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2S1 Gvozdika

2S1 (SAU-122)
2S1 "Gvozdika" during the Independence Day parade in Kiev, Ukraine
Type Self-propelled artillery
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1972–present
Used by see Operators
Wars see Combat history
Production history
Designer Kharkov Tractor Plant
Designed 1969
Produced 1971–1991
Number built more than 10,000
Variants see Variants
Weight 16 tonnes (35,273 lbs)
Length 7.26 m (23 ft 10 in)
Width 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in)
Height 2.73 m (8 ft 11 in)
Crew 4

Shell separate loading, cased charge
Caliber 122 mm
Breech Horizontal sliding wedge, semi-automatic
Elevation -3 to +70 degrees
Traverse 360 degrees
Rate of fire Maximum: 5 rpm
Sustained: 1-2 rpm
Muzzle velocity 680 m/s (2,200 ft/s)
Maximum firing range Conventional: 15.3 km (9.5 mi)
Extended: 21.9 km (13.6 mi)

Armor 20 mm (.78 in)
2A18 122 mm (4.8 in) howitzer
Engine YaMZ-238N diesel
220 kW (300 hp)
Suspension torsion bar
500 km (310 mi)
Speed Road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off-road: 30 km/h (18 mph)
Swim: 4.5 km/h (2.8 mph)

The 2S1 Gvozdika, (Russian: 2С1 «Гвоздика», 'Carnation'); is a Soviet 122-mm self-propelled howitzer that resembles the PT-76 but is essentially a lengthened version of the MT-LB APC, mounting the 2A18 howitzer. "2S1" is its GRAU designation. An alternative Russian designation is SAU-122 but in the Russian Army it is commonly known as Gvozdika. The 2S1 is fully amphibious with very little preparation, and once afloat is propelled by its tracks. A variety of wider tracks are also available to allow the 2S1 to operate in snow or swamp conditions. It is NBC protected and has infra-red night-vision capability.


  • Description 1
  • Production history 2
  • Variants 3
    • Former Soviet Union/Russia 3.1
    • Poland 3.2
    • Romania 3.3
    • Iran 3.4
    • Bulgaria 3.5
    • Sudan 3.6
  • Operators 4
    • Current operators 4.1
    • Former operators 4.2
  • Combat history 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


The 2S1 has seven road wheels on each side; the running gear can be fitted with different widths of track to match terrain. The interior is separated into a driver's compartment on the left, an engine compartment on the right and a fighting compartment to the rear. Within the fighting compartment the commander sits on the left, the loader on the right and the gunner to the front. The all-welded turret is located above the fighting compartment. The 2S1 utilizes a 122 mm howitzer based on the towed D-30 howitzer. The gun is equipped with a power rammer, a double-baffle muzzle brake and a fume extractor. It is capable of firing HE (high explosive), leaflet, HE/RAP, armor-piercing HE, flechette and chemical rounds.[1][2]

Production history

The first prototype was ready in 1969. The 2S1 entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s and was first seen in public at a Polish Army parade in 1974. The vehicle was deployed in large numbers (72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division). It was designated the M1974 by the U.S. Army and manufactured in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian state factories.


Former Soviet Union/Russia

  • MT-LBu – This larger variant of the MT-LB that has the longer chassis and stronger engine of the 2S1 could be considered a derivative of the 2S1.
  • UR-77 "Meteorit" (ustanovka razminirovaniya) – A mine clearing vehicle with a turret-like superstructure bearing two launch ramps. The ramps are used to fire rockets towing hose-type mine-clearing line charges. A single charge can clear an area of 90 m by 6 m. The UR-77 is the successor to the BTR-50 based UR-67.
  • RKhM "Kashalot" (razvedivatel’naya khimicheskaya mashina) – Chemical reconnaissance vehicle with detection, marking and alarm devices. This model has the hull shape and single rear door of the 2S1, but with the short chassis and machine gun turret of the MT-LB. Former Western designation: ATV M1979/4.
    • RKhM-K – Command version with additional signal equipment but without sensors or markers.
  • 2S34 "Chosta" – Modernisation of the 2S1 with the 122 mm 2A31 gun replaced by the 120 mm 2A80. Further improvements include a new fire control system, a battlefield observation system and the ability to fire the Kitolov-2M guided ammunition. One unit, the 21st Mechanized Brigade in Totskoye is currently being equipped with the system.
  • 2S15 "Norov" – A prototype tank destroyer equipped with a radar-based fire control system and a 100 mm gun.[6]


