World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Tbilisi

Tbilisi
თბილისი
Historical center of Tbilisi
Historical center of Tbilisi
Flag of Tbilisi  თბილისი
Flag
Official seal of Tbilisi  თბილისი
Seal
Tbilisi  თბილისი
Tbilisi
თბილისი
Location of Tbilisi in Georgia
Coordinates:
Country  Georgia
Established c. 479 A.D
Government
 • Mayor David Narmania[1]
Highest elevation 770 m (2,530 ft)
Lowest elevation 380 m (1,250 ft)
Population (2012)
 • City 1,473,551
 • Metro 1,485,293
Demonym Tbilisian
Time zone Georgian Time (UTC+4)
Area code(s) +995 32
Website www.tbilisi.gov.ge

Tbilisi (Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1936.

Located on the southeastern edge of Europe, Tbilisi's proximity to lucrative east-west trade routes often made the city a point of contention between various rival empires throughout history and the city's location to this day ensures its position as an important transit route for global energy and trade projects. Tbilisi's varied history is reflected in its architecture, which is a mix of medieval, classical, and Soviet structures.

Historically, Tbilisi has been home to people of diverse cultural, ethnic, and religious backgrounds, though it is overwhelmingly Georgian National Museum.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Early history 1.1
    • Foreign domination 1.2
    • Capital of a unified Georgian state 1.3
    • Mongol domination and the following period of instability 1.4
    • Russian control 1.5
    • Independence 1.6
    • Communist government 1.7
    • After the break-up of the Soviet Union 1.8
  • Politics and administration 2
  • Geography 3
    • Location 3.1
    • Climate 3.2
  • People and culture 4
    • Demographics 4.1
    • Religion 4.2
    • Sports 4.3
    • Media 4.4
    • Architecture 4.5
    • Main sights 4.6
  • Transport 5
    • Airport 5.1
    • Metro 5.2
    • Tram 5.3
    • Minibus 5.4
    • Aerial lift 5.5
  • Education 6
  • International relations 7
    • Twin towns and sister cities 7.1
    • Partnerships 7.2
  • See also 8
  • Bibliography 9
  • References 10
    • Notations 10.1
    • Footnotes 10.2
  • External links 11

History

Early history

According to an old legend, the present-day territory of Tbilisi was covered by forests as late as 458. One widely accepted variant of the legend of Tbilisi's founding states that King sulphuric hot springs that came out of the ground. Archaeological studies of the region have indicated human settlement in the territory of Tbilisi as early as the 4th millennium BCE.

King Iberia. During his reign, King Dachi I oversaw the construction of the fortress wall that lined the city's new boundaries. From the 6th century, Tbilisi grew at a steady pace due to the region's favourable and strategic location which placed the city along important trade and travel routes between Europe and Asia.

Foreign domination

Tbilisi's favourable and strategic location did not necessarily bode well for its existence as Eastern Georgia's/Iberia's capital. Located strategically in the heart of the Caucasus between Europe and Asia, Tbilisi became an object of rivalry between the region's various powers such as the Roman Empire, Persia, Arabs, Byzantine Empire, and the Seljuk Turks. The cultural development of the city was somewhat dependent on who ruled the city at various times, although Tbilisi (and Georgia in general) was able to maintain a considerable autonomy from its conquerors

Detail from the Nautical chart by Angelino Dulcert, depicting Georgian Black Sea coast and Tiflis, 1339.

From 570–580, the Persians took over Tbilisi and ruled it for about a decade. In the year 627, Khazars. In 853, the armies of Arab leader Bugha Al-Turki (Bugha the Turk) invaded Tbilisi in order to enforce its return to Abbasid allegiance. The Arab domination of Tbilisi continued until about 1050. In 1068, the city was once again sacked, only this time by the Seljuk Turks under Sultan Alp Arslan.

Capital of a unified Georgian state

In 1122, after heavy fighting with the Renaissance.[3]

Mongol domination and the following period of instability

Tbilisi's "Golden Age" did not last for more than a century. In 1226 Tbilisi was captured by the refugee plague struck the city in 1366.

