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Sukhumi

Sukhumi
სოხუმი, Аҟәа
Sokhumi, Akwa
Official seal of Sukhumi
Seal
location of Sukhumi within Abkhazia
location of Sukhumi within Abkhazia
Sukhumi
Location of Sukhumi in Georgia
Coordinates:
Country  Georgia
Partially recognized country  Abkhazia[1]
Settled 6th century BC
City Status 1848
Government
 • Mayor Adgur Kharazia Acting[2]
Area
 • Total 27 km2 (10 sq mi)
Highest elevation 140 m (460 ft)
Lowest elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 62,914
 • Density 2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
Time zone MSK (UTC+4)
Postal code 384900
Area code(s) +7 840 22x-xx-xx
Vehicle registration ABH
Website .ru.sukhumcitywww

Sukhumi or Sokhumi[3] (Georgian–Abkhazian conflict in the early 1990s.

Contents

  • Naming 1
  • General information 2
  • History 3
  • Climate 4
  • Demographics 5
  • Administration 6
    • List of Mayors 6.1
  • Main sights 7
  • Transport 8
  • International relations 9
    • Twin towns — Sister cities 9.1
  • See also 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

Naming

In Georgian, the city is known as სოხუმი (Sokhumi) or აყუ (Aqu),[4] in [6] In Abkhaz, the city is known as Аҟәа (Aqwa) which according to native tradition signifies water.[7]

The medieval Georgian sources knew the town as Tskhumi (ცხუმი).[8][9][10] Later, under the Ottoman control, the town was known in Turkish as Suhum-Kale, which can be derived from the earlier Georgian form Tskhumi or can be read to mean 'water-sand fortress'.[11][12] Tskhumi in turn is supposed to be derived from the hornbeam tree'.

The ending -i in the above forms represents the Georgian nominative-suffix. The town was initially officially described in Russian as Сухум (Sukhum), until 16 August 1936 when this was changed to Сухуми (Sukhumi). This remained so until 4 December 1992, when the Supreme Council of Abkhazia restored the original version,[14] that was approved in Russia in autumn 2008,[15] even though Сухуми is also still being used.

In English, the most common form today is Sukhumi, although Sokhumi is used as well by some sources, including Encyclopædia Britannica[16] and MSN Encarta[17]

General information

Sukhumi is located on a wide bay of the eastern coast of the Black Sea and serves as a port, rail junction and a holiday resort. It is known for its beaches, sanatoriums, mineral-water spas and semitropical climate. Sukhumi is also an important air link for Abkhazia as the Sukhumi Dranda Airport is located nearby the city. Sukhumi contains a number of small-to-medium size hotels serving chiefly the Russian tourists. Sukhumi botanical garden was established in 1840, one of the oldest botanical gardens in the Caucasus.

The city has a number of research institutes, the Abkhazian State University and the Sukhum Open Institute. From 1945 to 1954 the city's electron physics laboratory was involved in the Soviet program to develop nuclear weapons.

The city is a member of the International Black Sea Club.[18]

History

The Sohum-Kale fort in the early 19th century.
Coin of Dioscurias, late 2nd century BC. Obverse: Two pilei surmounted by stars Reverse: Thyrsos, ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΑΔΟΣ
Sukhumi in 1912. Early color photo by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii

The history of the city began in the mid-6th century BC when an earlier settlement of the second and early first millennia BC, frequented by local Colchian tribes, was replaced by the Milesian Greek colony of Dioscurias (Greek: Διοσκουριάς), geographically the remotest that Miletus ever established. The city is said to have been so named for the Dioscuri, the twins Castor and Pollux of classical mythology. It became busily engaged in the commerce between Greece and the indigenous tribes, importing wares from many parts of Greece, and exporting local salt and Caucasian timber, linen, and hemp. It was also a prime center of slave trade in Colchis. The city and its surroundings were remarkable for the multitude of languages spoken in its bazaars.

Although the sea made serious inroads upon the territory of Dioscurias, it continued to flourish until its conquest by being sacked by the Arab conqueror Marwan II in 736.

Afterwards, the town came to be known as Tskhumi.[13] Restored by the Republic of Genoa. The Genoese established their short-lived trading factory at Tskhumi early in the 14th century.

