Survivor (television show)

This article is about all the different international versions of the program. For each individual version, please see the table on this page
Not to be confused with Survivors, a British post-apocalyptic series.

Survivor (also known as Expedition Robinson in some regions) is a reality game show produced in many countries throughout the world. In the show, contestants are isolated in the wilderness and compete for cash and other prizes. The show uses a system of progressive elimination, allowing the contestants to vote off other tribe members until only one final contestant remains and wins the title of "Sole Survivor." The format for Survivor was created in 1992 by the British television producer Charlie Parsons for a United Kingdom TV production company called Planet 24, but the Swedish version, which debuted in 1997, was the first Survivor series to actually make it to television.


Survivor, through its seasons and various international versions, has maintained the basic premise of the game despite several new rules and gameplay twists introduced in later versions. In the game, sixteen to twenty contestants, the castaways, are split into tribes and assigned separate camps at the filming's location, typically a tropical setting. As a tribe, the castaways must survive the elements, construct shelter, build fire, look for water, and scrounge for food and other necessities for the entire filming period, around 39 days. In the first half of the game, the tribes face off in challenges, some for rewards of food, shelter, or luxury items, while others are for immunity, preventing the winning tribe from having to go to the next Tribal Council. Tribes that do go to Tribal Council discuss the events of the last few days with the host asking questions, and then must vote out one of their own players, eliminating them from the game.

In the second half of the game, the tribes are merged into a single tribe. Challenges are played at an individual level for individual rewards and immunity. At subsequent Tribal Councils, those eliminated start to form the jury, who sit in on all subsequent Tribal Councils but otherwise do not participate. When only two or three castaways remain, those castaways attend a final Tribal Council, where the jury is given the opportunity to ask them questions. After this, the jury members then vote to decide which of the remaining castaways should be declared Sole Survivor.

The following description of the show is based primarily on the American version of Survivor, though the general format applies to all international versions.

Castaways and tribes

Players for each season are selected through applicants and casting calls, down-selecting to between sixteen and twenty players and additional alternates. U.S. version host Jeff Probst noted that while sixteen castaways makes it easier to split the tribes with respect to age and sex, they have used eighteen and twenty to provide them "wiggle room" in case of player injury or if one should want to quit the game.[1] These players undergo physical and psychological evaluation to make sure they are physically and mentally fit for the survival endurance and will not likely quit during the filming period, replacing those that are questionable with the alternates. In one case, Fiji, on the day before filming was to start after they had dismissed their alternates, one of the castaways opted out of the competition, forcing production to start with nineteen players and adapting the activities of the first few days to accommodate the odd number of players.[2]

Tribes may be pre-determined by production before filming starts. Often this is done to equalize the sexes and age ranges within both tribes. Other season have had the tribes separated by age, sex, or racial background. In other cases, the tribes may be created on the spot through schoolyard picks. Most often, only two tribes are featured, but some seasons have begun with three or four tribes. Once assigned a tribe, each castaway is given a buff in their tribe color to aid the viewers in identifying tribal alliance. Tribes are then subsequently given names, inspired by the local region, and directions to their camps.

At their camps, tribes are expected to build shelter against the elements from the local trees and other resources. Tribes are typically given minimal resources, such as a machete, water canteens, cooking pots, and staples of rice and grains, though this will vary from season to season. Sometimes, tribes will be provided a water well near the camp, but require the water to be boiled to make it potable, necessitating the need for the tribe to build fire. The tribes are encouraged to forage off the land for food, including fruits, wild animals, and fish.

In some seasons, a tribal swap will occur where one or more players will shift from one tribe to another. This may occur by random draw, schoolyard picks, or some other mechanism. When these occur, those players that shift tribes are given new buffs for their new tribe and return to that tribe's camp, with any personal possessions from their former camp moved with them. In seasons with more than two tribes, tribes may be merged down to two, or a tribe that has lost many members may be absorbed by the other remaining tribes. Once down to around half the remaining players, all remaining tribes are merged into one, usually allowing the players to select a new tribe name. In Palau, the Ulong tribe was whittled down to one castaway, so that instead of a normal merge, that player was absorbed into Koror.


During both pre- and post-merge segments of filming, the castaways compete in a series of challenges. Tribes are alerted to these upcoming challenges by a message, often in rhyme, delivered to camp by the production team at a basket or box on a nearby tree; this message has come to be called "treemail", playing off the word "e-mail". The message typically hints at what the challenge might or, and may provide props to demonstrate this, practice equipment for the players, or a sampling of the reward.

Prior to the merge, tribes compete against each other in challenges. These most often are multi-segment obstacle courses that include both physical and mental elements with the tribe that finishes first declared the winner; commonly, these start with tribe members collecting puzzles pieces that are then used to solve a puzzle by other tribe members. Other challenges may be based on winning a number of rounds of head-to-head competitions. Challenges are normally held with equal numbers of all tribes participating and in some cases equal splits of gender. Tribes with more players will be asked to sit out as many players as needed to balance the numbers, with the stipulation that those players cannot sit out in back-to-back reward and immunity challenges.[3] When one tribe has more than twice the other tribe members, then players in the larger tribe cannot participate in back-to-back challenges. Tribes are given time to strategically decide who should sit out and who will perform the various duties on a challenge.

After the merge, challenges are generally performed on an individual basis. These include similar obstacle courses as for team challenges, but will often also include endurance challenges, having players maintain the balance under precarious situations for as long as possible, with the last player remaining winning the challenge. In some cases, during post-merge challenges, the individuals will be split into separate teams, with only the winning team eligible for reward or immunity.

Challenges can be played for rewards, immunity, or both. Rewards include food, survival equipment like flint, tarps, or fishing gear, luxury items, and short getaways from camp. Before the merge, the entire winning tribe will enjoy these rewards. Post-merge, only one player may win the reward but will be given the opportunity to select one or more other players to bring along with them on it. Individual challenge rewards may also include an advantage that can be used at the subsequent immunity challenge, such as advancing directly into the final round of the challenge without having to participate in the first round.

Immunity challenges provide the winning tribe or team with immunity from Tribal Council. Immunity is usually represented in a form of an idol prior to the merge, and a necklace afterwards. Prior to the merge, tribes with immunity do not attend Tribal Council, allowing them to stay intact. In seasons featuring more than two tribes, immunity will be available for all but the last place finishers, forcing this one tribe to Tribal Council. With individual immunity, those castaways still attend Tribal Council with the rest of the merged tribe, but, unless they assign immunity to someone else, are ineligible to be voted for. Winning immunity is only good for one Tribal Council; at the next immunity challenge, the tribe or castaway will be asked to give up the idol or necklace, making immunity "up for grabs". There have been a few cases in which individual immunity challenges have taken place prior to the merge whereupon usually one castaway in each tribe will be given immunity, after which both tribes will attend Tribal Council, one after the other. This is used to quickly dwindle the number of remaining castaways.

Though a wide variety of challenges have been used across the Survivor's broadcast, several challenges are frequently reused:

  • A food eating challenge, involving food items that may be local delicacies but are considered gross or revolting by the castaways.
  • A trivia or "know your tribe" quiz, where castaways who provide correct answers are allowed to knock other castaways out of the challenge and prevent them from winning.
  • A "Survivor Auction", used in place of a reward challenge, in which the players are given a sum of money to use to bid on food items (both known and unknown at the time of bidding), other momentary luxuries like a bath, or an advantage in the next immunity challenge.
  • A "Loved Ones" challenge, where a spouse, parent, sibling, adult child or friend of each castaway has been brought to the location to participate in the challenge with their castaway. The winner typically gets to spend more time with their loved one either on a brief trip or back at camp.
  • A "Second Chance" challenge, where elements of previous challenges are reused in a single course.
  • The final immunity challenge is often a long-lasting endurance challenge, giving the remaining castaways time to make bargains and last-minute deals to get into the final Tribal Council. Typically, before this challenge, a "Rites of Passage" ceremony is held in which the remaining castaways pay tribute to each of the previously eliminated players in turn.[4]

Tribal Council

Tribal Council is a specially built stage located near the tribe camps; tribes sit across a fire pit from the host, while the jury members, if present, sit off to the side. A small voting alcove adjoins the structure. Events at Tribal Council are presented as the finale of each episode.