View of Tbilisi by French traveler Jean Chardin, 1671.

From the late 14th until the end of the 18th century, Tbilisi came under the rule of various foreign invaders once again and on several occasions was completely burnt to the ground. In 1386, Tbilisi was Treaty of Amasya, and more firmly from 1614 to 1747, with brief intermissions, Tbilisi was garrisoned by the Persian forces and functioned as a seat of the Persian vassal kings of Kartli, whom the shah conferred with the title of wali. Under the later rules of Teimuraz II and Erekle II, Tbilisi became a vibrant political and cultural center free of foreign rule, but the city was devastated in 1795 by the Persian Qajar ruler Agha Mohammad Khan, who sought to reassert Persian suzerainty over Georgia. At this point, sensing that Georgia could not hold up against Persia alone, Erekle sought the help of Russia.

Russian control

Mikhail Lermontov, Tiflis, 1837.

In 1801, after the Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, of which Tbilisi was the capital, was annexed by the Russian Empire, the city became the center of the Tbilisi Governorate (Gubernia). In the course of the 19th century, the largest ethnic group of Tbilisi were Armenians, who, at some point, formed 74.3% of the population.[4] From the beginning of the 19th century Tbilisi started to grow economically and politically. New buildings mainly of European style were erected throughout the town. New roads and railroads were built to connect Tbilisi to other important cities in Russia and other parts of the Transcaucasus (locally) such as Batumi, Poti, Baku, and Yerevan. By the 1850s Tbilisi once again emerged as a major trade and a cultural center. The likes of Ilia Chavchavadze, Iakob Gogebashvili, Aleksandr Griboyedov, Nar-Dos, Pertch Proshian, Raffi, Gabriel Sundukyan, Hovhannes Tumanyan, Akaki Tsereteli, Simon Zavarian and many other statesmen, poets, and artists all found their home in Tbilisi.

Tbilisi was visited on numerous occasions by and was the object of affection of Alexander Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, Mikhail Lermontov, the Romanov Family and others. The Romanov Family established their residence (in Transcaucasia) on Golovin Street (Present-day Rustaveli Avenue). Throughout the century, the political, economic and cultural role of Tbilisi with its ethnic, confessional and cultural diversity was significant not only for Georgia but for the whole Caucasus. Hence, Tbilisi took on a different look. It acquired different architectural monuments and the attributes of an international city, as well as its own urban folklore and language, and the specific Tbilisuri (literally, belonging to Tbilisi) culture.

Independence

After the German and British military headquarters.

Under the national government, Tbilisi turned into the first Caucasian University City after the Imperial Russian authorities for several decades.[6] On 25 February 1921, the Bolshevist Russian 11th Red Army invaded [7][8] Tbilisi after bitter fighting at the outskirts of the city and declared Soviet rule.

Communist government

The Red Army entered Tbilisi on 25 February 1921.

In 1921, the industrialised and came to be an important political, social, and cultural centre of the Soviet Union. In 1980 the city housed the first state-sanctioned rock festival in the USSR. In the 1970s and the 1980s the old part of the city was considerably reconstructed.[9]

Tbilisi witnessed mass anti-Russian demonstrations during 1956 in the Peaceful protests occurred in 1978, and in 1989 the April 9 tragedy was a peaceful protest that turned violent.

After the break-up of the Soviet Union

Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tbilisi has experienced periods of significant instability and turmoil. After a brief civil war, which the city endured for two weeks from December 1991 to January 1992 (when pro-Gamsakhurdia and Opposition forces clashed with each other), Tbilisi became the scene of frequent armed confrontations between various mafia clans and illegal business entrepreneurs. Even during the Shevardnadze Era (1993–2003), crime and corruption became rampant at most levels of society. Many segments of society became impoverished because of unemployment caused by the crumbling economy. Average citizens of Tbilisi started to become increasingly disillusioned with the existing quality of life in the city (and in the nation in general). Mass protests took place in November 2003 after falsified parliamentary elections forced more than 100,000 people into the streets and concluded with the Rose Revolution. Since 2003, Tbilisi has experienced considerably more stability with decreasing crime rates, an improved economy and a real estate boom.[10] During the 2008 South Ossetia war the Tbilisi area was hit by multiple Russian air attacks.