The

  • UNOMIG photo gallery of Sukhumi
  • Suhumi webcam
  • News from FM Radio Abkhazia

External links

  1. ^ autonomous republic, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi.
  2. ^ a b "Адгур Харазия назначен исполняющим обязанности главы администрации г. Сухум".  
  3. ^ American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
  4. ^ Abkhaz Loans in Megrelian, p. 65
  5. ^ Otar Kajaia, 2001–2004, Megrelian-Georgian Dictionary (entry aq'ujixa).
  6. ^ http://www.nplg.gov.ge/dlibrary/collect/0001/001021/Abxazia.pdf
  7. ^ Colarusso, John. "More Pontic: Further Etymologies between Indo-European and Northwest Caucasian". p. 54. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  8. ^ Vita Sanctae Ninonis. TITUS (project) Old Georgian hagiographical and homiletic texts: Part No. 39
  9. ^ Martyrium David et Constantini. TITUS (project) Old Georgian hagiographical and homiletic texts: Part No. 41
  10. ^ : Part No. 233Kartlis Cxovreba. TITUS (project)
  11. ^ Goltz, Thomas (2009 (2006)). "4. An Abkhazian Interlude". Georga Diary (Expanded Edition ed.). Armonk, New York / London, England: M.E. Sharpe. p. 56.  
  12. ^ Abkhazeti.info (Russian)
  13. ^ a b c Room, A. (2005), Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London, ISBN 0-7864-2248-3, p. 361
  14. ^ RRC.ge (Russian)
  15. ^ Абхазию и Южную Осетию на картах в РФ выкрасят в "негрузинские" цвета
  16. ^ "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 November 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Britannica.com
  17. ^ "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encarta. Retrieved 6 November 2006: Encarta.msn.com
  18. ^ International Black Sea Club, members
  19. ^ The Abkhazians: a handbookHewitt, George (1998) St. Martin's Press, New York, p. 62, ISBN 0-312-21975-X
  20. ^ Dioscurias. A Guide to the Ancient World, H.W. Wilson (1986). Retrieved 20 July 2006, from Xreferplus.com
  21. ^ "The Human Rights Watch report, March 1995 Vol. 7, No. 7". Hrw.org. Retrieved 4 July 2010. 
  22. ^ 2003 Census statistics (Russian)
  23. ^ http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=6273&refer=&units=metric&cityname=Sukhumi-Georgia
  24. ^ http://www.travel-climate.com/georgia/data.php?cit=37260
  25. ^ Population censuses in Abkhazia: 1886, 1926, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989, 2003 (Russian)
  26. ^ a b c "СООБЩЕНИЯ АПСНЫПРЕСС".  
  27. ^ a b c "MAYOR SUGGESTS ABKHAZ PRESIDENTIAL RIVALS SHOULD WITHDRAW". RFE/RL. 10 November 2004. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  28. ^ a b c "Указ Президента Абхазии №5 от 16.02.2005". Администрация Президента Республики Абхазия. 16 February 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2008. 
  29. ^ "Президент Сергей Багапш подписал указы о назначении глав городских и районных администраций".  
  30. ^ a b "Abkhazia's anti-corruption drive".  
  31. ^ "Экс-мэр Сухуми вернул в бюджет двести тысяч рублей". REGNUM. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2008. 
  32. ^ "Экс-мэр Сухума намерен покинуть Столичное городское Собрание". Администрация Президента Республики Абхазия. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2008. 
  33. ^ "Заместителем главы администрации столицы Абхазии назначен Вадим Черкезия".  
  34. ^ "АЛИАС ЛАБАХУА ИЗБРАН ДЕПУТАТОМ ГОРОДСКОГО СОБРАНИЯ СУХУМА".  
  35. ^ "СЕРГЕЙ БАГАПШ ПОДПИСАЛ УКАЗ О НАЗНАЧЕНИИ АЛИАСА ЛАБАХУА ГЛАВОЙ АДМИНИСТРАЦИИ ГОРОДА СУХУМ".  
  36. ^ a b c  
  37. ^ Voronya Peshchera. Show Caves of the World. Retrieved on 29 July 2008.
  38. ^ http://apsnypress.info/news/6142.html
  39. ^ http://www.admpodolsk.ru/index.php?categoryid=126&p2_articleid=286
  40. ^ http://apsnypress.info/news/3422.html
  41. ^ http://apsnypress.info/news/7772.html
  42. ^ http://www.mfaapsny.org/news/index.php?ID=2314
  43. ^ http://www.laprovinciadelsulcisiglesiente.com/wordpress/2014/05/il-sulcis-rafforza-il-legame-con-i-paesi-dellest-europeo-sottoscritto-questa-sera-un-protocollo-damicizia-con-labkhcazia/

References

See also

Sukhumi is twinned with the following cities:[38]

Twin towns — Sister cities

International relations

Babushara Airport now handles only local flights due to the disputed status of Abkhazia.

