The Piano (film)

This article is about the film. For the instrument, see Piano. For other uses, see Piano (disambiguation).

The Piano
US theatrical release poster
Directed by Jane Campion
Produced by Jan Chapman
Written by Jane Campion
Narrated by Holly Hunter
Starring Holly Hunter
Harvey Keitel
Anna Paquin
Sam Neill
Music by Michael Nyman
Cinematography Stuart Dryburgh
Editing by Veronika Jenet
Studio Jan Chapman Productions
CiBy 2000
Distributed by Bac Films (France)
Miramax Films (US)
Release date(s)
Running time 120 minutes[1]
Country New Zealand
Language English
British Sign Language
Budget $7 million[2]
Box office $40,157,856[3]

The Piano is a 1993 New Zealand romantic drama film about a mute pianist and her daughter, set during the mid-19th century in a rainy, muddy frontier backwater on the west coast of New Zealand. The film was written and directed by Jane Campion, and stars Holly Hunter, Harvey Keitel, Sam Neill, and Anna Paquin. It features a score for the piano by Michael Nyman which became a best-selling soundtrack album. Hunter played her own piano pieces for the film, and also served as sign language teacher for Paquin, earning three screen credits. The film is an international co-production by Australian producer Jan Chapman with the French company Ciby 2000.

The Piano was a success both critically and commercially, grossing $40.2 million, against its $7 million budget. Hunter and Paquin both received high praise for their respective roles as Ada McGrath and Flora McGrath. In March of 1994, The Piano won 3 Academy Awards out of 8 total nominations: Best Actress for Hunter, Best Supporting Actress for Paquin, and Best Original Screenplay for Campion. Paquin, who at the time was 11 years old, is the second youngest Oscar winner ever in a competitive category, after Tatum O'Neal, who also won Supporting Actress in 1974 for Paper Moon, at 10.


The Piano tells the story of a mute Scotswoman, Ada McGrath, whose father sells her into marriage to a New Zealand frontiersman, Alistair Stewart. She is shipped off along with her young daughter Flora. The voice that the audience hears is not her speaking voice, but her mind's voice. Ada has not spoken a word since she was six years old and no one, including herself, knows why. She expresses herself through her piano playing and through sign language for which her daughter has served as the interpreter. Flora later tells two women in New Zealand that her mother has not spoken since the death of her husband who died as a result of being struck by lightning. Ada cares little for the mundane world, occupying herself for hours every day with the piano. It is never made explicitly clear why she ceased to speak. Flora, it is later learned, is the product of a relationship with a teacher whom Ada believed she could control with her mind, making him love her, but who "became frightened and stopped listening," and thus left her.

Ada, Flora, and their belongings, including the piano, are deposited on a New Zealand beach by the ship's crew against her angry objections. As there is no one there to meet them, they spend the night alone, sheltering under a tiny tent made of a hoop skirt frame. The following day, Alistair arrives with a Māori crew and his friend Baines, a fellow forester and a retired sailor, who has adopted many of the Māori customs, including tattooing his face and socializing with the Māori instead of his own race (save Alistair). There are insufficient men to carry everything and Alistair abandons the piano, again eliciting objections from Ada.

Alistair proves to be a shy and diffident man, who is jokingly called "old dry balls" by his Māori cohorts. He tells Ada that there is no room in his small house for the piano. Ada, in turn, makes no effort to befriend him and continues to try to be reunited with her piano. Unable to communicate with Alistair, she goes, with Flora, to Baines and asks to be taken to the piano. He agrees, and the three spend the day as she plays tunes on the beach. While he socially aligns himself with the Māori, Baines has steadfastly refused any sexual activity with Māori women. But he clearly finds Ada attractive due to her passion for music. Baines eventually retrieves the instrument and suggests that Alistair trade it lessons from Ada some land that Alistair wants. Alistair consents, oblivious to the budding attraction between Ada and Baines. She is surprised to find that Baines has had the piano put into perfect tune after its rough journey. Because he is sexually aroused by Ada's playing, he asks to simply listen rather than learn to play himself, and then offers to let her buy the piano back, one key at a time, by letting him do "things he likes" while she plays. While Ada and Alistair have had no sexual, nor even mildly affectionate, interaction even though they are married, she negotiates to buy the piano back by allowing Baines to do things in exchange for only the black keys. However, after several days, Baines chooses to return the piano to Ada, saying to her that he feels that their arrangement "is making you a whore, and me, wretched", and that what he really wants is for her to actually care for him, which he doesn't think she can do.

