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30th Canadian Parliament

30th Parliament of Canada
Majority parliament
September 30, 1974 (1974-09-30) – March 26, 1979 (1979-03-26)
Parliament leaders
Rt. Hon. Pierre Trudeau
(20th Canadian Ministry)
April 20, 1968 (1968-04-20) – June 4, 1979 (1979-06-04)
Leader of the
Hon. Robert Stanfield
November 6, 1967 (1967-11-06) – November 21, 1976 (1976-11-21)
Hon. Joe Clark
November 20, 1976 (1976-11-20) – June 3, 1979 (1979-06-03)
Party caucuses
Government Liberal Party
Opposition Progressive Conservative Party
Third parties New Democratic Party
Social Credit Party
House of Commons

Seating arrangements of the House of Commons
Speaker of the
Hon. James Jerome
September 30, 1974 (1974-09-30) – February 17, 1980 (1980-02-17)
House Leader
Hon. Mitchell Sharp
August 8, 1974 (1974-08-08) – September 13, 1976 (1976-09-13)
Hon. Allan MacEachen
September 14, 1976 (1976-09-14) – March 26, 1979 (1979-03-26)
House Leader
Hon. Ged Baldwin
August 14, 1974 (1974-08-14) – February 24, 1976 (1976-02-24)
Hon. Walter Baker
February 25, 1976 (1976-02-25) – March 26, 1979 (1979-03-26)
Members 264 MP seats
List of members
Speaker of the
Hon. Renaude Lapointe
September 12, 1974 (1974-09-12) – October 4, 1979 (1979-10-04)
Senate Leader
Hon. Ray Perrault
August 8, 1974 (1974-08-08) – June 3, 1979 (1979-06-03)
Senate Leader
Hon. Jacques Flynn
October 31, 1967 (1967-10-31) – May 22, 1979 (1979-05-22)
Senators 102 (until 1975)
104 (from 1975) senator seats
List of senators
1st Session
September 30, 1974 (1974-09-30) – October 12, 1976 (1976-10-12)
2nd Session
October 12, 1976 (1976-10-12) – October 17, 1977 (1977-10-17)
3rd Session
October 18, 1977 (1977-10-18) – October 10, 1978 (1978-10-10)
4th Session
October 11, 1978 (1978-10-11) – March 26, 1979 (1979-03-26)
<29th 31st>

The 30th Canadian Parliament was in session from September 30, 1974 until March 26, 1979. The membership was set by the 1974 election on July 8, 1974, and was only changed somewhat due to resignations and by-elections before it was dissolved prior to the 1979 election.

It was controlled by a Liberal Party majority led by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and the 20th Canadian Ministry. The Official Opposition was the Progressive Conservative Party, led first by Robert Stanfield, and then by Joe Clark.

The sessions were prorogued (reason unknown currently).

The Speaker was James Alexander Jerome. See also the List of Canadian electoral districts 1966-1976 for a list of the ridings in this parliament.

There were four sessions of the 30th Parliament:

Session Start End
1st September 30, 1974 October 12, 1976
2nd October 12, 1976 October 17, 1977
3rd October 18, 1977 October 10, 1978
4th October 11, 1978 March 26, 1979


  • Party standings 1
  • Members of the House of Commons 2
    • Newfoundland 2.1
    • Prince Edward Island 2.2
    • Nova Scotia 2.3
    • New Brunswick 2.4
    • Quebec 2.5
    • Ontario 2.6
    • Manitoba 2.7
    • Saskatchewan 2.8
    • Alberta 2.9
    • British Columbia 2.10
    • Territories 2.11
  • By-elections 3
  • References 4
  • Succession 5

Party standings

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

The party standings as of the election and as of dissolution were as follows:

Affiliation House Members Senate Members
1974 Election
At Dissolution On Election
Day 1974[1]
At Dissolution
     Liberal Party of Canada 141 133 76 73
     Progressive Conservative 95 98 18 18
     New Democratic Party 16 17 0 0
     Social Credit Party of Canada 11 9 1 1
     Independent 1 5 2 2
     Independent Liberal 0 0 1 1
Total members 264 263 98 92
Vacant 0 2 4 9
Total seats 264 102 104

Members of the House of Commons

Members of the House of Commons in the 30th parliament arranged by province.