The city is served by several trolleybus and bus routes. Sukhumi is connected to other Abkhazian towns by bus routes. There is a daily train to Moscow via Sochi.

Railway station

Transport

Sukhumi houses a number of historical monuments, notably the Beslet arcaded bridge built during the reign of queen Bagrat III, several towers of the Great Abkhazian Wall constructed by the early modern Mingrelian and Abkhazian princes amid their territorial disputes; the 14th-century Genoese fort, and the 18th-century Ottoman fortress. The 11th century Kaman Church (12 kilometres (7 miles) from Sukhumi) is erected, according to tradition, over the tomb of Saint John Chrysostom. Some 22 km (14 mi) from Sukhumi lies New Athos with the ruins of the medieval city of Anacopia. The Neo-Byzantine New Athos Monastery was constructed here in the 1880s on behest of Tsar Alexander III of Russia. Northward in the mountains is the Voronya Cave, the deepest in the world, with a depth of 2,140 meters.[37]

Medieval Queen Tamar Bridge.

Main sights

# Name From Until President Comments
Chairmen of the City Soviet:
D. Gubaz <=1989 >=1989
Nodar Khashba 1991 [36] First time
Guram Gabiskiria 1992 27 September 1993
Heads of the City Administration:
Nodar Khashba 1993 [36] 26 November 1994 Second time
26 November 1994 1995 [36] Vladislav Ardzinba
Garri Aiba 1995 2000
Leonid Osia 2 February 2000 [26] Acting Mayor
Leonid Lolua 2 February 2000 [26] 5 November 2004 [27]
Adgur Kharazia 5 November 2004 [27] 16 February 2005 [28] Acting Mayor, first time
Astamur Adleiba 16 February 2005 [28] 2 May 2007 [30] Sergei Bagapsh
Anzor Kortua May 2007 15 May 2007 Acting Mayor
Alias Labakhua 15 May 2007 29 May 2011
29 May 2011 1 June 2014 Alexander Ankvab
1 June 2014 22 October 2014 Valeri Bganba
Adgur Kharazia 22 October 2014 Present Raul Khajimba Acting Mayor, second time

List of Mayors

Following the May 2014 Revolution and the election of Raul Khajimba as President, he on 22 October dismissed Labakhua and again appointed (as acting Mayor) Adgur Kharazia, who at that point was Vice Speaker of the People's Assembly.[2]

On 15 May 2007, president Bagapsh released Alias Labakhua as First Deputy Chairman of the State Customs Committee and appointed him acting Mayor of Sukhumi, a post temporarily fulfilled by former Vice-Mayor Anzor Kortua. On 27 May Labakhua appointed Vadim Cherkezia as Deputy Chief of staff.[33] On 2 September, Labakhua won the by-election in constituency No. 21, which had become necessary after Adleiba relinquished his seat. Adleiba was the only candidate and voter turnout was 34%, higher than the 25% required.[34] Since Adleiba was now a member of the city assembly, president Bagapsh could permanently appoint him Mayor of Sukhumi on 18 September.[35]

In April 2007, while President Bagapsh was in Moscow for medical treatment, the results of an investigation into corruption within the Sukhumi city administration were made public. The investigation found that large sums had been embezzled and upon his return, on 2 May, Bagapsh fired Adleiba along with his deputy Boris Achba, the head of the Sukhumi's finance department Konstantin Tuzhba and the head of the housing department David Jinjolia.[30] On 4 June Adleiba paid back to the municipal budget 200,000 rubels.[31] and on 23 July, he resigned from the Sukhumi city council, citing health reasons and the need to travel abroad for medical treatment.[32]

On 16 February 2005, after his election as President, Bagapsh replaced Kharazia with Astamur Adleiba, who had been Minister for Youth, Sports, Resorts and Tourism until December 2004.[28] In the 11 February 2007 local elections, Adleiba successfully defended his seat in the Sukhumi city assembly and was thereupon reappointed mayor by Bagapsh on 20 March.[29]

