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Çanakkale

Çanakkale
Municipality
A view of city center
A view of city center
Çanakkale is located in Turkey
Çanakkale
Coordinates:
Country Turkey
Province Çanakkale
Government
 • Mayor Ülgür Gökhan (CHP)
Area[1]
 • District 937.82 km2 (362.09 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 111,137
 • District 143,041
 • District density 150/km2 (400/sq mi)
Website .tr.bel.canakkalewww

Çanakkale (pronounced ; from Ottoman Turkish چینک قلعه‎, literally "pot fortress") is a city and seaport in Turkey, in Çanakkale Province, on the southern (Asian) coast of the Dardanelles at their narrowest point. The population of the town is 186,116 (2014 estimate).[3] The current mayor is Ülgür Gökhan (CHP).

Çanakkale Province, like Istanbul Province, has territory in both Europe and Asia. Ferries cross there to the northern (European) side of the strait.

Çanakkale is the finishing point every year for an organised swim across the Hellespont from Eceabat. This event emulates the swim in 1810 by Lord Byron, who was himself emulating the legendary swim by Leander in the story of Hero and Leander.

The city is the nearest major town to the site of ancient Troy. The "wooden horse" from the 2004 movie Troy is exhibited on the seafront. Çanakkale is the second city to be situated on two continents after Istanbul. However Çanakkale is closer to mid-division than Istanbul.

Contents

  • Name 1
  • Legends 2
  • History 3
  • Notable people from Çanakkale 4
  • Education 5
  • Transportation 6
  • Communication 7
  • Climate 8
  • Gallery 9
  • Twinships 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13

Name

The Greek Byzantine name for Çanakkale چینک قله was Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia, from which the English name Dardanelles is derived.

Çanakkale was an Ottoman fortress called Kale-i Sultaniye (Ottoman Turkish: قلعة سلطانيه‎) or Sultaniye kalesi (Fortress of the Sultan). It later became known for its pottery, hence the later name Çanak kalesi 'pot fortress'.

As of 1920, the British were calling Çanakkale, Chanak and Kale Sultanie in their reporting.[4]

Legends

Ancient Abydos, where the story of Hero and Leander takes place, is to the north of Çanakkale.

History

This is the Trojan horse which appeared in the Brad Pitt movie, now in the town of Çanakkale near Troy.
View of the harbour in Çanakkale
Çanakkale ferry line across the Dardanelles
Çanakkale fortress

The first inhabitants of the city, which hosted many civilizations, lived on the Biga Peninsula in the Last Chalcolithic Age c. 6000 years ago. However, very little is known about the identity and lifestyle of these early settlers. According to some excavations and research, the earliest settlements in the region were established at Kumtepe. It is supposed that Kumkale was established in 4000 BC and Troy between 3500–3000 BC. The real history of Çanakkale started with Troy.

Later the Aeolian Greeks settled on that important land in the 8th century BC and established many trade colonies in the region called Aeolis. The region came under the control of the Lydians in the 7th century BC and under the control of the Persians in the 6th century BC. Aeolis went under the control of the Ancient Macedonian army as Alexander the Great defeated the Persians by the Granicus River of the region in the Battle of the Granicus on his way to Asia. The region came under the reign of the Kingdom of Pergamon in the 2nd century BC.

The western part of the Biga Peninsula where ancient Troy is situated was called Troas. Alexandria Troas, an important settlement of the region, was a free trade port and a rich trade center during Roman times. Later in the 2nd century AD, the region was attacked by Goths from Thrace. During the 7th and 8th centuries, in order to attack İstanbul the Arabs passed the strait a few times and came up to Sestos. At the beginning of the 14th century the Karasids dominated the Anatolian part of the strait. During the first half of that century Demirhan Bey from Karasids attempted to dominate the region. The Ottomans gained control of Gallipoli in 1367.

In 1915, during the First World War, British Empire and France attempted to capture the Ottoman capital of İstanbul and secure a sea route to Russia. Known as The Gallipoli Campaign, or the Dardanelles Campaign, in Turkey it is referred to as the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), during March 1915 when the Royal Navy failed to force the Dardanelles and suffered severe losses. During a series of operations, HMS Triumph, HMS Ocean, HMS Goliath, HMS Irresistible and the French battleship Bouvet were all sunk. The French submarine Q84 Joule and the Australian submarine AE2 were also destroyed and several other important ships were crippled too. Most of the damage was inflicted by mines, though a German U-Boat and Turkish small craft contributed too.

