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Sputnik (rocket)

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Sputnik (rocket)

Sputnik (8K71PS/8A91)

Sputnik Rocket
Function Early (first) carrier rocket
Manufacturer OKB-1
Country of origin USSR
Size
Height 8K71PS: 30.0 m (98.4 ft)
8A91: 31.1 m (102 ft)
Diameter 2.99 m (9.8 ft)
Mass 267,000 kg (589,000 lb)
8A91: 269,300 kg (593,700 lb)
Stages 1
Capacity
Payload to
LEO (8K71PS)
8K71PS: 500 kg (1,100 lb)
8A91: 1,327 kg (2,926 lb)
Associated rockets
Family R-7
Comparable Vanguard
Juno I
Launch history
Status Retired
Launch sites LC-1/5, Baikonur
Total launches 4 (2 8K71PS, 2 8A91)
Successes 3
Failures 1 (8A91)
First flight 8K71PS: 4 October 1957
8A91: 27 April 1958
Last flight 8K71PS: 3 November 1957
8A91: 15 May 1958
Notable payloads Sputnik 1
Sputnik 2
Sputnik 3
Boosters
No boosters 4
Engines 1 RD-107
Thrust 970 kN (220,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 306 sec
Burn time 120 seconds
Fuel LOX/RP-1
First Stage
Engines 1 RD-108
Thrust 912 kN (205,000 lbf)
Specific impulse 308 sec
Burn time 330 seconds
Fuel LOX/RP-1

The Sputnik rocket was an unmanned orbital carrier rocket designed by Sergey Korolyov, derived from the R-7 Semyorka ICBM. On 4 October 1957, it was used to perform the world's first satellite launch, placing Sputnik 1 into a low Earth orbit.

Two versions of the Sputnik were built, the Sputnik-PS (GRAU index 8K71PS), which was used to launch Sputnik 1 and later Sputnik 2, and the Sputnik (8A91), which failed to launch a satellite in April 1958, and subsequently launched 3 on 15 May 1958.[1]

A later member of the R-7 family, the Polyot, used the same configuration as the Sputnik rocket, but was constructed from Voskhod components. Because of the similarity, the Polyot was sometimes known as the Sputnik 11A59.

Specifications

  • Stage number: 0 - Strap-on boosters; 4 x 8K71PS-0
    • Gross mass: 43.0 tons
    • Empty mass: 3.400 tons
    • Thrust (vac): 4 × 99,000 kgf = 396 Mgf (3.89 MN)
    • Isp: 306 s (3,000 N·s/kg)
    • Burn time: 120 s (2 min)
    • Isp(sl): 250 s (2,450 N·s/kg)
    • Diameter: 2.7 metres (8.9 ft)
    • Span: 2.7 metres (8.9 ft)
    • Length: 19 metres (62 ft)
    • Propellants: LOX/RP-1
    • Engines: 1 x RD-107-8D74PS per booster = 4
  • Stage number: 1 - Core stage; 1 x 8K71PS-1
    • Gross mass: 94.0 tons
    • Empty mass: 7.495 tons
    • Thrust (vac): 99,000 kgf (970 kN)
    • Isp: 308 s (3,020 N·s/kg)
    • Burn time: 310 s (5 min 10 s)
    • Isp(sl): 241 s (2,360 N·s/kg)
    • Diameter: 3 metres (9.8 ft)
    • Span: 3 metres (9.8 ft)
    • Length: 28 metres (92 ft)
    • Propellants: Lox/RP-1
    • Engine: 1 x RD-108-8D75PS
  • Total mass: 267 tons (534,000 lb)
  • LEO payload: 500 kg
  • Total liftoff thrust: 3.89 MN
Some R-7 variants

Sputnik 8A91

The Sputnik 8A91 had more powerful 8D76 and 8D77 engines installed,[2] increasing its payload capacity, and allowing it to launch much heavier satellites than Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2. It was launched two times, in 1958.[3] The first launch, on 27 April, failed due to vibrations that unexpectedly occurred during the flight along the longitudinal axis of the rocket. On 15 May, it successfully launched Sputnik 3.[4][5]

Sputnik specifications

  • Stage number: 0 - Strap-on boosters; 4 x Sputnik 8A91-0
    • Gross mass: 43.0 tons
    • Empty mass: 3.400 tons
    • Thrust (vac): 4 × 99,000 kgf = 396 Mgf (3.89 MN)
    • Isp: 310 s (3,040 N·s/kg)
    • Burn time: 130 s (2 min 10 s)
    • Isp(sl): 252 s (2,470 N·s/kg)
    • Diameter: 2.7 metres (8.9 ft)
    • Span: 2.7 metres (8.9 ft)
    • Length: 19 metres (62 ft)
    • Propellants: Lox/RP-1
    • Engines: 1 x RD-107-8D76 per booster = 4
  • Stage number: 1 - Core stage; 1 x Sputnik 8A91-1
    • Gross mass: 95.0 tons
    • Empty mass: 7.100 tons
    • Thrust (vac): 82,000 kgf (804 kN)
    • Isp: 315 s (3,090 N·s/kg)
    • Burn time: 360 s (6 min)
    • Isp(sl): 246 s (2,410 N·s/kg)
    • Diameter: 2.99 metres (9.8 ft)
    • Length:28 metres (92 ft)
    • Propellants: LOX/RP-1
    • Engine: 1 x RD-108-8D77
  • Total mass: 269.3 tons
  • LEO payload: 1,327 kg (2,925 lb)
  • Total liftoff thrust: 385,950 kgf (3.784 MN, 850,870 lbf)

References

  1. ^ (Russian) Sputnik Rocket
  2. ^ RD-107 and RD-108
  3. ^ Jonathan McDowell's launch log
  4. ^ (Russian) Soviet Solar Cells on Orbit
  5. ^ [1]
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