After the war, several large-scale projects were started, including a streetcar system,[11] a railway bypass and a relocation of the central station[12] and new urban highways.[13]

Politics and administration

City Council of Tbilisi

The status of Tbilisi, as the nation's capital, is defined by the Article 10 in the

  • Official website of the City of Tbilisi

External links

  1. ^ Tbilisi’s new Mayor: David Narmania. agenda.ge. 14 July 2014
  2. ^ "The Golden Age Of Georgia". Dictionary of Georgian National Biography. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  3. ^ "Country Overview". Invest in Georgia. Archived from the original on 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2008-02-02. This early Georgian renaissance ... preceded its European analogue by several hundred years 
  4. ^ a b Ronald Grigor Suny (1994). The making of the Georgian nation. Indiana University Press. pp. 116–.  
  5. ^ a b c d e f (Russian) Ethno-Caucasus, население Кавказа, республика Грузия, население Грузии
  6. ^  
  7. ^ Jones, Stephen F. (2005). Socialism in Georgian Colors. London. 
  8. ^  
  9. ^ Бабенко, Виталий (October 1983). ...внутри драгоценного круга.  
  10. ^ Rukhadze, Vasili; Tobias Moerschen (2007). "Analysis of Tbilisi's Real Estate Boom". Retrieved 22 November 2009. 
  11. ^ "Rustavi 2". Rustavi 2. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  12. ^ Sergey Gevenov. "Tbilisi railway project to start : Story by Nino Edilashvili : Georgia Today on the Web". Georgiatoday.ge. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  13. ^ "Issue 1, 2010 – Tbilisi 2010". Investor.ge. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  14. ^ (Georgian) საქართველოს დედაქალაქის – თბილისის შესახებ. The Parliament of Georgia. Retrieved on May 22, 2007.
  15. ^ Karl Baedeker, Russia: A Handbook for Travelers (Arno Press, 1971, reprint of 1914 ed.), p. 467.
  16. ^ JSC IBERIA Realty Architectural Competition.
  17. ^ "Погода и Климат". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  18. ^ "Climatological Information for Tbilisi, Georgia" – Hong Kong Observatory
  19. ^ "Tbilisi, Georgia Travel Weather Averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  20. ^ a b (Russian) Тифлис // Географическо-статистический словарь Российской империи.St. Petersburg, 1885, p. 133 (Note: this is a 'one-day census' of unknown scope and methodology).
  21. ^ Ronald Grigor Suny (1994). The making of the Georgian nation. Indiana University Press. p. 368.   (one-day census of Tiflis)
  22. ^ (Russian) Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г.. Изд. Центр. стат. комитета МВД: Тифлисская губерния. — St. Petersburg, 1905, pp. 74—75.(Note: the census did not contain a question on ethnicity, which was deduced from data on mother tongue, social estate and occupation)[1]
  23. ^ "Ethnic groups by major administrative-territorial units". Web.archive.org. 2009-11-14. Archived from the original on 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  24. ^ Tbilisi Municipal Portal – Radio
  25. ^ Kempinski to Manage Hotel in Tbilisi. Civil Georgia, Tbilisi, 9 December 2006
  26. ^ Georgia Airport Profile. tbilisiairport.com
  27. ^ tbilisiairport.com – Terminal features
  28. ^ "Head office." (direct image link) Georgian Airways. Retrieved on 6 October 2010.
  29. ^ "Subways and Trams In Georgia: Tbilisi". 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  30. ^ "georgiandaily.com – Nostalgic Tbilisi residents want their tramway back". 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2010-12-24. - 
  31. ^ "Railway Gazette: Tbilisi tram design contract signed". 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  32. ^ "Trams to return? : by Salome Kobalava : Georgia Today on the Web". 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2010-12-24. 
  33. ^ "Tbilisi Ropeways". Civil Georgia. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  34. ^ "Major worldwide cable car accidents since 1976". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Tbilisi Sister Cities". Tbilisi City Hall. Tbilisi Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  36. ^ "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Retrieved 2013-07-27. 
  37. ^ "Bristol City – Town twinning".  
  38. ^ "Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04. 
  39. ^ ԵՐԵՎԱՆԻ ՔԱՂԱՔԱՊԵՏԱՐԱՆՊԱՇՏՈՆԱԿԱՆ ԿԱՅՔ [Yerevan expanding its international relations] (in Armenian). [2]. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  40. ^ "[via WaybackMachine.com]"Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması (in Turkish). Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  41. ^ "[via WaybackMachine.com]"Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  42. ^ "Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  43. ^ "Partnerská města HMP" [Prague – Twin Cities HMP]. Portál „Zahraniční vztahy“ [Portal "Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 2013-07-18. Archived from the original on 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 