The first time a tribe attends Tribal Council, its members are each given a torch and told to light it from the fire pit, with the statement that "fire represents your life in this game". After the tribe is seated, the host will call in the jury (if post-merge), reminding them they are there to watch but not speak. The host will then proceed to ask the tribe questions regarding camp life and events he witnessed at the challenges over the last few days. During this process, internal strife within the tribe may be brought to light, and castaways in precarious situations may reveal information or bargain with others to keep themselves in the game. Though only a few minutes of these proceedings are shown to the viewing audience, some Tribal Councils have gone on for hours.

Subsequently, the host will ask the tribe member with the immunity necklace if they want to keep it or transfer it to someone else; whoever wears it after this possible exchange cannot be voted for. The host then asks each castaway to make their vote in the alcove. The castaway is given an opportunity to speak to a camera in a message directed to the person they are voting off and to the viewers before placing the vote in an urn. When all votes are made, the host collects the urn, tallies the votes and starts reading the votes one by one. When enough votes have been read to eliminate one player, all remaining votes are kept secret (although in most cases it is assumed that any left over vote are to the eliminated player), and that player is asked to bring the host their torch, who then snuffs it out. The player is then told "the tribe has spoken" and is instructed to leave the Tribal Council area. The remainder of the tribe is then allowed to return to camp with their torches, though in some seasons, if they have not earned or made fire yet, they have been required to douse their torches before leaving; in All-Stars seasons, any tribe(s) that have not earned or made fire yet have been asked to leave their torches at Tribal Council.

The eliminated player is given the opportunity to speak to a camera about their feelings of being eliminated before they are secluded with other eliminated castaways until the end of filming. Those players that will become jury members are sequestered until the end of the final Tribal Council, and are not allowed to discuss their voting or issues with the remaining contestants, other jury members, or the final players, in order to prevent any possible cooperation or collusion from subgroups within the jury.

Ties may occur. Normally, a second vote is held, with only the tied players eligible to be voted for. If this second vote does not break the stalemate, a tie breaker is used, the nature of which has changed throughout the seasons. The first tie breaker, used in The Australian Outback season, took into consideration the number of votes each of the tied players had accumulated in previous Tribal Councils, and the player with the most previous votes was eliminated. When this tie breaker was used again, in the Africa season, both players had an equal number of previous votes, so a trivia quiz involving questions about Africa was used to determine the winner, and the loser was eliminated from the game. In subsequent seasons, the tie-breaker mechanism has been a random drawing in which each player except those with immunity must draw a rock from a bag, and the player with the single purple rock is eliminated. This rule has only been put to use once, during the Marquesas season's "final four" Tribal Council. Host Jeff Probst later announced that using this tie breaker during the final four tribal council had been a mistake, and that it should only be used when six or more players are involved. .[5] Since that season, while tribe members have occasionally considered deliberately creating a stalemate and allowing the purple rock tie-breaker to decide who goes home, they have tended to favor avoiding tie votes that would subject each of them to the risk of bring randomly eliminated. When a tie has occurred with only four or fewer players left in a tribe, the tie breaker has been a challenge, which to date has always involved a race to be the first to build a small fire high enough to burn through a rope.

The Final Tribal Council occurs when there are only two -- or in later seasons three -- players left in the game. The move to three final players was made so that the endgame would present more of a challenge to the castaway who wins the final immunity challenge: while that person is assured of being at the Final Tribal Council, they are not able to decide alone which of the other remaining castaways they will compete against for the jury's votes.[6] At the Final Tribal Council, each remaining castaway is given time to make a statement to the jury. Then each jury member in turn addresses them, asking each a question or commenting on their behavior in the game in an effort to sway the other jury members; the castaways are free to respond to these as they see fit. The remaining castaways may be given time for a concluding speech. After this, the host has each jury member in turn go to vote in the alcove, this time for the person that they feel should be named the Sole Survivor. As with regular elimination votes, the jurors are given an opportunity to speak to the camera to explain their vote. The host then collects the urn, and in most seasons, holds on to it for a live reading of the votes on the season's final show where the Sole Survivor is announced. No tie vote for Sole Survivor has ever occurred. although in many seasons it has been a theoretical possibility. The juries that have chosen between only two finalists have in most cases had an odd number of members, making a tie vote impossible. Probst has said that the producers have a contingency plan to be used in case of a future tie, reportedly involving a "white envelope," but the exact nature of this tie breaker has not been made known.[7]

Some players have been eliminated from the game by other means. Castaways who suffer severe injuries or exhaustion are evaluated by the medical team which is always on call. The medical team may provide treatment and give the player the option to continue in the game, warning them of the health risks involved. However, if the medical doctor determines that the player is at risk of permanent injury or death and needs to be removed from the game for their own health, they will be removed and taken to a nearby hospital. Occasionally, castaways who are not in need of medical treatment have decided to quit the game, without waiting to be voted out, due to physical or emotional exhaustion -- either by making an announcement at a Tribal Council, in which case they are let out of the game without any vote, or by being recovered from camp after talking with others and being interviewed by the host. When a player leaves the game without being voted off, the other tribes are notified of the departed player's removal, and the next Tribal Council may be cancelled. After the players merge into one tribe, any who have been removed from the game by medical evacuation are still eligible to participate as jury members once the medical examiners deem them healthy enough to do so. Those that have quit the game voluntarily may also still be eligible for the jury, or they may instead be replaced by a player that was voted off earlier, and, if their reasons for leaving are considered sufficient, they may also still be allowed to make a farewell speech to the camera.

Hidden immunity idols

Hidden immunity idols are pocket-sized decorative objects -- tailored to fit the theme of the season -- that are hidden around the tribes' camps or other locations that the castaways have access to. When a castaway finds one of the idols, they have the option of concealing the fact that they have it, or strategically revealing the fact to allies. The idols can provide a one-time immunity to a castaway at Tribal Council, if played -- which they can be, typically, anytime before the third-to-last Tribal Council. For example, they can be played during the tribal council of the final five castaways in a season where the final tribal council will consist of three players. The rules for playing the idol have changed during the seasons. In the first season where hidden idols were used, Guatemala, the rules provided that the idol must be played before the vote; other players could not vote for that player. Later, in Panama and Cook Islands, the idol could be played after the votes were read, nullifying the votes for that player; whoever received the next-highest number of votes was then eliminated. Beginning in Fiji and in all subsequent seasons, the idol has had to be played after the votes are cast, but before they are read. If it is played, any votes cast for that player do not count. This rule forces both the voters and the player with the hidden immunity idol to make a more complicated strategic decision: the voters may have to vote without knowing whether the person they are voting for has a hidden immunity idol, or without knowing whether that person will choose to play it, and the person with the idol must decide whether to play it without knowing whether enough votes have been cast to vote them out of the game. Sometimes, a player plays the idol and it turns out someone else got more votes, in which case the idol has been wasted. Other times, a player feels safe and decides not to play the idol, intending to save it to use at a later time, but ends up getting voted out and leaves the game with the idol unplayed. According to Probst, this latest version of the rules for using hidden immunity idols has proven to be a "happy medium" relative to the two previous versions. [8]

