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Socialist Party (Netherlands)

Socialist Party
Socialistische Partij
Abbreviation SP
Leader Emile Roemer
Chairman Jan Marijnissen
Secretary Hans van Heijningen
Leader in the Senate Tiny Kox
Leader in the House of Representatives Emile Roemer
Leader in the European Parliament Dennis de Jong
Founded 22 October 1971
Split from KEN
Headquarters 'De Moed'
Partijbureau SP
Snouckaertlaan 70
Amersfoort
Youth wing ROOD
Thinktank Scientific Office of the SP
Ideology

Current:
Social democracy[1][2]
Democratic socialism[3][4][5]
Left-wing populism[6]
Euroscepticism[7]

Historical:
Maoism
(1971–1986)[8]
Marxism–Leninism
(1971–1991)[2]
Political position Left-wing[5]
International affiliation None
European affiliation None
European Parliament group European United Left–Nordic Green Left
Colours Red
Senate
9 / 75
House of Representatives
15 / 150
States-Provincial
70 / 570
European Parliament
2 / 26
Website
www.sp.nl
Politics of Netherlands
Political parties
Elections

The Socialist Party (Dutch: Socialistische Partij, SP) (Dutch pronunciation: or shortened Dutch pronunciation: ) is a left-wing social-democratic[2][9][10] political party in the Netherlands. After the 2006 general election, the Socialist Party became one of the major parties of the Netherlands with 25 seats of 150, an increase of 16 seats. In the 2010 general election the party obtained 15 seats. In the 2012 general election they maintained those 15 seats. The party is in opposition against the Second Rutte cabinet.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Foundation until 1994 1.1
    • After 1994 1.2
    • Name 1.3
  • Ideology and issues 2
  • Election results 3
    • Parliament (States-General, Staten-Generaal) 3.1
    • European Parliament 3.2
  • Organization 4
    • Leadership 4.1
  • Representation 5
    • Members of the House of Representatives 5.1
      • Current members 5.1.1
    • Members of the Senate 5.2
      • Current members 5.2.1
    • Members of the European Parliament 5.3
    • Local and provincial government 5.4
  • Organisation 6
    • Organisational structure 6.1
    • Linked organisations 6.2
    • Relationships to other parties 6.3
  • References 7
  • External links 8
  • Further reading 9

History

Foundation until 1994

The Socialist Party was founded in October 1971 as a Communist Party of China like in condemning the support for Unita in Angola (The brochure: "Antwoord aan de dikhuiden van de KEN").

The SP started to build a network of local parties, with strong local roots. The SP had its own Gemeenteraden), notably in Oss. Also in provincial legislatures (so-called States-Provincial), the SP gained a foothhold, especially in the province of North Brabant.

Since 1977 SP attempted to enter the House of Representatives. The party failed in 1977, 1981, 1982, 1986 and 1989. In 1991, the party officially scrapped the term Marxism–Leninism, because the party had evolved to the point that the term was no longer considered appropriate.

After 1994

In 1994 general election the party's first members of parliament, Remi Poppe and Jan Marijnissen were elected. Its slogan was 'Vote Against' (Dutch: Stem tegen). In the 1990s, the major party of the Dutch left, the Labour Party (PvdA), moved to the centrism, thus making the SP and GreenLeft viable alternatives for some left-wing voters. In the 1998 general election, the party was rewarded for its opposition to the Purple government of the first Kok cabinet, and more than doubled its seats to five. In the 1999 European elections, Erik Meijer was elected into the European Parliament for the SP.

In 2002 general election the SP was the only party on the Left that gained seats. Now its slogan was 'Vote in Favor' (Dutch: Stem Voor). It nearly doubled to nine seats. This result was kept in the 2003 general election. Leading up to the 2003 elections, the SP was predicted to win as many as 24 (16%) seats in the polls. These gains failed to materialise however, as many potential SP voters chose to cast strategic votes for the Labour Party, who stood a good chance of winning the elections. In the 2004 European elections its one seat was doubled to two.

In the 2005 referendum on the European Constitution, the SP was the only left-wing party in parliament to oppose it. Support for the party grew in opinion polls but fell slightly after the referendum.

The municipal elections of 2006 were a success for the SP, more than doubling its total number of seats. This can in part be explained by the party standing in many more municipalities, but it can also be seen as a reaction to the so-called 'right-wing winter' in national politics, as the welfare reforms of the right-wing second Balkenende cabinet were called by its centre-left and left-wing opponents. In a reaction to these results, Marijnissen declared on election night that the "SP has grown up".