Despite Ada having the piano back, she ultimately finds herself missing Baines watching her as she plays, and thus, having realized her own feelings for him, she returns to him one afternoon, where they submit to their desire for one another. Alistair, having begun to suspect something going on between them, hears them making love as he walks by Baines' house, and then watches them through a crack in the wall. Outraged, he follows her the next day and confronts her in the forest, where he attempts to force himself on her, despite her resistance. He then boards up his home with Ada inside so she won't be able to visit Baines while Alistair is working on his timberland. After this, Ada avoids Baines and feigns affection with Alistair, though her caresses only serve to frustrate him more because when he makes a move to touch her in return, she pulls away. Eventually resolving to trust her, he removes the barriers from the house, and believes Ada will be true to her word that she won't see Baines.

Soon after, Ada sends her daughter with a package for Baines, containing a single piano key with an inscribed love declaration that says "Dear George you have my heart Ada McGrath". Flora has begun to accept Alistair as her "papa" and is angered by her mother's infidelity. She brings the piano key instead to Alistair. After reading the love note burnt onto the piano key, Alistair furiously returns home and cuts off Ada's index finger with an axe to deprive her of the ability to play her piano, while Flora watches on in horror. He then sends Flora to Baines with the severed finger wrapped in cloth, with the message that if Baines ever attempts to see Ada again, he will chop off more fingers.

However, later that night, while touching Ada in her sleep, Alistair hears what he believes to be Ada's voice inside of his head, asking him to let Baines take her away. Deeply shaken, he goes to Baines' house and confesses this to him. Ultimately, he decides to send Ada and Flora away with Baines and dissolve their marriage once Ada has recovered from her injuries. They depart from the same beach on which she first landed in New Zealand. While being rowed to the ship with her baggage and the piano tied onto a Maori longboat, Ada insists that Baines throw the piano overboard. As it sinks, she deliberately tangles her foot in the rope trailing after it. She is pulled overboard but, deep underwater, changes her mind and kicks free and is pulled to safety.

In an epilogue, Ada describes her new life with Baines and Flora in Nelson, where she has started to give piano lessons in their new home, and her severed finger has been replaced with a silver finger made by Baines. Ada says that she imagines her piano in its grave in the sea, and herself suspended above it, which "lulls me to sleep." Ada has also started to take speech lessons in order to learn how to speak again. The film closes with the Thomas Hood quotation, from his poem "Silence," which also opened the film: "There is a silence where hath been no sound. There is a silence where no sound may be in the cold grave under the deep deep sea."



Casting the role of Ada was a difficult process. Sigourney Weaver was Campion's first choice, but she turned down the role because she was taking a break from film at the time. Jennifer Jason Leigh was also considered but she couldn't meet with Campion to read the script because she was committed to shooting the film Rush.[4] Isabelle Huppert met with Jane Campion and had vintage period-style photographs taken of her as Ada, and later said she regretted not fighting for the role as Hunter did.[5]

The casting for Flora occurred after Hunter had been selected for the part. They did a series of open auditions for girls age 9 to 13, focusing on girls who were small enough to be believable as Ada's daughter (as Holly Hunter is a rather short actress at 5' 2"[6]). Anna Paquin ended up winning the role of Flora over 5,000 other girls.[7]

Alistair Fox has argued that The Piano was significantly influenced by Jane Mander's The Story of a New Zealand River.[8] Robert Macklin, an associate editor with The Canberra Times newspaper, has also written about the similarities.[9]

The film also serves as a retelling of the fairytale "Bluebeard",[10][11] which is hinted at further in the inclusion of "Bluebeard" as a piece of the Christmas pageant.