The idol, once found by a player, cannot be stolen from them, but other castaways can look through their possessions to see if they have it. Sometimes a castaway who has an idol re-hides the idol in a location known only to them, to avoid the risk that others will find out they have it. The idol can be willingly transferred to another player at any point in the game, including at Tribal Council; in such cases, the castaway receiving the idol can play it to protect themselves.[9] Idols, once played, may be returned to the game after being hidden at a new location. When a castaway s blindsided and voted out of the game while in possession of an idol without having played it, the idol is considered to have left the game, and is not replaced. Castaways have used the idol as a bargaining chip to align other players with them and swing pending votes in a specific direction; as a result, some players have been inspired to create fake hidden immunity idols, and either leave them the spot that the original idol was found, or carry them around, bluffing with the fake idol to attempt to alter people's voting strategies in advance of Tribal Council. If a fake idol is played at Tribal Council, the host notes that it is not the real idol and destroys it by throwing it in the fire. In the U.S. version of the show, the producers have decided that the fake idol strategy adds an interesting twist, and have therefore quietly provided materials, such as beads and paint, through normal props within the game, to better enable players to make these fake idols.[10]

To help castaways find the idol, a series of clues are given to them in succession in a number of different ways. a clue may be given to the winner of a reward challenge, hidden among the reward prizes, announced by the host to all remaining castaways, or provided to a castaway who has been sent to Exile Island or temporarily sent to live with the other tribe. Castaways are under no obligation to share the idol clues with other players. Clues continue to be provided even after a player has secretly found the idol. Each successive clue includes all the previous clues given for that location. Only once an idol has been played, at which point the producers hide a new idol in a new location, are new clues provided to the players. Clues may lead to a location on Exile Island or back at the tribes' camps. In later seasons, players have been very aware that hidden idols may be in play from the start of the game and some have started to look for them near apparent landmarks before any clues have been provided. One castaway, Russell Hantz, was able to find an idol six times during his three appearances on the U.S. version of the show without the aid of clues. In light of this so-called "Russell factor," producers subsequently began hiding the idols in more difficult-to-find locations. .[11]

Exile Island

Exile Island is an island or other stretch of land, far distant from the tribes' camp, where castaways are sent to for one or more days. The decision of who goes to Exile is based on the results of a reward challenge; before the merge, the player sent to Exile was selected from the losing tribe by the winners, while post-merge, the winning player may select this player. That castaway remains at Exile up until the next immunity challenge. In some seasons, once the losing tribe's castaway for Exile has been picked, that player has the ability to pick a player from the winning tribe to join them at Exile.

Being sent to Exile Island is generally disadvantageous. The castaway sent is forced to fend for themselves, generally with only water and a machete being provided. The castaway is also separated from their tribe, causing them to lose out on strategy discussions or working with allied players. At the same time, Exile Island will either offer a clue or be the location of the hidden immunity idol; aligned players have sent their allies to Exile so that they can obtain the clue or idol and strengthen their position, and even in one case, a player selected himself to go to Exile specifically to receive the next clue. In one season, Gabon, the exiled player had the option of selecting the clue to lead them to the idol, or to choose comfort, being provided a sheltered hut with a hammock and fresh fruit to enjoy. If the player chooses the clue, he must rest outside the hut. If he chooses the comfort, he cannot find the idol.

Exile twists

The concept of Exile was first introduced in Survivor: Palau, when a single contestant was made to stay alone on a beach for a day as a result of being the first to drop out of an Immunity Challenge. However, this twist would not be used regularly until Survivor: Panama and was also used in Cook Islands, Fiji, Micronesia, Gabon and Tocantins. A selected player is exiled to a location (typically a small island) apart from the main tribe camps, typically for at least a day following a reward challenge and returning immediately before the following immunity challenge. The player selected may be either the first loser of a challenge (as was the case in Survivor: Palau), or a person selected by either the winning or losing tribe in the tribal phase, or an individual challenge winner in the individual phase. In Micronesia and Tocantins, one person from each tribe was sent to Exile Island. Unless stated otherwise, players who win the right to decide who goes to Exile Island may also choose to go themselves.

Also, whenever the number of contestants is uneven in formation of tribes (in initial division or switching, but not merging), the single-outed contestant will be treated as "tribeless" and sent to Exile Island immediately after formation (as in Survivor: Panama, Survivor: Fiji, and Survivor: Gabon). In this case, the contestant will return and join the tribe which loses a member at the following Tribal Council.

Once selected, the exiled contestant is immediately taken to the island by boat (or given a map to the "island"). On the island, there are few tools to survive with, typically a water canteen, a machete, a pot, and a limited amount of shelter. The two main disadvantages of being on Exile Island are the lack of food and water, which can weaken a player and make them less effective in challenges, and the isolation from other contestants, which can cause a player to become out of the loop and weaken their position in their tribe. Contestants are often sent to Exile Island for one or both of these strategic reasons.

The person exiled receives a consolation prize of sorts – a clue to the hidden immunity idol, which may or may not be located on the island, an "instant comfort" (as in Survivor: Gabon), or the right to change tribes (as in Survivor: Tocantins). If the exiled contestant is asked to return after the Tribal Council (whether they belong to a tribe or not), they will also be immune from being voted out at the respective Tribal Council.

The concept of Exile Island was also explored in the first season of Survivor South Africa, when eliminated contestants were exiled to "Dead Man's Island" and later given a chance to come back into the game. "Dead Man's Island" was known for its tough conditions and atmosphere of despair, as contestants had to survive there without real purpose until near the end of the game.

Only two seasons have used different Exile twists. In China, tribes who win reward challenges won the right to "kidnap" someone from the losing tribe, and that person would have to stay with them until the next immunity challenge. The kidnapped person would be given a clue to the hidden immunity idol which he must give to one member of the winning tribe. In Samoa, a reverse version of the kidnapping rule was used, called "spy expedition" (also known as "observing"). The winning tribe would have to send one of their own to accompany the other tribe until the immunity challenge. Both of these twists were retired after the merge, since there is only one tribe after the merge.

Redemption Island

Redemption Island is a twist introduced on Survivor: Redemption Island and also used on Survivor: South Pacific. Redemption island is a combination of the outcast twist on Survivor: Pearl Islands and the Exile Island twist introduced on Survivor: Panama. Eliminated contestants will go to Redemption Island instead of immediately going home. There they will fend for themselves as if they were still in the game until the next person is voted out. Whenever there are two people on Redemption Island there is a duel where the winner remains on the island and the losers are eliminated and must remove their buff and throw it into a small fire pit upon exiting.

If there is a double-elimination or any other disruption of the game's pattern, duels are put on hold until the game returns to normal. This results in 3 or 4 people dueling instead of 2. In Survivor: Redemption Island only the loser of the duel was eliminated. This resulted in 8 people still being in the game at the finale (4 in the main game, and 4 in Redemption). Jeff Probst admitted that this was a bit much, and for Survivor: South Pacific the rules were changed so only the winner remained in the game, while all others were eliminated.

At the merge, the person remaining in Redemption is entered back into the game and Redemption Island is reset. Then, once again, when 4 people remain in the main game the person remaining in Redemption is entered back into the game, but this time Redemption Island is taken out of play and there are no more second chances.

Due to the controversy surrounding this twist, it was dropped after Survivor: South Pacific. Fans of the twist praise the fact that their favorite players get a second chance and it adds a new layer of strategy to the game. However, critics point out that this twist is inconsistent, as those who make it to the finale do not get a second chance, while those voted out early could actually receive a third chance, as was the case with Ozzy Lusth in Survivor: South Pacific.

The twist was reintroduced for Survivor: Blood vs Water to fit in with the loved one twist. In the premiere episode both competing tribes will vote one person out and they will be sent to Redemption Island. Prior to the duel should a castaway choose to swap with their loved one, they will compete in the duel while their loved one will take their place in the tribe. In addition winners of the duel will be given a clue to the hidden immunity idol which they can give to anyone on either tribe.


The player chosen as Sole Survivor receives a cash prize of $1,000,000 (prior to taxes).[12] The Sole Survivor usually also receives a car provided by the show's sponsor. In a few seasons, the final players have also agreed to pay for the tribe flag or other representative object from camp.