Riding Member Political Party
Bonavista—Trinity—Conception Dave Rooney Liberal
Burin—Burgeo Donald Jamieson Liberal
Gander—Twillingate George Baker Liberal
Grand Falls—White Bay—Labrador Bill Rompkey Liberal
Jack Marshall Progressive Conservative
Fonse Faour (by-election in 1978) NDP
St. John's East James McGrath Progressive Conservative
St. John's West Walter Carter Progressive Conservative
John Crosbie (by-election in 1976) Progressive Conservative

Prince Edward Island

Riding Member Political Party
Cardigan Daniel J. MacDonald Liberal
Egmont David MacDonald Progressive Conservative
Hillsborough Heath MacQuarrie Progressive Conservative
Malpeque John Angus MacLean then Donald Wood* Progressive Conservative then Liberal
* John Angus MacLean resigned to become leader of the Prince Edward Island Progressive Conservative Party and was replaced by Donald Wood in a 1977 by-election

Nova Scotia

Riding Member Political Party
Annapolis Valley Pat Nowlan Progressive Conservative
Cape Breton Highlands—Canso Allan MacEachen Liberal
Cape Breton—East Richmond Andrew Hogan New Democrat
Cape Breton—The Sydneys Robert Muir Progressive Conservative
Central Nova Elmer MacKay Progressive Conservative
Cumberland—Colchester North Robert Coates Progressive Conservative
Dartmouth—Halifax East Michael Forrestall Progressive Conservative
Halifax Robert Stanfield Progressive Conservative
Halifax—East Hants Robert McCleave then Howard Crosby* Both Progressive Conservative
South Shore Lloyd Crouse Progressive Conservative
South Western Nova Coline Campbell Liberal
* Robert McCleave resigned to become a judge and was replaced by Howard Crosby in a 1978 by-election

New Brunswick

Riding Member Political Party
Carleton—Charlotte Fred McCain Progressive Conservative
Fundy—Royal Robert Fairweather the Robert Corbett* Both Progressive Conservative
Gloucester Herb Breau Liberal
Madawaska—Victoria Eymard Corbin Liberal
Moncton Leonard C. Jones Independent
Northumberland—Miramichi Maurice Dionne Liberal
Restigouche Jean-Eudes Dubé then Maurice Harquail** Both Liberal
Saint John—Lancaster Mike Landers Liberal
Westmorland—Kent Roméo LeBlanc Liberal
York—Sunbury J. Robert Howie Progressive Conservative
* Robert Fairweather resigned to become Canada's first Human Rights Commissioner and was replaced by Robert Corbett in a 1978 by-election
** Jean-Eudes Dubé resigned and was replaced by Maurice Harquail in a 1975 by-election