The 2S1 Gvozdika (as well as other related vehicles such as the MT-LB and Opal) were produced in Poland by Huta Stalowa Wola under the name 2S1 Goździk.

  • 2S1M Goździk – Version with special amphibious kit that increases the vehicle's amphibious capabilities.
  • 2S1T Goździk – Version with a TOPAZ digital fire control system from WB electronics. The system consists of a FONET-IP digital intercom system, new digital radio, military GPS receiver, military computer and dedicated software. The same system is used on other Polish Armed Forces artillery systems like the AHS Krab, Dana-T and WR-40 Langusta.
  • Rak carrier (Rak is polish for crayfish) – A new 120 mm mortar turret with an automatic feed system intended to be installed on existing 2S1 chassis as well as in the wheeled KTO Rosomak chassis.
  • LPG (LPG for Lekkie Podwozie Gąsienicowe – lit. Light Tracked Chassis) – A chassis of a surplus 2S1 Goździk converted into an Armored Personnel Carrier. The original gun turret was removed, the upper part of the vehicle was redesigned, and the old engine replaced with a modern MTU diesel engine. The vehicle is used as a command vehicle for the AHS Krab howitzer and Rak mortar units and as medical or technical support vehicles.
Romanian Model 89.


  • Model 89 – Romanian variant that uses a modified version of the hull of the MLI-84.


  • Raad-1 ('thunder') – Iranian variant that is based on the hull of the Boragh APC.


  • BMP-23 (Bojna mashina na pekhotata) – Infantry fighting vehicle with 2A14 23 mm gun and ATGM 9K11 "Malyutka" in a 2-man turret. The chassis is based on the one from the MT-LB but with components of the 2S1 and fitted with a 315 hp engine.
    • BMP-23D – Improved version with 9K111 "Fagot" and smoke grenade launchers.
    • BRM-23 – Reconnaissance version. Prototype.
  • BMP-30 – Similar chassis as the BMP-23 but with the complete turret of the Soviet-made BMP-2. Only 10 were built.


  • Abu Fatma – This appears to be a licence produced version.


Map of 2S1 operators in blue with former operators in red
Croatian Army 2S1 Gvozdika
Polish Land Forces 2S1 Gvozdika at artillery range.
An Iraqi M-1974 howitzer lies stranded in the desert after being deserted by Iraqi forces during Operation Desert Storm.

Current operators

Former operators

Combat history

See also


  1. ^ Marat Kenzhetaev (1998). "Self Propelled Artillery and Mortars". MIPT Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  2. ^ "2S1 M-1974 122-mm Self-Propelled Howitzer". 2008-11-09. 
  3. ^ Pashin, Alexander. "Russian Army Operations and Weaponry During Second Military Campaign in Chechnya". Moscow Defense Brief. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  4. ^ Beckhusen, Robert. "Spotted—Al Assad’s Brutal Mine-Clearing Tank in Syria". War is Boring. Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  5. ^ "صاروخ جديد يستهدف عصابات النصرة في حي جوبر". Retrieved 13 October 2014. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ Belarus Army Equipment
  8. ^
  9. ^ Eugene Yanko, Copyright 1997 – "2s1 Gvozdika Self-Propelled Howitzer | Russian Arms, Military Technology, Analysis of Russia's Military Forces". Retrieved 2011-08-18. 
  10. ^ Ground Forces Equipment – Ukraine
  • Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armored Fighting Vehicles. New York, NY: Amber Books. p. 124.  

External links

  • Huta Stalowa Wola – Polish manufacturer
  • Arsenal Co. - Bulgarian manufacturer of 2A31(2S1)
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