In addition, the final five or six contestants may have the opportunity to compete for a car. The winner of this challenge has never won the game, leading to the concept of a "Survivor car curse".[13]

Every player receives a prize for participating on Survivor depending on how long he or she lasts in the game. In most seasons, the runner-up receives $100,000, and third place wins $85,000. All other players receive money on a sliding scale, though specific amounts have rarely been made public. Sonja Christopher, the first player voted off in Survivor: Borneo, received $2,500.[14] In Survivor: Fiji, the first season with tied runners-up, the two runners-up received US$100,000 each, and Yau-Man Chan received US$60,000 for his 4th place finish.[15]

All players also receive an additional $10,000 for their appearance on the reunion show.[16]

There have also been additional prizes given out, outside of the usual mechanics of the show:

Variations in the format

Aside from the U.S. version, other franchises introduced variations and twists for the game. Somehow, most of these twists and variations are used in other franchises as well:

Expeditie Robinson Belgium/Netherlands
  • During the 2005 season the tribes were initially divided up by age into "Old" and "Young", with the old contestants being forty and older and the young contestants being under the age of thirty. This twist was later used during Survivor: Nicaragua and Robinsonekspedisjonen 2009.
  • During the pre-merge portion of the 2006 season two former contestants returned to the game to lead the tribes. As leader they were allowed to give individual immunity to any member of their tribe when they went to tribal council. Neither of these two contestants were eligible to win and both left shortly before the merge.
  • When there were only three contestants left during the 2006 season all of the contestants that had lost on "Losers Island" voted to eliminate one of the finalists.
  • The 2007 season began with one hundred contestants. Because many of these contestants weren't on the show for more than a couple of episodes many of their surnames are unknown.
  • When it came time to reveal the winner of the 2008 season it was revealed that the jury vote was tied at 3-3. This led to seventy four former contestants voting for a winner.
  • During the 2009 season the two tribes were initially composed of only women while a smaller tribe of men were hidden on a secluded beach. The men eventually entered the main competition in episode four. A similar twist was later used during Robinson 2011.
Koh-Lanta (France)
  • In every season of Koh-Lanta, just before the tribe merge, an ambassador is chosen in each tribe. Through season 8, they had the power to give one more vote to any contestant for the first Tribal Council of the merged tribe. In season 9 and later seasons (including the two All-Stars seasons), they were able to directly eliminate a contestant. However, if none of the ambassadors agree to vote for/eliminate one contestant, they must draw one pearl from a bag. The one who gets the black pearl loses and either gets a vote, or is directly eliminated depending on the season.
  • During season 3 (Bocas del Toro), the oldest man and woman had the option to choose the composition of their respective tribes, as long as gender parity was respected.
  • During season 4 (Panama), the two tribes were divided by gender. However, after 8 days, the tribes were mixed. A variation was used during season 10 (Vietnam), where the tribes were divided by gender except that one person per tribe was of the opposite gender.
  • During season 5 (Pacific) and season 6 (Vanuatu), the tribes were divided by age: older or younger than 31 years old.
  • During season 7 (Palawan) and season 8 (Caramoan), there was a challenge before the tribes' composition was decided: the best man and woman got the privilege to decide on the composition of their tribes, while the last man and woman were directly eliminated. The latter rule was also applied in season 9 (Palau) and in the first All-Stars season.
  • During the second All-Stars season, seven previous contestants were part of one tribe, while the other tribe was composed of famous French sportsmen.
  • In season 11 (Raja Ampat), two new rules were introduced: the hidden immunity idol, known from its appearance in the US version, and a new rule called the "vote noir" (black vote). After a contestant gets voted out at the Tribal Council, he or she can vote one more time against one of the remaining contestants of his or her tribe before quitting the game. This vote is counted at the tribe's next Tribal Council.
  • The third All-Stars season featured sixteen former contestants who, despite their performances, hasn't previously become the Sole Survivor.
  • In season 12 (Malaysia), four contestants out of the starting 20 won't initially be part of either of the two starting tribes. Instead, they will be on a version of "Exile Island", and will need to prove themselves in order to be integrated into one of the two tribes. Also, for the first time in the history of the program, two contestants will be eliminated at once in a single Tribal Council.
  • Due to an accidental death during the initial days of shooting season 13, those in charge of producing the show decided to pull the plug on the 2013 season. Following a fierce discussion of these events in the media, the show's doctor took his own life, leaving the future of [Koh Lanta] very unsure.
Robinson Ekspeditionen Denmark
  • Because it was originally thought that the fifth season of Robinson would be the last to air in Denmark, Robinson Ekspeditionen 2002 was the first ever "All-Stars" version of Survivor to be broadcast worldwide. Since then there have been several All-Stars versions including ones in America, Belgium/Netherlands, France, Israel, and Sweden.
  • During the 2005 season the contestants were divided up into tribes based on where they were from within Denmark.
  • During the 2006 season all of the contestants were well known Danish athletes.
  • In keeping with the theme of the season, during the 2006 season all of the contestants were eliminated through duels rather than voting.
  • During the 2007 season the tribes were composed of past contestants from Robinson Ekspeditionen and contestants of another show known as Paradise Hotel.
  • During the 2008 season the tribes were composed of fans of Robinson Ekspeditionen and former contestants from Paradise Hotel.
  • During the 2009 season the tribes were initially divided into "Smart" and "Dumb" based on the results of an IQ test the contestants took prior to the start of the competition.
  • During the 2010 season the contestants took part in a challenge that would ultimately divide them into "Masters" and "Slaves" within their own tribes (one tribe was composed of male masters and female slaves while the other was composed of female masters and male slaves).
Robinsonid (Estonia), Robinsoni (Latvia), Robinzonai (Lithuania)
  • Because a representative from each participating country was necessary for the finale, the last remaining member of each tribe was immune from all remaining eliminations.
  • In all seasons of Baltic Robinson the jury would vote for who they didn't want to win as opposed to who they did. These votes would be added along with those given to the losers of plank (in all seasons) and those of the public (in the first two seasons) or of the finalists (in season 3).
Survivor Israel
  • Introduced the "Double-Power Challenge" in Survivor 10: The Caribbean. The double-power challenge is an individual challenge, which is played after the Immunity challenge. Every person going to Tribal Council had to compete, and the winner of the challenge won an additional power at Tribal Council.
  • Introduced the "Veto Armlet" in Survivor 10: Pearl Islands. Aside from the Immunity Challenge, where the winner of the challenge wins the immunity, the Israel version introduced the Armlet Veto, wherein the winner of the Veto Challenge gets the armlet. The Veto Armlets purpose is to cancel the vote of a castaway.
Robinsonekspedisjonen Norway
  • In November 2011 it was announced that the 2012 season of Robinsonekspedisjonen will be known as "Robinson: Vinter" (Robinson: Winter) and it will be the first ever season of Robinson or Survivor to ever take place in a cold climate as it will be filmed in Norway.
Survivor Philippines
  • Introduced the "Cursed and White Pearls", both roughly the size of a standard billiard ball. During the merge stage, the person voted out, before having his/her torch snuffed out, will receive either one or both of the Pearls and give each Pearl to one of the remaining castaways. The castaway who receives the Cursed Pearl gets one vote in the following Tribal Council. In case the Cursed Pearl is lost, the holder would then receive two votes. In-show, the Cursed Pearl is called the "Black Pearl" (though in the first season, its actual color is really silver). On the other hand, the White Pearl will have one vote subtracted from the count in the receiver's favor in the next Tribal Council, should at least one such vote comes up. This was introduced in the first season of Survivor Philippines.
  • Introduced the "Blood Pearl" in Survivor Philippines: Palau. The Blood Pearl served the same purpose as the Cursed Pearl, only, the holder would receive two votes in the next Tribal Council. In case the Blood Pearl is lost, three votes would be counted against the holder.
  • Introduced the "doubles format" in Survivor Philippines: Celebrity Doubles Showdown, wherein castaways are grouped as couples with preexisting relationships. In this format, the couple is treated as one castaway, wherein both members get immunity after winning Immunity Challenges, both win the reward from the Reward Challenges, and both are voted out in the Tribal Council.
  • Also in Survivor Philippines: Celebrity Doubles Showdown, the "Temptation Reward" was introduced. The winning tribe in a Reward Challenge would choose one or two of their own to be the only one/s partaking in the Temptation Reward. After being shown the Temptation Reward, the chosen one/s were then also presented with the consequence that comes upon accepting the Temptation Reward. Declining from the Temptation Reward is also an option, if those chosen would deem accepting it be too harmful for their life in the game.
Expedition Robinson Sweden
  • During the 1998 and 1999 seasons, during the pre-merge portion of the competition when a tribe lost an immunity challenge the opposing tribe would vote to eliminate one of their members.
  • In the 1998 season a "Joker" joined the game midway through. Since then this twist has become very common among Survivor versions around the world.
  • During the 1999 season the contestants were initially divided into four tribes. This twist would later be used in the American version of Survivor during Survivor: Exile Island and Survivor: Cook Islands.
  • During the 1999 season the twist of "The Black Vote" was introduced. During the merge portion of the competition whenever someone was voted out before they left tribal council they would cast one more vote. This vote would then be carried over to the next tribal council and whoever received the vote, assuming they didn't have immunity, would have an extra vote against them.
  • During the 2002 season when a contestant was voted out they were sent to a secret island where they would take part in a duel with another eliminated contestant. The contestant who lost said duel would be eliminated for good while the winner remained on the island. The person still inhabiting the island when there were only three contestants left in the game would re-enter the competition. This twist would later be used in several different versions of the show and has recently been used on Survivor: Redemption Island and Survivor: South Pacific.
  • During the All-Stars version of Expedition Robinson the tribes were initially divided into two tribes, one composed of "Veterans" and the other of "Fans". This type of twist was also used in the American version of Survivor during Survivor: Micronesia.
  • During the 2004 season the twist known as "Team X" was introduced. Shortly after the competition began a new group of contestants entered the game and lived separately and secretly away from the other contestants until a certain point in the game. This twist has since also been used in Norway's 2009 season.
  • During the 2004 and 2005 seasons a former contestant entered the game. This twist has since been used in many different Survivor versions around the world.
  • During the 2005 season the tribes were initially divided up into a "Rich" tribe and a "Poor" tribe. This twist has since been used in the Danish, Norwegian, and American versions, most notably in Survivor: Fiji.
Twists with unknown origins
  • During the year 2002 several different versions of Survivor used the twist of gender based tribes as a main twist for their seasons. Due to the fact that at the time the Baltic, Belgian/Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish seasons were all traveling together in order to conserve and pool their resources, there is no way to determine which production team came up with the idea of the twist (though it's unlikely to be the Baltic's or Norway's as neither edition has ever used this twist). The same twist was used a few months later in 2003 during Survivor: Amazon and a couple years later in 2004 during Survivor: Vanuatu.