Riding Member Political Party
Abitibi Gérard Laprise Social Credit
Ahuntsic Jeanne Sauvé Liberal
Argenteuil—Deux Montagnes Francis Fox Liberal
Beauce Yves Caron Liberal
Beauharnois—Salaberry Gérald Laniel Liberal
Bellechasse Adrien Lambert Social Credit
Berthier Antonio Yanakis Liberal
Brome—Missisquoi Heward Grafftey Progressive Conservative
Bonaventure—Îles-de-la-Madeleine Albert Béchard Liberal
Montreal—Bourassa Jacques Trudel Liberal
Chambly Bernard Loiselle Liberal
Champlain René Matte Social Credit
Charlevoix Charles Lapointe Liberal
Chicoutimi Paul Langlois Liberal
Compton Claude Tessier Liberal
Dollard Jean-Pierre Goyer Liberal
Drummond Yvon Pinard Liberal
Duvernay Yves Demers Liberal
Frontenac Léopold Corriveau Liberal
Gamelin Arthur Portelance Liberal
Gaspé Alexander Cyr Liberal
Gatineau Gaston Clermont Liberal
Hochelaga Gérard Pelletier then Jacques Lavoie* Liberal then Progressive Conservative then Liberal
Hull Joseph Isabelle Liberal
Joliette Roch La Salle Progressive Conservative
Kamouraska Charles-Eugène Dionne Social Credit
Labelle Maurice Dupras Liberal
Lac-Saint-Jean Marcel Lessard Liberal
Lachine—Lakeshore Roderick Blaker Liberal
Lafontaine Claude-André Lachance Liberal
Langelier Jean Marchand then J. Gilles Lamontagne** Both Liberal
Lapointe Gilles Marceau Liberal
La Prairie Ian Watson Liberal
Lasalle—Émard—Côte Saint-Paul John Campbell Liberal
Laurier Fernand Leblanc Liberal
Laval Marcel-Claude Roy Liberal
Lévis Raynald Guay Liberal
Longueuil Joseph Mario Jacques Olivier Liberal
Lotbiniere André-Gilles Fortin then Richard Janelle*** Both Ralliement Créditiste
Louis-Hébert Albanie Morin then Dennis Dawson Both Liberal
Maissonneuve—Rosemont Serge Joyal Liberal
Manicouagan Gustave Blouin Liberal
Matane Pierre de Bané Liberal
Mercier Prosper Boulanger Liberal
Charlesbourg Louis Duclos Liberal
Mount Royal Pierre Trudeau Liberal
Notre-Dame-de-Grâce Warren Allmand Liberal
Outremont Marc Lalonde Liberal
Papineau André Ouellet Liberal
Pontiac Thomas Lefebvre Liberal
Portneuf Pierre Bussières Liberal
Québec-Est Gérard Duquet Liberal
Richelieu Florian Côté Liberal
Richmond Léonel Beaudoin Social Credit
Témiscouata Rosaire Gendron Liberal
Rimouski Eudore Allard Social Credit
Roberval Charles-Arthur Gauthier Social Credit
Saint-Denis Marcel Prud'homme Liberal
Saint-Henri Gérard Loiselle Liberal
Saint-Hyacinthe Claude Wagner then Marcel Ostiguy†† Progressive Conservative then Liberal
Saint-Jacques Jacques Guilbault Liberal
Saint-Jean Walter Smith Liberal
Saint-Maurice Jean Chrétien Liberal
Saint-Michel Monique Bégin Liberal
Sainte-Marie Raymond Dupont Liberal
Shefford Gilbert Rondeau Social Credit
Sherbrooke Irénée Pelletier Liberal
Témiscamingue Réal Caouette then Gilles Caouette††† Both Ralliement Créditiste
Terrebonne Joseph-Roland Comtois Liberal
Trois-Rivières Métropolitain Claude G. Lajoie Liberal
Vaudreuil Harold Herbert Liberal
Verdun Bryce Mackasey then Pierre Savard Both Liberal
Villeneuve Armand Caouette Social Credit
Westmount Bud Drury then Donald Johnston‡‡ Both Liberal
* Gérard Pelletier left parliament to become ambassador to France he was replaced by Jacques Lavoie on October 14, 1975 after a by-election. On June 14, 1977 Lavoie quite the PC party and crossed the floor to join the Liberals.
** Jean Marchand left parliament and was replaced by J. Gilles Lamontagne in a May 25, 1977 by-election
*** André-Gilles Fortin was killed in a car accident and was replaced by Richard Janelle in an October 16, 1978 by-election.
Albanie Morin died in office and was replaced by Dennis Dawson in a May 25, 1977 by-election.
†† Claude Wagner left parliament to accept a seat in the Senate and was replaced by Marcel Ostiguy in an October 16, 1978 by-election
††† Réal Caouette died in office and was replaced by his son Gilles Caouette in a May 24, 1977 by-election
Bryce Mackasey resigned from parliament and was replaced by Pierre Savard in a May 24, 1977 by-election
‡‡ Bud Drury resigned and was replaced by Donald Johnston in an October 16, 1977 by-election.


