World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Trophallaxis

Article Id: WHEBN0000213731
Reproduction Date:

Title: Trophallaxis  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Ant, Termite, List of feeding behaviours, Asian giant hornet, Regurgitation (digestion)
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Trophallaxis

Trophallaxis in Asian-Australian weaver ant O. smaragdina, Thailand.
Trophallaxis in Camponotus sp.

Trophallaxis is the transfer of food or other fluids among members of a community through mouth-to-mouth (stomodeal) or anus-to-mouth (proctodeal) feeding. It is most highly developed in social insects such as ants, termites, wasps and bees. The word was introduced by the entomologist William Morton Wheeler in 1918.[1] The behaviour was used in the past to support theories on the origin of sociality in insects.[2] The Swiss psychologist and entomologist August Forel also believed that food sharing was key to ant society and he used an illustration of it as the frontispiece for his book The Social World of the Ants Compared with that of Man.[3]

In ants such as the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) individual colony members store food in their crops and regularly exchange it with other colony members and larvae to form a sort of "communal stomach" for the colony. In termites and cockroaches,[4] proctodeal trophallaxis is crucial for replacing the gut endosymbionts that are lost after every molt. This should not be confused with coprophagia.

Many wasps, like Protopolybia exigua and Belonogaster petiolata, exhibit foraging behavior where adults perform trophallaxis with adults and between adults and larvae.[5][6]

In addition, Vespula austriaca wasps also engage in trophallaxis with its host workers to obtain nutrients.[7]

Vertebrates such as some bird species, gray wolves, and vampire bats also feed their young through trophallaxis.

Trophallaxis serves as a means of communication, at least in bees and ants. In some species of ants, it may play a role in spreading the colony odour that identifies members.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Rocha, AA, and Carlos Costa Bichara Filho. "Resources Taken to the Nest by Protopolybia Exigua (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in Different Phases of the Colony Cycle, in a Region of the Medio Sao Fransisco River, Bahia, Brazil."Sociobiology54.2 (2009): 439–56. Print.
  6. ^ Keeping, Malcolm G. "Social Behavior and Brood Decline in Reproductive-phase Colonies Of Belonogaster Petiolata(Degeer) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)." Journal of Insect Behavior 10.2 (1997): 265–78. Web. 20 Sept. 2014.
  7. ^
  8. ^
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.