Game rules

  • Conspiring to split winnings will result in immediate expulsion from the game.
  • Except for the occasional challenges which involve wrestling or limited combat, any physical violence between players will result in immediate expulsion from the game.
  • At Tribal Council, players are not permitted to vote for themselves, nor can they spoil their ballots or decline to cast a vote. Players must also show whom they voted for to the camera inside the voting booth.
  • Contestants must abide by U.S. law as well as local law. Breaking any of these laws will result in immediate removal from the game.
  • If a contestant wants to play the hidden immunity idol, this must be done after the votes have been cast but before they are read.
  • If a contestant plays the hidden immunity idol, any votes cast for that contestant will not count, and the person with the next largest number of votes will be eliminated.
  • Contestants may not skip any tribal councils, nor can they refuse to participate in any immunity or reward challenge, unless the game offers them the opportunity to do so.
  • Tribe members may not raid or visit the campsite of another tribe unless they are doing so as part of an immunity challenge, reward challenge or tribal merger activity with the other tribe. They also may not visit the TV crew compound. Exceptions to this rule have been made, though, as a result of accident (as seen in Survivor: Cook Islands) or challenge victories. In Survivor: Guatemala one tribe intentionally visited the other to invite them over to lounge in their lake pool.
  • If a contestant becomes seriously injured or sick, the player, fellow contestants, the host, or even the crew filming the players may call in a medical team for help. In some cases, the player can be treated at their camp, but the player may also be deemed unable to participate further by the medical team and then be taken from camp to a medical facility, and removed from the game. Often, the players may decide for themselves whether their health will allow them to continue.
  • Contestants deciding to quit the contest for any reason not health - or other-emergency-related may or may not be called back for the final jury, pending the producers' decision, and may or may not get their closing speech aired, if their reasons are sufficient enough. (This rule was added after the end of Survivor: Nicaragua.)
  • Depending on which country the show takes place in, contestants may be barred from killing certain forms of plant or animal life.

Survivor series

The Survivor format has been adapted for numerous international versions of the show, some named after the original Expedition Robinson.

Legend:      Still in production        No longer in production        Unknown  

Region/Country Local title Networks Winners Grand Prize Hosts
Botswana Ethiopia Ghana Kenya
Namibia Nigeria Zambia Zimbabwe
Survivor Africa South Africa M-Net Season 1, 2006: Botswana Tsholofelo Gasenelwe $100,000 Anthony Oseyemi
(Season 1)
Arab League Arab World Survivor
Lebanon LBC Season 1, 2005: Saudi Arabia Hussein El-Abass SR1,000,000 Tareq Mounir
(Season 1)
 Argentina Expedición Robinson Canal 13

Season 1, 2000: Sebastián Martino
Season 2, 2001: María Victoria Fernández

$100,000 Julián Weich
(Season 1 – 2)
 Australia Australian Survivor Nine Network Season 1, 2002: Robert Dickson A$500,000 Lincoln Howes
(Season 1)
Celebrity Survivor Seven Network Season 1, 2006: Guy Leech A$100,000
(For charity)
Ian Dickson
(Season 1)
Expedition Robinson Austria ORF
Germany RTL 2
Season 1, 2000: Melanie1 DEM100,000
 Azerbaijan Extreme Azerbaijan
(Ekstrim Azərbaycan)
Space TV Season 1, 2011: Unknown Sports car Emin Əhmədov
(Season 1)
Latvia Baltics
TV3 Estonia
TV3 Latvia
TV3 Lithuania

Season 1, 2000: Latvia Zane Mukane
Season 2, 2001: Latvia Māris Šveiduks
Season 3, 2002: Lithuania Rimas Valeikis

Mazda 626
(Season 1)

50,000 LT
(Season 2 – 3)
Emil Rutiku
(Season 1-3)

Pauls Timrots
(Season 1-3)
Vytautas Kernagis
(Season 1-3)
Džungļu zvaigznes
Season 1, 2004: Latvia Dagmāra Legante 10,000 Tenu Karks
Raimond Dombrovskis
Vytautas Kernagis
Belgium Belgium
Netherlands Netherlands
Expeditie Robinson Belgium VT4
(Season 1 – 5)

Belgium 2BE
(Season 6 – 13)

Netherlands NET 5
(Season 1 – 5)

Netherlands Tien
(Season 6 – 7)

Netherlands RTL 5
(Season 6 – 13)

Season 1, 2000: Netherlands Karin Lindenhovius
Season 2, 2001: Belgium Richard Mackowiak
Season 3, 2002: Netherlands Derek Blok
Season 4, 2003: Belgium Jutta Borms
Season 5, 2004: Belgium Frank de Meulder
Season 6, 2005: Belgium Marnix Allegaert
Season 7, 2006: Netherlands Olga Urashova
Season 8, 2007: Belgium Vinncent Arrendell
Season 9, 2008: Belgium Yin Oei Sian
Season 10, 2009: Belgium Marcel Vandezande
Season 11, 2010: Netherlands Regina Romeijn
Season 12, 2011: Belgium Tanja Dexters
Season 13, 2012: Netherlands Fatima Moreira de Melo