Footnotes

  • Giorgi Lomsadze (June 13, 2008). "In Tbilisi, a Battle Over Buildings Fires Investment Debate". Eurasianet.org. 
  • Tara Bahrampour (July 29, 2008). "Push to Rebuild Brings Protest in Georgia's Capital". The Washington Post. 

Notations

References

  • Georgian State (Soviet) Encyclopedia. 1983. Book 4. pp. 595–604.
  • Minorsky, V., Tiflis in Encyclopaedia of Islam
  • ICOMOS Heritage at Risk 2001/2002: Georgia, Tbilisi Historic District

Bibliography

See also

Partnerships

[35] with:twinnedTbilisi is

Twin towns and sister cities

Tbilisi Platz in Saarbrücken, Germany

International relations

  • International School of Economics (ISET)
  • Georgian Agrarian University
  • Georgian Institute of Public Affairs
  • International Black Sea University
  • Georgian American University
  • Grigol Robakidze University – Alma Mater
  • Free University of Tbilisi
  • Caucasus University
  • Tbilisi State Medical University
  • Tbilisi State Conservatory
  • Ilia Chavchavadze State University
  • Georgian Technical University
  • The University of Georgia (Tbilisi)
  • Tbilisi State University Georgia's main and largest technical university,

    Tbilisi is home to several major institutions of higher education: The biggest Georgian university is Tbilisi State University which was established on 8 February 1918. TSU is the oldest university in the whole Caucasus region. Over 35,000 students are enrolled and the number of faculty and staff (collaborators) is approximately 5,000. Tbilisi is also home to the largest medical university in Caucasus region — Tbilisi State Medical University, which was founded as Tbilisi Medical Institute in 1918 and became the Faculty of Medicine within the Tbilisi State University (TSU) in 1930. Tbilisi State Medical Institute was renamed to Medical University in 1992. Since that university operates as an independent educational institution, TSMU became one of the high-ranking state-supported institutions of higher education in the Caucasus region. Currently there are almost 5000 undergraduate and 203 postgraduate students at the university of whom 10% come from foreign countries.

    Education

    Since 2012, Tbilisi has a modern, high capacity cable car[33] which operates between Europe Square and Narikala. Historically, the city had another aerial lift but, due to mismanagement at the hands of Soviet authorities, it experienced a major malfunction, causing the 1990 Tbilisi Cable car accident and remaining closed ever since.[34]

    Aerial lift

    The most dominant form of transportation is the marshrutka. An elaborate marshrutka system has grown in Tbilisi over the recent years. In addition to the city, several lines also serve the surrounding countryside of Tbilisi. Throughout the city a fixed price is paid regardless of the distance (50 tetri in 2011). For longer trips outside the city, higher fares are common. There are no predefined stops for the marshrutka lines, they are hailed from the streets like taxis and each passenger can exit whenever he likes.

    Aerial tramway with Presidential Palace in background

    Minibus

    Tbilisi had a tram network, since 1883 starting from horse driven trams and from 25 December 1904 electric tramway. When the Soviet Union disintegrated, electric transport went to a degradation state within the years and finally the only tram line left was closed on 4 December 2006 together with two trolleybus lines which were left.[29][30] There are plans to construct a modern tram network.[31][32]

    Tram

    The Tbilisi Metro underwent a campaign of modernization. Stations were reconstructed, and trains and facilities were modernized. In 2005, President Lari for the project. A third line is being planned, which will encompass the Vake District. The three lines will form a triangle, and intersect in the city center.