Riding Member Political Party
Algoma Maurice Foster Liberal
Brant Derek Blackburn New Democrat
Broadview John Gilbert then Bob Rae* Both New Democrat
Bruce Crawford Douglas Liberal
Cochrane Ralph Stewart Liberal
Davenport Charles Caccia Liberal
Don Valley James Gillies Progressive Conservative
Eglinton Mitchell Sharp then Rob Parker** Liberal the Progressive Conservative
Elgin John Wise Progressive Conservative
Essex—Windsor Eugene Whelan Liberal
Etobicoke Alastair Gillespie Liberal
Fort William Paul McRae Liberal
Frontenac—Lennox and Addington Douglas Alkenbrack Progressive Conservative
Glengarry—Prescott—Russell Denis Éthier Liberal
Greenwood Andrew Brewin New Democrat
Grenville—Carleton Walter Baker Progressive Conservative
Grey—Simcoe Gus Mitges Progressive Conservative
Halton Frank Philbrook Liberal
Hamilton East John Munro Liberal
Hamilton Mountain Gus MacFarlane Liberal
Hamilton—Wentworth Sean O'Sullivan then Geoffrey Scott*** Both Progressive Conservative
Hamilton West Lincoln Alexander Progressive Conservative
Hastings Jack Ellis Progressive Conservative
High Park—Humber Valley Otto Jelinek Progressive Conservative
Huron—Middlesex Robert McKinley Progressive Conservative
Kenora—Rainy River John Mercer Reid Liberal
Kent—Essex Robert Daudlin Liberal
Kingston and the Islands Flora MacDonald Progressive Conservative
Kitchener Patrick Flynn Liberal
Lakeshore Ken Robinson Liberal
Lambton—Kent John Holmes Progressive Conservative
Lanark—Renfrew—Carleton Paul Dick Progressive Conservative
Leeds Thomas Cossitt Progressive Conservative
Lincoln William Andres Liberal
London East Charles Turner Liberal
London West Judd Buchanan Liberal
Middlesex—London—Lambton Larry Condon Liberal
Mississauga Anthony Abbott Liberal
Niagara Falls Roger Carl Young Liberal
Nickel Belt John Rodriguez New Democrat
Nipissing Jean-Jacques Blais Liberal
Norfolk—Haldimand William David Knowles Progressive Conservative
Northumberland—Durham Allan Lawrence Progressive Conservative
Ontario Norman Cafik Liberal
Oshawa—Whitby Ed Broadbent New Democrat
Ottawa—Carleton John Napier Turner then Jean Pigott Liberal then Progressive Conservative
Ottawa Centre Hugh Poulin then Robert de Cotret†† Liberal then Progressive Conservative
Ottawa East Jean-Robert Gauthier Liberal
Ottawa West Cyril Lloyd Francis Liberal
Oxford Bruce Halliday Progressive Conservative
Parkdale Stanley Haidasz then Yuri Shymko††† Liberal then Progressive Conservative
Parry Sound—Muskoka Stan Darling Progressive Conservative
Peel—Dufferin—Simcoe William Ross Milne Liberal
Perth—Wilmot William Jarvis Progressive Conservative
Peterborough James Faulkner Liberal
Port Arthur Robert Andras Liberal
Prince Edward—Hastings George Hees Progressive Conservative
Renfrew North—Nipissing East Len Hopkins Liberal
Rosedale Donald Stovel Macdonald then David Crombie Liberal then Progressive Conservative
Sarnia—Lambton Bud Cullen Liberal
Sault Ste. Marie Cyril Symes New Democrat
Scarborough East Martin O'Connell Liberal
Scarborough West Alan Gray Martin Liberal
Simcoe North Philip Rynard Progressive Conservative
Spadina Peter Stollery Liberal
St. Catharines Gilbert Parent Liberal
St. Paul's John Roberts Liberal
Stormont—Dundas Ed Lumley Liberal
Sudbury James Jerome Liberal
Thunder Bay B. Keith Penner Liberal
Timiskaming Arnold Peters New Democrat
Timmins Jean Roy Liberal
Trinity Aideen Nicholson Liberal
Victoria—Haliburton William Scott Progressive Conservative
Waterloo—Cambridge Max Saltsman New Democrat
Welland Victor Railton Liberal
Wellington Frank Maine Liberal
Wellington—Grey—Dufferin—Waterloo Perrin Beatty Progressive Conservative
Windsor West Herb Gray Liberal
Windsor—Walkerville Mark MacGuigan Liberal
York Centre Bob Kaplan Liberal
York East David Collenette Liberal
York North Barney Danson Liberal
York—Scarborough Robert Stanbury then Paul McCrossan‡‡ Liberal then Progressive Conservative
York—Simcoe Sinclair Stevens Progressive Conservative
York South Ursula Appolloni Liberal
York West James Fleming Liberal
* John Gilbert resigned from parliament in April 1978 to become a judge and was replaced by Bob Rae in an October 16, 1978 by-election.
** Mitchell Sharp retired from politics and was replaced by Rob Parker in an October 16, 1978 by-election.
*** Sean O'Sullivan left parliament to become a priest and was replaced by Geoffrey Scott in an October 16, 1978 by-election.
John Napier Turner quit parliament in protest of the government's decision to implement wage and price controls he was replaced by Jean Pigott in an October 18, 1976 by-election.
†† Hugh Poulin left parliament in April 1978 to become a judge and was replaced by Robert de Cotret in an October 16, 1978 by-election.
††† Stanley Haidasz left parliament to be appointed to the Senate he was replaced by Yuri Shymko in an October 16, 1978 by-election.
Donald Stovel Macdonald left parliament and was replaced by David Crombie in an October 16, 1978 by-election.
‡‡ Robert Stanbury left parliament and was replaced by William McCrossan in an October 16, 1978 by-election.