(Season 3 – present)
(Season 1 – 2)
(Season 1 – 9)
Désiré Naessens
(Season 1)
Roos Van Acker
(Season 2 – 5)
Lotte Verlackt
(Season 6 – 7)
Evi Hanssen
(Season 7 – 13)
Eddy Zoey
(Season 10 – 12)
Dennis Weening
(Season 13)
Expeditie Robinson:
Season 1, 2006: Netherlands Ryan van Esch
 Brazil No Limite Globo

Season 1, 2000: Elaine de Melo
Season 2, 2001: Léo Rassi
Season 3, 2001: Rodrigo Trigueiro
Season 4, 2009: Luciana de Araújo

R$ 500,000 Zeca Camargo
(Season 1 – Present)
 Bulgaria Survivor BG
(Сървайвър БГ)

Season 1, 2006: Neli Ivanova
Season 2, 2007: Georgi Kostadinov
Season 3, 2008: Nikolay Martinov
Season 4, 2009:[18] Georgi Kehaiov
Season 5, 2014: Upcoming season

250,000 BGN

(Season 1)
Vladimir Karamazov
(Season 2 – 4)
Evtim Miloshev
(Season 4)

 China Into The Shangri-La
CCTV Season 1, 2001: Members of Sun Village A chance to
fulfill their dreams
 Chile Expedición Robinson
(Celebrity Format)
Canal 13 Season 1, 2006: Marcela Roberts $50,000,000

Sergio Lagos
(Season 1)
Karla Constant
(Season 1)

 Colombia Expedición Robinson Caracol TV

Season 1, 2001: Rolando Patarroyo
Season 2, 2002: Cristóbal Echevarría

(Season 1)

(Season 2)

Margarita Francisco
(Season 1 – 2)
La Isla
de los Famo S.O.S.

(Celebrity Format)

Season 1, 2004: María Cecilia Sánchez
Season 2, 2005: Leonel Álvarez
Season 3, 2006: Lucas Jaramillo
Season 4, 2007: José Javier Ramírez


Guillermo Prieto
(Season 1 – 4)
Katerine Porto
(Season 1)

 Croatia Survivor HRT
(Season 1)
Season 1, 2005: Vazmenko Pervanu €100,000
(Season 1)

Antonija Blaće
(Season 2)
Milan Kalinić
(Season 2)
Andrija Milošević
(Season 2)
Marijana Batinić
(Season 2)
Survivor Croatia VIP RTL Televizija
(Season 2)
Season 2, 2012: Vladimir "Vlada" Vuksanović4 50,000
(Season 2)

 Czech Republic Trosečník TV Prima Season 1, 2006: Ingrid Golasová 5,000,000 CZK Marek Vašut
(Season 1)
 Denmark Robinson

Season 1, 1998: Regina Pedersen
Season 2, 1999: Dan Marstrand
Season 3, 2000: Sonny Pedersen
Season 4, 2001: Malene Hasselblad
Season 5, 2002: Henrik Ørum
Season 6, 2003: Frank Quistgard
Season 7, 2004: Mette Frandsen
Season 8, 2005: Mogens Brandstrup
Season 9, 2006: Diego Tur
Season 10, 2007: Rikke Gøransson
Season 11, 2008: Daniela Hansen
Season 12, 2009: Villy Eenberg
Season 13, 2010: Søren Engelbret
Season 14, 2011: Hugo Kleister

1,000,000 DKK(Season 5-9)

500,000 DKK(Season 10-Present)

250,000 DKK(Season 1-4)

Thomas Mygind
(Season 1 – 6)
Jakob Kjeldbjerg
(Season 7 – 14)

Robinson: VIP Season 1, 2005: Sweden Tilde Fröling2 Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
 Ecuador Expedición Robinson Teleamazonas Season 1, 2003: Tito Grefa $30,000
and a car
Marisa Sánchez
(Season 1)
 Finland Suomen Robinson Nelonen

Season 1, 2004: Marjaana Valkeinen
Season 2, 2005: Mira Jantunen


Jarmo Mäkinen
(Season 1)
Arttu Harkki
(Season 2)

Selviytyjät Suomi
(Survivor Finland)
MTV3 Season 1, 2013: Jarkko Kortesoja €50,000

Heikki Paasonen
(Season 1)

 France Koh-Lanta TF1

Season 1, 2001: Gilles Nicolet
Season 2, 2002: Amel Fatnassi
Season 3, 2003: Isabelle Seguin and Delphine Bano
Season 4, 2004: Philippe Bordier
Season 5, 2005: Clémence Castel
Season 6, 2006: François-David Cardonnel
Season 7, 2007: Jade Handi and Kevin Cuoco
Season 8, 2008: Christelle Gauzet
Season 9, 2009: Christina Chevry
Season 10, 2010: Philippe Duron
Season 11, 2011: Gérard Urdampilleta
Season 12, 2012: Ugo Latriche

€100,000 Hubert Auriol
(Season 1)

Denis Brogniart
(Season 2 – Present)

Koh-Lanta: All-Stars

Season 1, 2009: Romuald Lafite
Season 2, 2010: Grégoire Gorge
Season 3, 2012: Bertrand Bolle
Season 4, 2014: Upcoming Season

Denis Brogniart
(Season 1 – 3)
 Georgia უკანასკნელი

Ukanaskneli Gmiri
Rustavi 2 Season 1, 2007–2008: Tamar Chanturashvili
 Germany Survivor RTL 2
(Season 1 - 2)

(Season 3)

Season 2, 2001: Alexander Kolo1
Season 3, 2007: Volker

(Season 2)

(Season 3)
 Greece Survivor Mega TV

Season 1, 2003: Evagelina Dermetzoglou
Season 2, 2004: Konstantina Golias

(Season 1 – 2)

(Season 3)

Survivor Greece Mega TV
Turkey Show TV

Season 1, 2006: Turkey Derya Durmuşlar3

 Hungary Survivor A-Sziget RTL Klub

Season 1, 2003: Tünde Molnár
Season 2, 2004: Dávid Hankó

10,000,000 Ft
and car
András Stohl
(Season 1 – 2)
India India Survivor India Star Plus Season 1, 2012 : Raj Rani INR 1 crore Sameer Kochhar
 Israel הישרדות
Hisardut (Hebrew: Survival)
Channel 10

Season 1, 2007-2008: Na'ama Kaesari
Season 2, 2008-2009: Erik Alper
Season 3, 2009: Shay Arel
Season 4, 2010: Natan Bashevkin
Season 5, 2011: Irit Rahamim Basis
Season 6, 2012: Itay Segev

1,000,000 Guy Zoaretz
(Season 1 – Present)
הישרדות: VIP
(Celebrity Format)
Season 6, 2012: Itay Segev
 Italy Survivor Italia Italia 1 Season 1, 2001: Milica Miletic €200,000

Pietro Suber
(Season 1)
Benedetta Corbi
(Season 1)

L'isola dei famosi
The Island Of The Famous
Rai Due

Season 1, 2003: Canada Walter Nudo
Season 2, 2004: Spain Sergio Múñiz
Season 3, 2005: Lori Del Santo
Season 4, 2006: Luca Calvani
Season 5, 2007: Manuela Villa
Season 6, 2008: Vladimir Luxuria
Season 7, 2010: Daniele Battaglia
Season 8, 2011: Giorgia Palmas
Season 9, 2012: Antonella Elia