    The Tbilisi Metro serves the city with rapid transit subway services. It was the Soviet Union's fourth metro system. Construction began in 1952, and was finished in 1966. The system operates two lines, the Akhmeteli-Varketili Line and the Saburtalo Line. It has 22 stations and 186 metro cars. Most stations, like those on other Soviet-built metro systems, are extravagantly decorated. Trains run from 6:00 am to midnight. Due to the uneven ground, the rail lines run above ground level in some areas. Two of the stations are above ground.

    Tbilisi Metro, known for its underground depth, transports nearly 9 million commuters per month

    Metro

    [28] Tbilisi airport, (

    Airport

    Transport

    Out of the city's historic landmarks, the most notable locations are the Narikala fortress (4th–17th century), Anchiskhati Church (6th century, built up in the 16th century), Sioni Cathedral (8th century, later rebuilt), Church of Metekhi (13th century), etc.

    Tbilisi has a number of important landmarks and sightseeing locations. The Soviet times, Tbilisi continuously ranked in the top 4 cities in the Soviet Union for the number of museums.

    Main sights

    This included building large, concrete apartment blocks as well as social, cultural, and office facilities, like for example the Tbilisi Roads Ministry Building. Since the break-up of the Soviet Union, Tbilisi has been the site of uncontrolled/unsanctioned building projects. Since 2004, the city government has taken new initiatives to curb uncontrolled construction projects with mixed success. In the near future, Tbilisi will have three skyscraper complexes. The Axis Towers, Redix Chavchavadze 64, and the new Ajara Hotel/Business Complex, which is currently under construction will be the tallest buildings/skyscrapers in the Caucasus.

    Architecture of the later 20th century can mainly be identified with the type of building style that was common during the Soviet Era throughout the Soviet Union and the countries under Soviet occupation.

    As of 2013, no refurbishment has been achieved. [25].Dhabi Group-based UAE hotel by the KempinskiFollowing privatization, this building was supposed to be converted from 2006 to 2009 into a five star luxury
    1938 Institute of Marx Engels Lenin Building on Rustaveli Boulavard
    (იმელი) in Georgian. IMELI (მარქს-ენგელს-ლენინის ინსტიტუტის შენობა) building, also referred to by the abbreviation Institute of Marx, Engels, LeninThe start of the 20th century was marked with an architectural revival, notably, with an

    The architecture in the city is a mixture of local (Georgian), with strong influences of Middle Eastern influences. The areas of Tbilisi which were built up mainly in the 19th century (Rustaveli Avenue, Vera district, etc.) have a contrasting European/Russian (neoclassical) look.

    Rustaveli Theatre

    Architecture

    Radio stations in Tbilisi include 5 Lines Radio (93.8 FM), Europe +Tbilisi (99.6 FM), and Georgian Patriarchy Radio (105.4 FM).[24]

    Tbilisi has a number of newspaper publishing houses. Some of the most noteworthy newspapers include the daily 24 Saati ("24 Hours"), Rezonansi ("Resonance"), Alia, the English-language daily The Messenger, weekly FINANCIAL, Georgia Today, and the English-language weekly The Georgian Times. Out of the city's radio stations Imedi Radio (105.9 FM), Fortuna, and Radio 105 are some of the more influential competitors with large national audiences.

    The large majority of Georgia's media companies (including television, newspaper and radio) are headquartered in Tbilisi. The city is home to the popular Imedi TV Mze and the Public Broadcasting Channel) are based in the city as well. Tbilisi's television market has experienced notable changes since the second half of 2005 when Rustavi 2 successfully bought out the Mze TV Company and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation became a shareholder of Imedi Media Holding at the beginning of 2006. By taking over the Imedi Media Holding Group, News Corporation entered the Post-Soviet media market for the first time in the company's history.