After the untimely end of the second Balkenende cabinet and the minority government of the third Balkenende cabinet, the SP gained 16 seats in the parliament after the 2006 general election, nearly tripling its parliamentary representation. With 25 seats, the SP became the third largest party of the Dutch parliament. In the 2006-2007 cabinet formation the SP was unable to work out its policy differences with the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), the largest party and SP remained in opposition against the fourth Balkenende cabinet, which comprised the CDA, PvdA and ChristianUnion parties.

In the provincial elections of 2007 the SP gained 54 provincial legislators more than in the provincial elections of 2003 and made it to a total of 83 provincial legislators. As a result of the provincial elections the SP has increased its representatives in the Senate of the Netherlands (upper house) to 11 from the 4 it had previously.

In the 2010 general election, SP fared worse than in the previous election, gaining only 15 seats, a loss of 10, and only 9.9% of the overall vote.

According to an opinion poll of January 2012, the SP would have won 32 seats and become, for the first time in its history, the biggest party of the country if elections were held.[11] However, in the final weeks of the election, the SP's main rival, the PvdA, surged ahead in the polls as the biggest party on the left. The PvdA then won 38 seats in parliament in the 2012 Dutch election, and the SP took only 15 seats, remaining at its 2010 level.

Name

The party was founded as the Communist Party of the Netherlands/Marxist–Leninist (KPN/ML) in 1971. In 1972 it adopted the name Socialistiese Partij, which was spelled in an unofficial spelling, with -iese instead of -ische. In 1993 the party changed its name to the accurately spelled Socialistische Partij.

Ideology and issues

The party labels itself as socialist, or social democratic;[2] the latter characterization is also used by Watkins in the New Left Review and by political scientists Voerman and Lucardie.[10] In its manifesto of principles it calls for a society where human dignity, equality and solidarity are most important. Its core issues are employment, social welfare and investing in public education, public safety and health care. The party opposes privatisation of public services and is critical of globalization and immigration.

Election results

Parliament (States-General, Staten-Generaal)

House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer)
Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Government
1977 24,420 0.2
0 / 150
in opposition
1981 30,357 0.3
0 / 150
in opposition
1982 44,690 0.5
0 / 150
in opposition
1986 31,983 0.4
0 / 150
in opposition
1989 38,789 0.4
0 / 150
in opposition
1994 118,768 1.3 (#11)
2 / 150
2 in opposition
1998 303,703 3.5 (#6)
5 / 150
3 in opposition
2002 560,447 5.9 (#6)
9 / 150
4 in opposition
2003 609,723 6.3 (#4)
9 / 150
0 in opposition
2006 1,630,803 16.6 (#3)
25 / 150
16 in opposition
2010 924,696 9.8 (#5)
15 / 150
10 in opposition
2012 909,853 9.7 (#4)
15 / 150
0 in opposition

European Parliament

Election year # of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Notes
1994 55,306 1.3 (#8)
0 / 31
1999 178,642 5.0 (#7)
1 / 31
1
2004 332,326 7.0 (#7)
2 / 27
1
2009 323,269 7.1 (#7)
2 / 25
0
2014 455,505 9.6 (#5)
2 / 26
0

Organization

Leadership

Representation

Members of the House of Representatives

Current members

Current members of the House of Representatives since the general election of 2012:

Members of the Senate

Current members

Current members of the Senate since the election of 2015:

Members of the European Parliament

In the 1999 European Parliament elections, the SP acquired one seat in the European Parliament:

  1. Erik Meijer

After the 2004 European Parliament elections the party had two representatives in the European Parliament:

  1. Erik Meijer
  2. Kartika Liotard

After the 2009 European Parliament elections the party has two representatives in the European Parliament:

  1. Dennis de Jong
  2. Kartika Liotard (left SP in 2010)

After the 2014 European Parliament elections the party has two representatives in the European Parliament:

  1. Dennis de Jong
  2. Anne-Marie Mineur

SP is a member of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left (GUE/NGL) group in the European Parliament. The party is not affiliated with the Party of the European Left.

Local and provincial government

The SP provides no King's Commissioners or mayors. Dutch mayors and King's Commissioners are appointed by the Minister of the Interior; the SP opposes this procedure, and wants mayors to be elected by the municipal council. The SP is part of the provincial executive (Gedeputeerde staten) of North Brabant (Johan van den Hout) and South-Holland (Rik Janssen). The SP is also part of several municipal executives (College van burgemeester en wethouders), notably in Amsterdam and Utrecht.

Organisation

The SP has over 50,000 members and has grown considerably since it entered parliament in 1994 making it the third largest party in terms of its number of members.[12]

Organisational structure

The highest body within the SP is the party council, formed by the chairs of all local branches and the party board. It convenes at least four times a year. The party board is elected by the party congress, which is formed by delegates from the municipal branches. The congress decides on the order of the candidates for national and European elections and it has a final say over the party program.