Simona Ventura
(Season 1–8)
Marco Mazzocchi
(Season 1–3)
Paolo Brosio
(Season 4)
(Season 5)
Filippo Magnini
(Season 6)
Rossano Rubicondi
(Season 7)
Daniele Battaglia
(Season 8)
Nicola Savino
(Season 9)
Vladimir Luxuria
(Season 9)

 Japan Survivor

Season 1, 2002: Eri Minoshima
Season 2, 2002: Asami Kawamura
Season 3, 2003: Yasuhito Ebisawa
Season 4, 2003: Kōshin Gunji


(Season 1 – 4)
Munehiro Tokita
(Season 1 – 4)

 Mexico La Isla, el reality Azteca 7 Season 1, 2012: Mexico María Reneé

Season 2, 2013: Mexico Upcoming Season

$2,000,000 Alejandro Lukini
 Netherlands Expeditie Robinson RTL 5 Season 14, 2013: Upcoming Season 50,000 Dennis Weening
Evi Hanssen
 Norway Robinson-

Season 1, 1999: Christer Falch
Season 2, 2000: Therese Andersen
Season 3, 2001: Mia Martinsen
Season 4, 2002: Ann Karene Molvig
Season 5, 2003: Emil Orderud
Season 6, 2004: Jan Stian Gundersen
Season 7, 2007: Ann-Kristin Otnes
Season 8, 2008: Tom Andre Tveitan
Season 9, 2009: Lina Iversen
Season 10, 2010: Alita Dagmar Kristensen
Season 11, 2011: Lillan Ramøy
Season 12, 2012: Elisabeth Nielsen
Season 13, 2013: Upcoming Season


Nils Ole Oftebro
(Season 1)
Christer Falch
(Season 2 – Present)

Robinson: VIP Season 1, 2005: Sweden Tilde Fröling2 Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
 Pakistan Mountain Dew
Season 1, 2006: Muhammad Ziad US$100,000
 Philippines Survivor Philippines GMA

Season 1, 2008: John Carlo "JC" Tiuseco
Season 2, 2009: Amanda Coolley Van Cooll

Template:Philippine peso Paolo Bediones
(Season 1 – 2)
Survivor Philippines
(Celebrity Edition)

Season 3, 2010: BrazilJapan Akihiro Sato
Season 4, 2011-2012: Albert "Betong" Sumaya Jr.

Richard Gutierrez
(Season 3 – Present)
 Poland Wyprawa Robinson TVN Season 1, 2004: Katarzyna Drzyżdżyk 100,000 Hubert Urbański
(Season 1)
 Portugal Survivor TVI Season 1, 2001: Pedro Besugo Esc10,000,000
 Russia Последний герой
Last Hero

Season 1, 2001: Sergey Odintsov
Season 2, 2002-2003: Veronika Norkina
Season 3, 2003: Vladimir Presnyakov, Jr
Season 4, 2003-2004: Yana Volkova
Season 5, 2004: Aleksey Matveyev
Season 6, 2005: Alexander "Conan" Alexeev
Season 7, 2008-2009: Vladimir Lysenko

3,000,000 RUB

Sergei Bodrov, Jr
(Season 1)
Dmitry Pevtsov
(Season 2)
Nikolai Fomenko
(Season 3)
(Season 4)
Vladimir Menshov
(Season 5)
Kseniya Sobchak
(Season 7)

Norway Scandinavia
Robinson: VIP
(Celebrity Edition)
TV3 Denmark
TV3 Norway
TV3 Sweden
Season 1, 2005: Sweden Tilde Fröling2 SEK500.000
to charity
Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
Serbia Serbia Survivor Srbija Prva

Season 1, 2008-2009: Nemanja Pavlov
Season 2, 2009-2010: Aleksandar Krajišnik

Nissan Patrol
(Season 1)

(Season 1)

(Season 2)

Andrija Milošević
(Season 1 - 4)
Marijana Batinić
(Season 4)
Survivor Srbija: VIP Prva Season 3, 2010-2011: Andrej Maričić
Season 4, 2012: Vladimir "Vlada" Vuksanović4
 Slovakia Celebrity Camp TV JOJ Season 1, 2007: Aneta Paríšková 5,000,000 SKK Petra Polnišová
(Season 1)
 South Africa Survivor
South Africa

Season 1, 2006: Vanessa Marawa
Season 2, 2007: Lorette Mostert
Season 3, 2010: Perle "GiGi" van Schalkwyk
Season 4, 2011: Hykie Berg


Mark Bayly
(Season 1 - 2)
Nico Panagio
(Season 3 - 4)

 Spain Supervivientes Telecinco

Season 1, 2000: Xavier Monjonell
Season 2, 2001: Alfredo "Freddy" Cortina


Juan Manuel López
(Season 1 - 2)
Paco Lobaton
(Season 2)

La Isla
de los Famo S.O.S.
Antena 3

Season 3, 2003: ArgentinaDaniela Cardone
Season 4, 2003: Felipe López
Season 5, 2004: Jose "Canales" Rivera
Season 6, 2005: Víctor Janeiro


Paula Vázquez
(Season 3 - 6)
Alonso Caparrós
(Season 3)
Nuria Roca
(Season 4 - 6)

Supervivientes Telecinco

Season 7, 2006: Italy Carmen Russo
Season 8, 2007: Cuba Nilo Manrique
Season 9, 2008: Miriam Sánchez
Season 10, 2009: Maite Zúñiga
Season 11, 2010: María José Fernández
Season 12, 2011: Rosa Benito
Season 13, 2014: Upcoming Season


Jesús Vázquez
(Season 7 - 11)
José María
(Season 7)
Mario Picazo
(Season 8 - 10)
Lucia Riaño
(Season 8)
Emma García
(Season 9, 11)
Oscar Martinez
(Season 9)
Eva Gonzalez
(Season 11)
Jorge Javier
(Season 12)
Raquel Sánchez
(Season 12)
Christian Gálvez
(Season 12)

 Sweden Expedition Robinson SVT
(Season 1 - 7)

(Season 8 - 9)

(Season 10 -

Season 1, 1997: Martin Melin
Season 2, 1998: Italy Alexandra Zazzi
Season 3, 1999: France Jerker Dalman
Season 4, 2000: Mattias Dalerstedt
Season 5, 2001-2002: Jan Emanuel Johansson
Season 6, 2002: Hungary Antoni Matacz
Season 7, 2003-2004: Emma Andersson
Season 8, 2004: Jerry Forsberg
Season 9, 2005: Karolina Conrad
Season 10, 2009: Ellenor Pierre
Season 11, 2009-2010: Hans Brettschneider
Season 12, 2010: Erik Svedberg
Season 13, 2011: Finland Mats Kemi
Season 14, 2012: Mariana "Mirre" Hammarling


Harald Treutiger
(Season 1 - 2)
Anders Lundin
(Season 3 - 7)
Robert Aschberg
(Season 8 - 9)
Linda Isacsson
(Season 10)
Paolo Roberto
(Season 11 - 14)

Robinson: VIP TV3 Season 1, 2005: Tilde Fröling2 SEK500.000
to charity

Mikkel Beha
(Season 1)
Robert Aschberg
(Season 1)

  Switzerland Expedition Robinson TV3

Season 1, 1999: Andreas Widmer
Season 2, 2000: Stefanie Ledermann
Season 3, 2001: Cancelled/ Not Aired

CHF100,000 Silvan Grütter
(Season 1 - 3)
 Turkey Survivor Turkey Kanal D
(Season 1)

Show TV
(Season 2 - 4)

Season 1, 2005: Uğur Pektaş
Season 2, 2006: Derya Durmuşlar3
Season 3, 2007: Taner Özdeş
Season 4, 2010: Merve Oflaz

(Season 1)
(Season 2 - 3)
(Season 4)

Acun Ilıcalı
(Season 1-4)
Survivor Turkey
(with Celebrities)
Show TV
(Season 5-6)

Star TV
(Season 7-present)