    Media

    Club Sport Stadium
    Lelo Rugby Union Lelo Sport Centre
    Wissol Kochebi Rugby Union Wissol Sport Centre
    Lokomotivi Rugby Union Lokomotivi Sport Centre
    FC Dinamo Tbilisi Football Boris Paichadze Stadium
    FC Lokomotivi Tbilisi Football Mikheil Meskhi Stadium
    BC Dinamo Tbilisi Basketball Vere Basketball Hall
    Tbilisi State University Basketball Team Basketball Vere Basketball Hall
    Georgian State Agrarian University Basketball Team Basketball Vere Basketball Hall
    BC STD Tbilisi Basketball Vere Basketball Hall
    BC Makabi Basketball Vere Basketball Hall

    Tbilisi's signature football team, Dinamo Tbilisi, has not won a major European championship since 1981, when it won the European Cup Winners' Cup and became the easternmost team in Europe to achieve the feat. The basketball club Dinamo Tbilisi won the Euroleague in 1962 but also never repeated any such feat.

    The most popular sports in Tbilisi today are football, rugby union, basketball, and wrestling. Also popular sports include tennis, swimming and water polo. There are several professional football and rugby teams as well as wrestling clubs. U.S. National Basketball Association players Zaza Pachulia and Nikoloz Tskitishvili are Tbilisi natives. Outside of professional sports, the city has a number of inter-collegiate and amateur sports teams and clubs.

    Vere Basketball Hall is a smaller indoor sports arena with a 2,500 seating capacity.

    Tbilisi has a fairly rich sports history. Like many other towns of the Near East with strong Asian cultural influences, Tbilisi historically had a special area of town that was designated for sports competitions. The present-day districts of Saburtalo and Didube were the most common areas where such competitions were held. Up until the beginning of the 19th century, sports such as horse-riding (polo in particular), wrestling, boxing, and marksmanship were the most popular city sports. As Tbilisi started to develop socially and economically and integrate more with the West, new sports from Europe were introduced. The Soviet period brought an increased popularization of sports that were common in Europe and to a certain extent, the United States. At the same time, Tbilisi developed the necessary sports infrastructure for various professional sports. By 1978, the city had around 250 large and small sports facilities, including among others, four indoor and six outdoor Olympic sized pools, 185 basketball courts and halls, 192 volleyball facilities, 82 handball arenas, 19 tennis courts, 31 football fields, and five stadiums. At present, the largest stadium in Tbilisi is the Dinamo Arena (55,000 seats) and the second largest is the Mikheil Meskhi Stadium (24,680 seats). The Sports Palace which usually hosts basketball games with high attendance and tennis tournaments can seat up to approximately 11,000 people.

    Sports

    More than 95% of the residents of Tbilisi practise various forms of Armenian Apostolic Church have significant following within the city as well. A large minority of the population (around 4%) practises Islam (mainly Shia Islam). Judaism is also common, but to a lesser extent (about 2% of Tbilisi's population practises Judaism). Tbilisi has been historically known for religious tolerance. This is especially evident in the city's Old Town, where a mosque, synagogue, and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches can all be found within less than 500 metres (1,600 ft) from each other.

    Photo of a mosque in Tbilisi from the early 20th century.

    Religion

    As a Armenians, Russians, and Azeris. Along with the above-mentioned groups, Tbilisi is also home to various other ethnic groups including Ossetians, Abkhazians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Germans, Jews, Estonians, Kurds, Assyrians, and others.

    Demographics

    Main ethnic groups of Tbilisi
    Year
    Georgians
    %
    Armenians
    %
    Russians
    %
    TOTAL
    1801-3[4] 4,300 21.5% 14,860 74.3%
    20,000
    1864/65 winter[20] 14,878 24.8% 28,404 47.3% 12,462 20.7% 60,085
    1864/65 summer[20] 14,787 20.8% 31,180 43.9% 12,142 17.1% 71,051
    1876[21] 22,156 21.3% 37,610 36.1% 30,813 29.6% 104,024
    1897[22] 47,133 29.5% 41,151 36.4% 44,823 28.1% 159,590
    1926[5] 112,014 38.1% 100,148 34.1% 45,937 15.6% 294,044
    1939[5] 228,394 44% 137,331 26.4% 93,337 18% 519,220
    1959[5] 336,257 48.4% 149,258 21.5% 125,674 18.1% 694,664
    1970[5] 511,379 57.5% 150,205 16.9% 124,316 14% 889,020
    1979[5] 653,242 62.1% 152,767 14.5% 129,122 12.3% 1,052,734
    2002 [23] 910,712 84.2% 82,586 7.6% 32,580 3% 1,081,679