Riding Member Political Party
Brandon—Souris Walter Dinsdale Progressive Conservative
Churchill Cecil Smith Progressive Conservative
Dauphin William Gordon Ritchie Progressive Conservative
Lisgar Jack Murta Progressive Conservative
Marquette Craig Stewart Progressive Conservative
Portage Peter Masniuk Progressive Conservative
Provencher Jake Epp Progressive Conservative
Selkirk Dean Whiteway Progressive Conservative
St. Boniface Joseph-Phillippe Guay then Jack Hare* Liberal then Progressive Conservative
Winnipeg North David Orlikow New Democrat
Winnipeg North Centre Stanley Knowles New Democrat
Winnipeg South James Richardson Liberal
Winnipeg South Centre Dan McKenzie Progressive Conservative
* Joseph-Phillippe Guay left parliament and was replaced by Jack Hare in an October 16, 1978 by-election.


Riding Member Political Party
Assiniboia Ralph Goodale Liberal
Battleford—Kindersley Joseph McIsaac Liberal
Mackenzie Stanley Korchinski Progressive Conservative
Meadow Lake Bert Cadieu Progressive Conservative
Moose Jaw Douglas Neil Progressive Conservative
Prince Albert John Diefenbaker Progressive Conservative
Qu'Appelle—Moose Mountain Alvin Hamilton Progressive Conservative
Regina East James Balfour Progressive Conservative
Regina—Lake Centre Leslie Benjamin New Democrat
Saskatoon—Biggar Ray Hnatyshyn Progressive Conservative
Saskatoon—Humboldt Otto Lang Liberal
Swift Current—Maple Creek Frank Hamilton Progressive Conservative
Yorkton—Melville Lorne Nystrom New Democrat


Riding Member Political Party
Athabasca Paul Yewchuk Progressive Conservative
Battle River Arnold Malone Progressive Conservative
Calgary Centre Harvie Andre Progressive Conservative
Calgary North Eldon Woolliams Progressive Conservative
Calgary South Peter Bawden Progressive Conservative
Crowfoot Jack Horner Progressive Conservative
Edmonton Centre Steve Paproski Progressive Conservative
Edmonton East William Skoreyko Progressive Conservative
Edmonton West Marcel Lambert Progressive Conservative
Edmonton—Strathcona Douglas Roche Progressive Conservative
Lethbridge Kenneth Earl Hurlburt Progressive Conservative
Medicine Hat Bert Hargrave Progressive Conservative
Palliser Stanley Schumacher Progressive Conservative
Peace River Ged Baldwin Progressive Conservative
Pembina Peter Elzinga Progressive Conservative
Red Deer Gordon Towers Progressive Conservative
Rocky Mountain Joe Clark Progressive Conservative
Vegreville Don Mazankowski Progressive Conservative
Wetaskiwin Kenneth Schellenberger Progressive Conservative

British Columbia

Member Political Party
Burnaby—Richmond—Delta John Reynolds Progressive Conservative
Tom Siddon (by-election on October 16, 1978) Progressive Conservative
Burnaby—Seymour Marke Raines Liberal
Capilano Ron Huntington Progressive Conservative
Coast Chilcotin Jack Pearsall Liberal
Comox—Alberni Hugh Anderson Liberal
Esquimalt—Saanich Donald Munro Progressive Conservative
Fraser Valley East Alexander Patterson Progressive Conservative
Fraser Valley West Robert Wenman Progressive Conservative
Kamloops—Cariboo Leonard Marchand Liberal
Kootenay West Robert Brisco Progressive Conservative
Nanaimo—Cowichan—The Islands Tommy Douglas New Democrat
New Westminster Stuart Leggatt New Democrat
Okanagan Boundary George Whittaker Progressive Conservative
Okanagan—Kootenay Howard Johnston Progressive Conservative
Prince George—Peace River Frank Oberle Progressive Conservative
Skeena Iona Campagnolo Liberal
Vancouver Centre Ron Basford Liberal
Vancouver East Art Lee Liberal
Vancouver Kingsway Simma Holt Liberal
Vancouver Quadra Bill Clarke Progressive Conservative
Vancouver South John Fraser Progressive Conservative
Victoria Allan McKinnon Progressive Conservative


