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Title: Spirurida  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Loa loa, American White Ibis, Brugia malayi, Dirofilaria immitis, Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia pahangi, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Secernentea, Elaeophora, Gongylonema neoplasticum
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Dirofilaria immitis larva
Magnification 400X
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
(unranked): Bilateria
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Secernentea
Subclass: Spiruria
Order: Spirurida

10, but see text

Spirurida is an order of spirurian nematodes. Like all nematodes, they have neither a circulatory nor a respiratory system.

Some Spirurida, like the genus Gongylonema, can cause disease in humans. One such disease is a skin infection with Spirurida larvae, called "creeping disease".


The Camallanida are sometimes included herein as a suborder, and the Drilonematida are sometimes placed here as a superfamily. There are doubts about the internal systematics of the Spirurida, and some groups placed herein might belong to other spirurian or even secernentean lineages.[1]

The following superfamilies are at least provisionally placed in the Spirurida:



  • Nematoda. Version of 2002-JAN-01. Retrieved 2008-NOV-02.
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