    People and culture

    Climate data for Tbilisi
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Record high °C (°F) 19.5
    (67.1)
    22.4
    (72.3)
    28.7
    (83.7)
    31.6
    (88.9)
    34.9
    (94.8)
    38.7
    (101.7)
    40.0
    (104)
    40.3
    (104.5)
    37.9
    (100.2)
    33.3
    (91.9)
    27.2
    (81)
    22.8
    (73)
    40.3
    (104.5)
    Average high °C (°F) 5.9
    (42.6)
    7.1
    (44.8)
    12.2
    (54)
    19.3
    (66.7)
    23.1
    (73.6)
    27.5
    (81.5)
    31.0
    (87.8)
    30.2
    (86.4)
    26.1
    (79)
    19.4
    (66.9)
    12.7
    (54.9)
    7.8
    (46)
    18.6
    (65.5)
    Daily mean °C (°F) 1.5
    (34.7)
    2.4
    (36.3)
    6.8
    (44.2)
    13.0
    (55.4)
    17.0
    (62.6)
    21.1
    (70)
    24.5
    (76.1)
    23.7
    (74.7)
    19.8
    (67.6)
    13.6
    (56.5)
    7.8
    (46)
    3.4
    (38.1)
    12.9
    (55.2)
    Average low °C (°F) −1.5
    (29.3)
    −0.8
    (30.6)
    3.0
    (37.4)
    8.1
    (46.6)
    12.1
    (53.8)
    16.0
    (60.8)
    19.4
    (66.9)
    18.6
    (65.5)
    15.0
    (59)
    9.4
    (48.9)
    4.5
    (40.1)
    0.5
    (32.9)
    8.7
    (47.7)
    Record low °C (°F) −24.4
    (−11.9)
    −14.8
    (5.4)
    −12.8
    (9)
    −3.8
    (25.2)
    1.0
    (33.8)
    6.3
    (43.3)
    9.3
    (48.7)
    8.9
    (48)
    0.8
    (33.4)
    −6.4
    (20.5)
    −7.1
    (19.2)
    −20.5
    (−4.9)
    −24.4
    (−11.9)
    Precipitation mm (inches) 20
    (0.79)
    29
    (1.14)
    31
    (1.22)
    51
    (2.01)
    84
    (3.31)
    84
    (3.31)
    41
    (1.61)
    43
    (1.69)
    35
    (1.38)
    41
    (1.61)
    35
    (1.38)
    23
    (0.91)
    517
    (20.35)
    Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 4.0 4.6 5.9 7.6 9.7 8.7 5.7 5.7 5.0 5.6 4.4 4.0 70.9
    Mean monthly sunshine hours 99.2 104.4 142.6 171.0 213.9 249.0 257.3 248.0 207.0 164.3 102.0 93.0 2,051.7
    Source: Pogoda.ru.net,[17] Hong Kong Observatory[18] for data of avg. precipitation days and sunshine hours, Weatherbase (extremes only)[19]

    The average annual temperature in Tbilisi is 12.7 °C (54.9 °F). January is the coldest month with an average temperature of 0.9 °C (33.6 °F). July is the hottest month with an average temperature of 24.4 °C (75.9 °F). The absolute minimum recorded temperature is −24 °C (−11 °F) and the absolute maximum is 40 °C (104 °F). Average annual precipitation is 568 mm (22.4 in). May and June are the wettest months (averaging 84 mm (3.3 in) of precipitation each) while January is the driest (averaging 20 mm (0.8 in) of precipitation). Snow falls on average 15–25 days per year. The surrounding mountains often trap the clouds within and around the city, mainly during the Spring and Autumn months, resulting in prolonged rainy and/or cloudy weather. Northwesterly winds dominate in most parts of Tbilisi throughout the year. Southeasterly winds are common as well.