Riding Member Political Party
Northwest Territories Wally Firth New Democrat
Yukon Erik Nielsen Progressive Conservative


By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause Retained
Burnaby—Richmond—Delta October 16, 1978 John Reynolds      Progressive Conservative Tom Siddon      Progressive Conservative Resignation Yes
St. Boniface October 16, 1978 Joseph-P. Guay      Liberal Jack Hare      Progressive Conservative Resignation No
Fundy—Royal October 16, 1978 Gordon Fairweather      Progressive Conservative Robert Corbett      Progressive Conservative Resignation Yes
Jack Marshall      Progressive Conservative Fonse Faour      New Democratic Party Resignation No
Halifax—East Hants October 16, 1978 Bob McCleave      Progressive Conservative Howard Edward Crosby      Progressive Conservative Resignation Yes
Broadview October 16, 1978 John Gilbert      New Democratic Party Bob Rae      New Democratic Party Resignation Yes
Eglinton October 16, 1978 Mitchell Sharp      Liberal Rob Parker      Progressive Conservative Resignation No
Hamilton—Wentworth October 16, 1978 Sean O'Sullivan      Progressive Conservative Geoff Scott      Progressive Conservative Resignation Yes
Ottawa Centre October 16, 1978 Hugh Poulin      Liberal Robert de Cotret      Progressive Conservative Resignation No
Parkdale October 16, 1978 Stan Haidasz      Liberal Yuri Shymko      Progressive Conservative Resignation No
Rosedale October 16, 1978 Donald S. Macdonald      Liberal David Crombie      Progressive Conservative Resignation No
York—Scarborough October 16, 1978 Robert Stanbury      Liberal W. Paul McCrossan      Progressive Conservative Resignation No
Lotbinière October 16, 1978 André Fortin      Social Credit Richard Janelle      Social Credit Death Yes
Saint-Hyacinthe October 16, 1978 Claude Wagner      Progressive Conservative Marcel Ostiguy      Liberal Resignation No
Westmount October 16, 1978 Bud Drury      Liberal Don Johnston      Liberal Resignation Yes
Malpeque May 24, 1977 J. Angus MacLean      Progressive Conservative Donald Wood      Liberal Resignation No
Langelier May 24, 1977 Jean Marchand      Liberal Gilles Lamontagne      Liberal Resignation Yes
Louis-Hébert May 24, 1977 Albanie Morin      Liberal Dennis Dawson      Liberal Death Yes
Témiscamingue May 24, 1977 Réal Caouette      Social Credit Gilles Caouette      Social Credit Death Yes
Terrebonne May 24, 1977 Joseph-Roland Comtois      Liberal Joseph-Roland Comtois      Liberal Resignation Yes
Verdun May 24, 1977 Bryce Mackasey      Liberal Raymond Savard      Liberal Resignation Yes
St. John's West October 18, 1976 Walter Carter      Progressive Conservative John C. Crosbie      Progressive Conservative Resignation Yes
Ottawa—Carleton October 18, 1976 John Turner      Liberal Jean Pigott      Progressive Conservative Resignation No
Restigouche October 14, 1975 Jean-Eudes Dubé      Liberal Maurice Harquail      Liberal Resignation Yes
Hochelaga October 14, 1975 Gérard Pelletier      Liberal Jacques Lavoie      Progressive Conservative Resignation No


  1. ^ Members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and remain as Senators until the age of 75, even if the House of Commons has been dissolved or an election has been called.
  • Government of Canada. "20th Ministry". Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation. Privy Council Office. Retrieved 2006-11-09. 
  • Government of Canada. "30th Parliament". Members of the House of Commons: 1867 to Date: By Parliament. Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-11-30. 
  • Government of Canada. "Duration of Sessions". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "General Elections". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Key Dates for each Parliament". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Leaders of the Opposition in the House of Commons". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Party Standings (1974 to date): At the Senate". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  • Government of Canada. "Prime Ministers of Canada". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Speakers". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 


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