Season 5, 2011: Derya Büyükuncu
Season 6, 2012: Nihat Altınkaya
Season 7, 2013: Hilmi Cem İntepe

(Season 5-present)

Acun Ilıcalı
(Season 5-present)
Hanzade Ofluoğlu
(Season 5)
Burcu Esmersoy
(Season 6)
Alp Kırşan
(Season 7-present)

 Ukraine Oстанній герой
Last Hero
ICTV Season 1, 2011: Andrey Kovalski

Season 2, 2012: Alexei Diveyeff-Tserkovny

 United Kingdom Survivor ITV

Season 1, 2001: Charlotte Hobrough
Season 2, 2002: Jonny Gibb


Mark Austin
(Season 1)
John Leslie
(Season 1)
Mark Nicholas
(Season 2)

 United States Survivor CBS

Season 1, 2000: Richard Hatch
Season 2, 2001: Tina Wesson
Season 3, 2001-2002: Ethan Zohn
Season 4, 2002: Vecepia Towery
Season 5, 2002: Brian Heidik
Season 6, 2003: Jenna Morasca
Season 7, 2003: Sandra Diaz-Twine
Season 8, 2004: Amber Brkich
Season 9, 2004: Chris Daugherty
Season 10, 2005: Tom Westman
Season 11, 2005: Danni Boatwright
Season 12, 2006: Aras Baskauskas
Season 13, 2006: Yul Kwon
Season 14, 2007: Earl Cole
Season 15, 2007: Todd Herzog
Season 16, 2008: Parvati Shallow
Season 17, 2008: Robert "Bob" Crowley
Season 18, 2009: James "J.T." Thomas Jr.
Season 19, 2009: Natalie White
Season 20, 2010: Sandra Diaz-Twine
Season 21, 2010: Jud "Fabio" Birza
Season 22, 2011: Rob Mariano
Season 23, 2011: Sophie Clarke
Season 24, 2012: Kim Spradlin
Season 25, 2012: Denise Stapley
Season 26, 2013: John Cochran
Season 27, 2013: Upcoming Season
Season 28, 2014: Upcoming Season

US$1,000,000 Jeff Probst
(Season 1 - Present)
 Venezuela Robinson
La Gran Aventura

Season 1, 2001: Gabriel Pérez
Season 2, 2003: Graciela Boza

100,000,000 VEB


^1 The German Survivor created their own version after airing a co-production of Austrian-German Survivor in season 1. Austria hadn't continued its own series nor co-produced an Austrian-German Survivor after season 1.
^2 Expedition Robinson 2005 (VIP) was a pan-regional version of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
^3 Survivor: Greece vs. Turkey is a co-production between Greek and Turkish Survivor franchises. It was the third season of the popular show Survivor to air in Greece and the second season to air in Turkey. This was the first time that either country's franchise competed with another country and because of this the major twist this season was that the tribes were divided up by country of origin.
^4 Is a season co-produced by the Croatian and Serbian franchises. It was the second season of Survivor to air in Croatia and the fourth season to air in Serbia.

Other media

Thrill ride

One of the more novel merchandising items has been the interactive Survivor: The Ride thrill ride at California's Great America in Santa Clara, California. The ride includes a rotating platform on which riders are divided into one of four "tribes." As the ride moves along an undulating track, riders can be sprayed by water guns hidden in oversized tribal masks while drums and other familiar Survivor musical accents play in the background. Other theming includes Survivor memorabilia throughout the queue line and other merchandise for sale in nearby gift shops.[19] The ride has since been rethemed as Tiki Twirl.

Online games

During the first Survivor seasons many online games based on forums were created. Often referred to as "ORGs" (an acronym meaning Online Reality Games), they are slowly becoming less popular. More specific Survivor online games appeared later.


Beginning on July 8, 2007, a parody of Survivor called Total Drama Island appeared on the television network "Teletoon". This animated show included 22 summer campers who signed up to stay at a 5-star resort, which actually turned out to be a cruddy summer camp on an island somewhere in Muskoka, Ontario. The host, Chris McLean, is much like the host of Survivor. The campers are taken to the island on boats to meet their fellow competitors, being heartbroken at the sight of their wasted summer. The campers were separated into two teams: The "Screaming Gophers" and the "Killer Bass". Every three days there would be a challenge for the campers to face, from jumping off a 1000-foot high cliff into a lake to survival skills. The losing team of each challenge would go to the Bonfire Ceremony the night of the challenge, and vote someone off the team, like Survivor. Each team member still in the game would receive a marshmallow, leaving one team member without one. The member who does not receive a marshmallow would have to walk the Dock of Shame and board the Boat of Losers to leave the island, and "Never ever ever ever ever" return (which turned out to be a lie in the episode "No Pain, No Game"). After 12 members of the island were voted off, the teams were merged. Two competitors were brought back into the game for another chance at the grand prize, C$100,000. When only three members are left, there is a sudden-death challenge. The person who does not accept a dare is immediately taken off the island. For the final challenge, the 20 campers voted off the island are brought back to root for one of the two survivors. The winner receives a check for the C$100,000 and the final marshmallow. The show then ends with Chris thrown off the Dock of Shame. The show aired in 188 countries and also appeared on the channels of Cartoon Network and Jetix. The show became a critical and commercial success and it spun-off into a series.

See also


Further reading

United Kingdom Season #1 (2001)

  • Waddell, Dan. Survivor: Trust No One: The Official Inside Story of TV's Toughest Challenge. London: Carlton, [December,] 2001.

United Kingdom Season #2: Survivor: Panama (2002)

  • Waddell, Dan. Survivor: Panama. London: Carlton, [June,] 2002.

United States Season #1: Survivor: Pulau Tiga, Borneo (2000)

  • Boesch, Rudy, and Jeff Herman. The Book of Rudy: The Wit and Wisdom of Rudy Boesch. No location: Adams Media Corporation, 2001.
  • Burnett, Mark, with Martin Dugard. Survivor: The Ultimate Game: The Official Companion Book to the CBS Television Show. New York: TV Books, 2000.
  • Hatch, Richard. 101 Survival Secrets: How to Make $1,000,000, Lose 100 Pounds, and Just Plain Live Happily. New York: Lyons Press, 2000.
  • Lance, Peter. Stingray: Lethal Tactics of the Sole Survivor: The Inside Story of How the Castaways were Controlled on the Island and Beyond. Portland, Oregon: R.R. Donnelley, 2000.

United States Season #2: Survivor: The Australian Outback (2001)

  • Burnett, Mark. Dare to Succeed: How to Survive and Thrive in the Game of Life. No location: Hyperion, 2001.
  • Survivor II: The Field Guide: The Official Companion to the CBS Television Show. New York: TV Books, 2001.

United States Season #6: Survivor: Amazon (2003)

  • ChillOne, The. The Spoiler: Revealing the Secrets of Survivor. Lincoln, Nebraska: iUniverse, 2003.

United States Season #9: Survivor: Vanuatu -Islands of Fire (2004)

  • Burnett, Mark. Jump In!: Even If You Don't Know How to Swim. New York: Ballantine Books, 2005.

Various Seasons, esp. United States 1–6

  • Survivor Lessons, edited by Matthew J. Smith and Andrew F. Wood. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2004.
  • Wright, Christopher J. Tribal Warfare: Survivor and the Political Unconscious of Reality Television (Series: Critical Studies in Television). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2006.

External links

  • Survivor Africa
  • Survivor Bulgaria
  • Survivor Finland
  • Survivor France
  • Survivor Germany
  • Survivor Israel
  • (Celebrity) Survivor Italy
  • Survivor Pakistan
  • Survivor Philippines
  • Survivor Poland
  • Last Hero Russia
  • Survivor Serbia
  • Survivor South Africa
  • Survivor Spain
  • Survivor Turkey
  • Last Hero Ukraine
  • Survivor United States
  • Survivor India

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