In July of 2013, Campion revealed that she originally intended for the main character to drown in the sea after going overboard after her piano.[12]

Production on the film started in April 1992, filming began on 11 May 1992 and lasted until July of 1992, and production officially ended on 22 December 1992.[13]


Reviews for the film were overwhelmingly positive. Roger Ebert wrote: "The Piano is as peculiar and haunting as any film I've seen" and "It is one of those rare movies that is not just about a story, or some characters, but about a whole universe of feeling." Hal Hinson of The Washington Post called it "[An] evocative, powerful, extraordinarily beautiful film." On the film site Rotten Tomatoes, The Piano earned a 90% "Certified Fresh" rating.[14] On Metacritic, it holds a score of 89 out of 100, indicating "universal acclaim".[15]

At the 1993 Cannes Film Festival, the film shared the Palme d'Or Best Film Award with Chen Kaige's Farewell My Concubine, and Holly Hunter was awarded the Best Actress Award.[16] In 1994, the film won 3 Academy Awards; Best Actress (Holly Hunter), Best Supporting Actress (Anna Paquin) and Best Original Screenplay (Jane Campion). Anna Paquin was the second youngest person after Tatum O'Neal to win an Academy Award. Holly Hunter is notable for being one of three actresses — along with Marlee Matlin (for her American sign language performance in Children of a Lesser God) and Jane Wyman (for her deaf-mute role in Johnny Belinda) − to receive an Academy Award for Best Actress in the post-silent era for a non-speaking role (her voice is only heard off-screen in a few scenes). The film made its US premiere at the Hawaii International Film Festival.


  • Academy Awards:
    • Best Cinematography (Stuart Dryburgh)
    • Best Costume Design (Janet Patterson)
    • Best Director (Jane Campion)
    • Best Editing (Veronika Jenet)
    • Best Picture (Jan Chapman)
  • American Cinema Editors:
    • Best Edited Feature Film (Veronika Jenet)
  • American Society of Cinematographers:
    • Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases (Stuart Dryburgh)
  • Australian Film Institute:
    • Best Supporting Actor (Sam Neill)
    • Best Supporting Actress (Kerry Walker)
  • BAFTA Awards:
    • Best Cinematography
    • Best Director (Jane Campion)
    • Best Editing
    • Best Film
    • Best Score (Michael Nyman)
    • Best Screenplay — Original (Jane Campion)
    • Best Sound
  • Directors Guild of America (DGA):
    • Best Director (Jane Campion)
  • Golden Globe Awards:
    • Best Director (Jane Campion)
    • Best Original Score (Michael Nyman)
    • Best Picture — Drama
    • Best Screenplay (Jane Campion)
    • Best Supporting Actress (Anna Paquin)


For more details, see The Piano (soundtrack).
"The Piano"
Extract from the score of the 1993 film "The Piano"

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The score for the film was written by Michael Nyman, and included the acclaimed piece "The Heart Asks Pleasure First"; additional pieces were "Big My Secret", "The Mood That Passes Through You", "Silver Fingered Fling", "Deep Sleep Playing" and "The Attraction Of The Peddling Ankle". This album is rated in the top 100 soundtrack albums of all time and Nyman's work is regarded as a key voice in the film, which has a mute lead character (Entertainment Weekly, 12 October 2001, p. 44).

Home media

The film was released on DVD in 1997 by LIVE Entertainment and on Blu-ray on 31 January 2012 by Lionsgate, but already released in 2010 in Australia.[17]


  • Ellen Cheshire Jane Campion, Great Britain: Pocket Essentials, 2000.
  • Cynthia Kaufman "Colonialism, Purity, and Resistance in The Piano", Socialist Review 24 (1995): 251-55.

External links

  • Internet Movie Database
  • Box Office Mojo
  • Rotten Tomatoes
  • Metacritic
  • Roger Ebert's review
  • screenplay
Preceded by
Academy Award winner for

Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress

Succeeded by
Shakespeare in Love

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