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Sputnik 2

Sputnik 2
Model of Sputnik 2 at the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow
Mission type Bioscience
Operator OKB-1
Harvard designation 1957 Beta 1
SATCAT № 00003
Mission duration 162 days
Orbits completed ~2,000
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer OKB-1
Launch mass 508.3 kilograms (1,121 lb) (payload only)
Start of mission
Launch date November 3, 1957, 02:30:00 (1957-11-03T02:30Z) UTC
Rocket Sputnik 8K71PS
Launch site Baikonur 1/5
End of mission
Decay date Did not recognize date. Try slightly modifying the date in the first parameter.
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Semi-major axis 7,306 kilometres (4,540 mi)
Eccentricity 0.0990965
Perigee 211 kilometres (131 mi)
Apogee 1,659 kilometres (1,031 mi)
Inclination 65.3 degrees
Period 103.73 minutes
Epoch 3 November 1957[1]

Sputnik 2 (Russian pronunciation: , Russian: Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, Russian: Простейший Спутник 2, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a dog named Laika. Sputnik 2 was a 4-metre (13 foot) high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 meters (6.6 feet) that weighed around 500 kg, though it was not designed to separate from the rocket core that brought it to orbit, bringing the total mass in orbit to 7.79 tons.[2] It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature-control system for the cabin, and scientific instruments. A separate sealed cabin contained the dog Laika.

Engineering and biological data were transmitted using the Tral D telemetry system, transmitting data to Earth for a 15-minute period during each orbit. Two photometers were on board for measuring solar radiation (ultraviolet and x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays. Sputnik 2 did not contain a television camera; TV images of dogs on Korabl-Sputnik 2 are commonly misidentified as Laika.[3]

Contents

  • Mission profile 1
  • Passenger 2
  • Sputnik 2 and the Van Allen radiation belt 3
  • Replicas 4
  • Footnotes 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Mission profile

USSR postage stamp "Спутник-2"

Sputnik 2, known to Korolev's design bureau as "Prosteyshiy Sputnik-2", meaning "Simple Satellite 2",[4] was launched into a 212 × 1660 km (132 × 1031 mi) orbit with a period of 103.7 minutes on a modified ICBM R-7, similar to the one used to launch Sputnik 1. The R-7 was also known by its GURVO designation 8K71,[5] as well as the T-3, M-104,[6] and Type A.[7] The R-7 modified for the PS-2 satellite launch was designated 8k71PS.[8] Unlike Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2 was not designed to detach from the R-7 sustainer core, since Sputnik 1's core stage had demonstrated an acceptable orbital lifespan. This allowed the core's Tral D telemetry system to be used to transmit data, but would lead to speculation that Sputnik 2 had failed to separate.[9] After reaching orbit, interior temperatures rapidly climbed to over 40 °C (100 °F), and Laika survived for only a few hours instead of the planned ten days.[10] The orbit of Sputnik 2 decayed, and it re-entered Earth's atmosphere on 14 April 1958 after 162 days in orbit.

Instruments Purpose
Dog Laika Biological data
Geiger counters Charged particles
Spectrophotometers Solar radiation (ultraviolet and
x-ray emissions) and cosmic rays

Passenger

2007 Hungarian stamp honouring Laika

The first living creature (larger than a microbe) to enter orbit was a female

  • Sputnik: 50 Years Ago
  • Anatoly Zak on Sputnik-2
  • Sputnik 2 Diary
  • NSSDC Master Catalog: Spacecraft Sputnik 2
  • Sputnik 2 at Astronautix
  • Usilaika - More about Laika

External links

  • Bilstein, Roger E., "Stages to Saturn a Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn launch Vehicles", Washington D. C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA SP 4206.
  • Cox, Donald & Stoiko, Michael, "Spacepower what it means to you", Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The John C. Winston Company.
  • Harford, James., Korolev, New York. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 0-471-14853-9.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A., Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, FL. The University of Florida Press, ISBN 0-8130-2627-X.
  • Swenson, L, Jr, Grimwood, J. M. Alexander, C.C., This New Ocean, A History of Project Mercury, Washington D. C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Library of Congress Card No. 66-62424.
  • Zaloga, Stephen J., The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword, Washington. The Smithsonian Institution Press, ISBN 1-58834-007-4.

References

See also

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 155. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  5. ^ Zaloga, Stephen J.. The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword, Washington. The Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002, p. 232. ISBN 1-58834-007-4
  6. ^ Cox, Donald & Stoiko, Michael, "Spacepower what it means to you", Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, The John C. Winston Company, p. 69, 1958
  7. ^ Bilstein, Roger E., "Stages to Saturn a Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn launch Vehicles", Washington D.C., National Aeronautics and Space Administration, p. 387. 1980, NASA SP 4206
  8. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 163. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  9. ^
  10. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 174. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  11. ^ Sputnik 2. National Space Science Data Center. Accessed April14, 2015.
  12. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A.. Sputnik and the Soviet Space Challenge, Gainesville, Florida. The University of Florida Press, 2003, p. 173. ISBN 0-8130-2627-X
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Chernov, V. N., and V. I. Yakovlev, Scientific research during the flight of an animal in an artificial earth satellite, Artif. Earth Satell., No. 1, 80-94, 1958
  16. ^ List of Artifacts; Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center.

Footnotes

A copy of Sputnik 2 that was used in testing before the launch is located at Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas.[16]

Replicas

Sputnik 2 detected the Earth's outer radiation belt in the far northern latitudes, but the significance of the elevated radiation was not realized. In Australia, Professor Harry Messel intercepted the signals, but the Soviets would not provide the code, and the Australians would not send the data. In 1958, with Sputnik 3, they began to cooperate and confirmed the findings of the U.S. satellites Explorer 1, 3, and 4.

Sputnik 2 and the Van Allen radiation belt

[15]

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