The official chair of the party board is general secretary. The party board further consists of regionally and nationally elected members and the head of the party's youth wing and the editor of the party's magazine.

The SP is sometimes criticised for its allegedly

  • Jan Marijnissen & Karel Glastra van Loon, "The Last War of the 20th Century: Discussions on the new world order" (On the threshold of the new millennium, Jan Marijnissen en Karel Glastra van Loon spoke with prominent experts in the area of peace and security, both within the Netherlands and abroad.)
  • Jan Marijnissen, "Enough!: a socialist bites back" (SP-chairman Jan Marijnissen summarises and internationalises his opposition against the ideological mainstream in today's politics throughout the world. Neoliberalism, argues Marijnissen, causes the return of 19th century social and democratic circumstances. Who does not agree, has the duty to stand up and say: enough!)
  • Harry van Bommel & Niels de Heij, "A Better Europe Starts Now" (European cooperation has already brought us many benefits, for example in the areas of human rights and of our prosperity. That does not mean that it is always good or that cooperation in all areas offers added value. The outcome of the referendum on the European Constitution demonstrated that a clear majority holds the European Union as it is now in little esteem, and that there was a need for a broad social discussion over Europe and the role of the Netherlands within it. This paper is intended to contribute to such a debate by making proposals for a more democratic, slimmed down, balanced and affordable EU, as well as a fruitful European agricultural policy.)
  • Anja Meulenbelt & Harry van Bommel, "The promised land, the stolen land". (March 2007) (A summary of the study by Anja Meulenbelt and Harry van Bommel).

SP publications in English

Further reading

  • Socialist Party web site in English
  • Speech by former SP leader Jan Marijnissen at the congress of the Socialist Left Party of Norway, which gives an overview of the SP's history and policies (March 24, 2007).

External links

  1. ^ Susan Watkins (2005). Continental tremors. New Left Review 33.
  2. ^ a b c d SP overweegt andere partijnaam | nu.nl/politiek | Het laatste nieuws het eerst op nu.nl
  3. ^ José Magone (3 July 2013). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 533.  
  4. ^ http://www.parties-and-elections.eu/netherlands.html
  5. ^ a b "European Social Survey 2012 - Appendix 3 (in English)" (PDF).  
  6. ^  
  7. ^ Pater Teffer (28 April 2014). "Dutch euroscepticism moves mainstream".  
  8. ^ Geschiedenis van de SP in vogelvlucht
  9. ^ Oudenampsen, Merijn (23 May 2013). Ruth Wodak; Majid KhosraviNik; Brigitte Mral, eds. Explaining the Swing to the Right: The Dutch Debate on the Rise of Right-Wing Populism. Right-Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse (A&C Black). p. 202.  
  10. ^ a b Voerman, Paul; Lucardie (2007). "Sociaal-democratie nu definitief verdeeld: Met volwassen SP is het abonnement van de PvdA op de linkse stem verlopen" (PDF). NRC Handelsblad. 
  11. ^ "Nieuw Haags Peil" (PDF). Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
  12. ^ http://dnpp.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/root/Persberichtenledenta/ledentallen2010.pdf
  13. ^ Kagie R. De Socialisten, Achter de Schermen van de SP Mets & Schilt (2004) Amsterdam
  14. ^ SP :: An activist party
  15. ^ Tribune's website (in Dutch)

References

The Socialist Party has always been in opposition. On many issues, the SP is the most left-wing party in parliament. Between 1994 and 2002 the Labour Party (PvdA) had a conscious strategy to isolate the party, always voting against the latter's proposals. The party however did co-operate well with GreenLeft. After the PvdA's disastrous election result in 2002, the Labour Party, now back in opposition, did co-operate with the SP, against some of the policies of the centre-right Balkenende government, and their relationship improved significantly. New tensions arose however after the elections of 2006, when the SP approached the PvdA in electoral support, and the PvdA joined the government, whereas the SP did not.

Relationships to other parties

The youthwing is called ROOD, jong in de SP (English: RED, Youth within the SP; the word rood is officially written in capitals, but is not an acronym). The SP publishes the magazine the Tribune monthly[15] (which was also the name of a historical Communist Party of the Netherlands newspaper).

Linked organisations

At one point, two Trotskyist entryist groups operated within the SP, Offensive, now called Socialist Alternative, and the International Socialists. The IS however was expelled on the grounds of double membership. The similar, but very small group Offensief was not considered a factor of power but its members were banned from the SP in February 2009, on the grounds of being "a party within a party". Members of the party Socialist Alternative Politics still operate within the SP.

The SP remains a very active force in extra-parliamentary protest. Many of its members are active in local campaigning groups, often independent groups dominated by the SP, or in the SP neighbourhood centres, where the party provides help for the working class.[14]

[13]

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