    With 23°C of range between January and July and his winter minimum precipitation while springs receive the most, the climate of Tbilisi can be considered as a continental climate and it is classified as (Köppen climate classification Cfa), like Washington DC. The city's climate is influenced both by dry (Central Asian/Siberian) air masses from the east and oceanic (Atlantic/Black Sea) air masses from the west. Tbilisi experiences relatively cold winters and hot summers. Because the city is bounded on most sides by mountain ranges, the close proximity to large bodies of water (Black and Caspian Seas) and the fact that the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range (further to the north) blocks the intrusion of cold air masses from Russia, Tbilisi has a relatively mild micro-climate compared to other cities that possess a similar continental climate along the same latitudes.

    Turtle Lake (Kus Tba) in January.

    Climate

    To the north of the city, there is a large reservoir (commonly known as the Tbilisi Sea) fed by irrigation canals.

    The relief of Tbilisi is complex. The part of the city which lies on the left bank of the Mt'k'vari (Kura) River extends for more than 30 km (19 mi) from the Avchala District to River Lochini. The part of the city which lies on the right side of the Mt'k'vari River on the other hand is built along the foothills of the Trialeti Range, the slopes of which in many cases descend all the way to the edges of the river Mt'k'vari. The mountains, therefore, are a significant barrier to urban development on the right bank of the Mt'k'vari River. This type of a geographic environment creates pockets of very densely developed areas while other parts of the city are left undeveloped due to the complex topographic relief.

    Tbilisi is located in the Mt'k'vari River. The elevation of the city ranges from 380–770 metres above sea level (1,250–2,530 ft) and has the shape of an amphitheatre surrounded by mountains on three sides. To the north, Tbilisi is bounded by the Saguramo Range, to the east and south-east by the Iori Plain, to the south and west by various endings (sub-ranges) of the Trialeti Range.

    Location

    Geography

    Avlabari is considered "the integral component of the so-called 'old Tbilisi'" and is currently the object of planning and cultural heritage preservation.[16]

    In the north part of the town, on the left bank of the Kurá and to the south of the railway station, stretches the clean German Quarter, formerly occupied by German immigrants from Württemberg (1818). To the south is the Gruzinian or Georgian Quarter (Avlabár). On the right bank of the Kurá is the Russian Quarter, the seat of the officials and of the larger business firms. This is adjoined on the south by the Armenian and Persian Bazaars.
    —Karl Baedeker, Russia: A Handbook for Travelers[15]

    In pre-Revolution Tiflis, the Georgian quarter was confined to the southeastern part of the city; Baedeker describes the layout succinctly:

    Most of the raions are named after respective historical neighbourhoods of the city. The citizens of Tbilisi widely recognise a system of the smaller non-formal historical neighbourhoods. Such neighbourhoods are several, however, constituting a kind of hierarchy, because most of them have lost their distinctive topographic limits. The natural first level of subdivision of the city is into the Right Bank and the Left Bank of the Mt'k'vari. The names of the oldest neighbourhoods go back to the early Middle Ages and sometimes pose a great linguistic interest. The newest whole-built developments bear chiefly residential marketing names.

    Administratively, the city is divided into raions (districts), which have their own units of central and local government with jurisdiction over a limited scope of affairs. This subdivision was established under Soviet rule in the 1930s, following the general subdivision of the Soviet Union. Since Georgia regained independence, the raion system was modified and reshuffled. According to the latest revision, Tbilisi raions include:

    Tbilisi is governed by the Tbilisi City Assembly (Sakrebulo) and the Tbilisi City Hall (Meria). The City Assembly is elected once every four years. The mayor is elected by the City Assembly. The Mayor of Tbilisi is David (Davit) Narmania and the Chairman of the Tbilisi city Assembly is Giorgi Alibegashvili.

    [14]

    This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
     
    Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
     
    By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
     


    Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
    a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.