11,951 Damaged
13 April 1942 Empire Progress  Great Britain 5,249 Sunk
30 April 1942 Ashkhabad  Soviet Union 5,284 Sunk
2 May 1942 USS Cythera  USA 602 Sunk
2 November 1942 Dalcroy  Great Britain 4,558 Sunk
2 November 1942 Empire Antelope  Great Britain 4,945 Sunk
2 November 1942 Empire Leopard  Great Britain 5,676 Sunk
2 November 1942 Empire Sunrise  Great Britain 7,459 Damaged
2 November 1942 Rinos  Greece 4,649 Sunk
7 February 1942 Afrika  Great Britain 8,597 Sunk
7 February 1942 Daghild  Norway 9,272 Damaged
7 February 1942 Henry R. Mallory  USA 6,063 Sunk
7 February 1942 Kalliopi  Greece 4,695 Sunk
7 February 1942 Robert E. Hopkins  Great Britain 6,625 Sunk
7 February 1942 Toward  Great Britain 1,571 Sunk
8 February 1942 Newton Ash  Great Britain 1,571 Sunk
11 May 1943 Antigone  Great Britain 4,545 Sunk
11 May 1943 Grado  Norway 3,082 Sunk

Awards

Footnotes

  • a Regarding personal names: Freiherr is a title, translated as Baron, not a first or middle name. The female forms are Freifrau and Freiin.
  • b Sources are inconclusive with respect to date of death. Some sources indicate that von Forstner succumbed to his injuries on 22 October 1943 nine days after the sinking of U-402 on 13 October 1943.[21]

References

Citations
Bibliography
  • Busch, Rainer & Röll, Hans-Joachim (2003). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939-1945 - Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 (in German). Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 3-8132-0515-0.
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