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Treaty of Salisbury

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Title: Treaty of Salisbury  
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Subject: List of Scottish monarchs, Guardian of Scotland
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Treaty of Salisbury

The Treaty of Birgham, also referred to as the Treaty of Salisbury,[1] comprised two treaties intended to secure the independence of Scotland after Alexander III died without issue in 1286.

Guaranteed by England's King Edward I, the purpose of the treaty was to put to rest the competing claims of the House of Balliol and the House of Bruce. The treaties were drawn up in Salisbury in 1289 and Birgham, Berwickshire, in 1290. Under the condition that the heiress of Scotland, Margaret, the Maid of Norway, would marry Edward's son, Scotland was to remain "separate and divided from England according to its rightful boundaries, free in itself and without subjection."

The treaty proved ineffectual, both because Margaret died en route to Scotland in 1290, and because English negotiators had included enough reservations to render the independence clauses useless. In 1291 Edward summoned the Scottish nobles to meet him at Norham-on-Tweed and styled himself overlord of Scotland ('Lord Paramount of Scotland') and challenged claimants to the Scottish throne to recognise himself as a feudal superior.

See also


  • "Birgham, Treaty of (1290)" in Collins Dictionary of Scottish History edited by Ian Donnachie and George Hewitt (Harper Collins, 2001, ISBN 0-00-714710-4)
  • "Medieval Scotland, 1100 - 1560", by David Ditchburn and Alastair J. MacDonald in New Penguin History of Scotland (Penguin Books, 2001, ISBN 0-14-026367-5), esp. pp. 165 et. seq.
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