On 5 November 2004, in the heated aftermath of the 2004 presidential election, president Vladislav Ardzinba appointed head of the Gulripsh district assembly Adgur Kharazia as acting Mayor. During his first speech he called upon the two leading candidates, Sergei Bagapsh and Raul Khadjimba, to both withdraw.[27]

On 2 February 2000, President Ardzinba dismissed temporary Mayor Leonid Osia and appointed Leonid Lolua in his stead.[26]

Administration

Year Abkhaz Armenians Estonians Georgians Greeks Russians Turkish Ukrainians Total
1887 Census 1.8%
(144)
13.5%
(1,083)
0.4%
(32)
11.9%
(951)
14.3%
(1,143)
0.0%
(1)
2.7%
(216)
7,998
1926 Census 3.1%
(658)
9.4%
(2,023)
0.3%
(63)
11.2%
(2,425)
10.7%
(2,298)
23.7%
(5,104)
--- 10.4%
(2,234)
21,568
1939 Census 5.5%
(2,415)
9.8%
(4,322)
0.5%
(206)
19.9%
(8,813)
11.3%
(4,990)
41.9%
(18,580)
--- 4.6%
(2,033)
44,299
1959 Census 5.6%
(3,647)
10.5%
(6,783)
--- 31.1%
(20,110)
4.9%
(3,141)
36.8%
(23,819)
--- 4.3%
(2,756)
64,730
1979 Census 9.9%
(10,766)
10.9%
(11,823)
--- 38.3%
(41,507)
6.5%
(7,069)
26.4%
(28,556)
--- 3.4%
(3,733)
108,337
1989 Census 12.5%
(14,922)
10.3%
(12,242)
--- 41.5%
(49,460)
--- 21.6%
(25,739)
--- --- 119,150
2003 Census 65.3%
(24,603)
12.7%
(5,565)
0.1%
(65)
4.0%
(1,761)
1.5%
(677)
16.9%
(8,902)
--- 1.6%
(712)
43,716
2011 Census 67.3%
(42,603 )
9.8%
(6,192)
--- 2.8%
(1,755)
1.0%
(645)
14.8%
(9,288)
--- --- 62,914

Historic population figures for Sukhumi, split out by ethnicity, based on population censuses:[25]

Demographics

Climate data for Sukhumi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8
(46)
9
(48)
12
(54)
16
(61)
19
(66)
23
(73)
25
(77)
26
(79)
23
(73)
19
(66)
15
(59)
11
(52)
17.2
(62.8)
Average low °C (°F) 2
(36)
2
(36)
5
(41)
8
(46)
12
(54)
17
(63)
19
(66)
19
(66)
15
(59)
11
(52)
7
(45)
3
(37)
10
(50.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 137
(5.39)
113
(4.45)
135
(5.31)
123
(4.84)
115
(4.53)
127
(5)
100
(3.94)
123
(4.84)
127
(5)
121
(4.76)
133
(5.24)
152
(5.98)
1,506
(59.28)
Avg. rainy days 17 15 16 15 12 11 10 10 10 12 16 16 160
Source #1: Weatherbase[23]
Source #2: Georgia Travel Climate Information[24]
. oceanic climate), that is almost cool enough in summer to be an Cfa Köppen (humid subtropical climateSukhumi has a

Climate

Beginning with the Sukhumi Massacre), including members of the Abkhazian government (Zhiuli Shartava, Raul Eshba and others) and mayor of Sukhum Guram Gabiskiria. Although the city has been relatively peaceful and partially rebuilt, it is still suffering the after-effects of the war, and it has not regained its earlier ethnic diversity. Its population in 2003 was 43,716, compared to about 120,000 in 1989.[22]

Following the dachas for Soviet leaders were situated there.

Sukhumi quay

rebels. Adyghe, the town was temporarily controlled by the Ottoman forces and Abkhaz-Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878 princely dynasty was ousted by the Russian authorities in 1864. During the Shervashidze after the ruling Russian Empire in 1810 and turned, subsequently, into their major outpost in the North West Caucasus. Sukhumi was declared the seaport in 1847 and was directly annexed to the Russian Marines At the request of the pro-Russian Abkhazian prince, the town was stormed by the [13]

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