As of 1920, the city was estimated to have a population of approximately 22,000. An active port city, it was a stopping point for vessels traveling through the strait, as it had been in the ancient past. It was described as lacking quality accommodations and resources for those passing through by the British who visited the region. Exported goods from the city included wine, hides, pottery, ceramic tiles and grain.[4]

Notable people from Çanakkale

Education

The service of education throughout the city is above the country average. There are 13 high schools and a college within the boundaries of the city. Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University has 12 faculties, 4 institutes, 9 4-year colleges, 14 vocational schools and serves more than 37,500 students. 30 percent of the city population are college graduates.

Transportation

Çanakkale has one airport, which is 3 km from the city, centre serving since 1995. Anadolu Jet, a trademark of Turkish Airlines, and Borajet has flights from Istanbul and Ankara seven days a week.

Sea transportation is vital for the city since it is located on both sides, on Asian and European continents just like Istanbul.

Çanakkale is linked to north, east, and south by well-paved highways numbered E87/E90/D.550, E90/D200, and E87/D550 respectively. There are buses from Istanbul and Izmir at any time, day or night. It takes five and a half to six hours to get from Istanbul to Çanakkale, and about the same time from Izmir.

Communication

North of Çanakkale at , there is a guyed mast used for the maritime LF-transmitter TBG, working on 53.4 kHz.

Climate

Çanakkale has a mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and cool and rainy winters. The land is arid, and snow falls ordinarily every winter.

Climate data for Çanakkale
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
21.2
(70.2)
24.2
(75.6)
26.1
(79)
32.1
(89.8)
36.8
(98.2)
39.0
(102.2)
38.6
(101.5)
35.4
(95.7)
31.7
(89.1)
25.2
(77.4)
22.5
(72.5)
39
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
9.8
(49.6)
12.3
(54.1)
16.9
(62.4)
22.4
(72.3)
27.7
(81.9)
30.6
(87.1)
30.3
(86.5)
26.0
(78.8)
20.5
(68.9)
15.4
(59.7)
11.3
(52.3)
19.4
(66.91)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
6.5
(43.7)
8.3
(46.9)
12.5
(54.5)
17.5
(63.5)
22.4
(72.3)
25.0
(77)
24.8
(76.6)
20.8
(69.4)
16.0
(60.8)
11.9
(53.4)
8.4
(47.1)
15.03
(59.03)
Average low °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
3.4
(38.1)
5.0
(41)
8.7
(47.7)
12.9
(55.2)
17.1
(62.8)
19.8
(67.6)
19.9
(67.8)
16.1
(61)
12.3
(54.1)
8.2
(46.8)
5.3
(41.5)
11
(51.79)
Record low °C (°F) −8.6
(16.5)
−11.2
(11.8)
−8.4
(16.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.4
(38.1)
8.4
(47.1)
11.6
(52.9)
11.6
(52.9)
8.2
(46.8)
0.4
(32.7)
−2.8
(27)
−7.2
(19)
−11.2
(11.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 85.3
(3.358)
66.2
(2.606)
65.8
(2.591)
47.3
(1.862)
32.1
(1.264)
23.1
(0.909)
14.6
(0.575)
6.9
(0.272)
21.9
(0.862)
58.0
(2.283)
89.1
(3.508)
102.4
(4.031)
612.7
(24.121)
Average rainy days 10.9 10.3 9.0 8.4 5.6 4.3 3.6 2.1 3.6 6.6 9.1 12.1 85.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 105.4 123.2 170.5 219.0 294.5 333.0 365.8 350.3 267.0 195.3 132.0 93.0 2,649
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [5]

Gallery

Twinships

See also

References

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ Statistical Institute
  4. ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office. 
  5. ^ İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü

External links

  • Çanakkale (in Turkish)
  • Çanakkale Özel website (in Turkish)
  • Pictures of the town and sub-galleries to major sights
  • An overview of memorials, cemeteries and relics of the Gallipoli campaign, in Turkish known as the Çanakkale wars.
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