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35th Canadian Parliament

35th Parliament of Canada
Majority parliament
January 17, 1994 (1994-01-17) – April 27, 1997 (1997-04-27)
Parliament leaders
Rt. Hon. Jean Chrétien
(26th Canadian Ministry)
November 4, 1993 (1993-11-04) – December 12, 2003 (2003-12-12)
Leader of the
Hon. Lucien Bouchard
October 25, 1993 (1993-10-25) – January 14, 1996 (1996-01-14)
Hon. Gilles Duceppe (interim)
January 15, 1996 (1996-01-15) – February 16, 1996 (1996-02-16)
Hon. Michel Gauthier
February 17, 1996 (1996-02-17) – March 14, 1997 (1997-03-14)
Hon. Gilles Duceppe (2nd time)
March 15, 1997 (1997-03-15) – June 23, 1997 (1997-06-23)
Party caucuses
Government Liberal Party
Opposition Bloc Québécois
Third parties Reform Party
New Democratic Party*
Progressive Conservative Party*
* Party did not hold official party status.
House of Commons

Seating arrangements of the House of Commons
Speaker of the
Hon. Gilbert Parent
January 17, 1994 (1994-01-17) – January 28, 2001 (2001-01-28)
House Leader
Hon. Herb Gray
November 4, 1993 (1993-11-04) – April 27, 1997 (1997-04-27)
House Leader
Hon. Michel Gauthier
November 10, 1993 (1993-11-10) – February 17, 1996 (1996-02-17)
Hon. Gilles Duceppe
February 18, 1996 (1996-02-18) – March 16, 1997 (1997-03-16)
Hon. Suzanne Tremblay
March 17, 1997 (1997-03-17) – April 25, 1996 (1996-04-25)
Members 295 MP seats
List of members
Speaker of the
Hon. Roméo Leblanc
December 7, 1993 (1993-12-07) – November 21, 1994 (1994-11-21)
Hon. Gildas Molgat
November 22, 1994 (1994-11-22) – January 25, 2001 (2001-01-25)
Senate Leader
Hon. Joyce Fairbairn
November 4, 1993 (1993-11-04) – June 10, 1997 (1997-06-10)
Senate Leader
Hon. John Lynch-Staunton
December 15, 1993 (1993-12-15) – September 30, 2004 (2004-09-30)
Senators 104 senator seats
List of senators
1st Session
January 14, 1994 (1994-01-14) – February 2, 1996 (1996-02-02)
2nd Session
February 27, 1996 (1996-02-27) – April 27, 1997 (1997-04-27)
<34th 36th>
Jean Chrétien was Prime Minister during the 35th Canadian Parliament.

The 35th Canadian Parliament was in session from January 17, 1994 until April 27, 1997. The membership was set by the 1993 federal election on October 25, 1993, and it changed only somewhat due to resignations and by-elections until it was dissolved prior to the 1997 election.

It was controlled by a Liberal Party majority under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and the 26th Canadian Ministry. The Official Opposition was the Bloc Québécois, led first by Lucien Bouchard, then by Michel Gauthier, and finally by Gilles Duceppe.

The Speaker was Gilbert Parent. See also list of Canadian electoral districts 1987-1997 for a list of the ridings in this parliament.

There were two sessions of the 35th Parliament:

Session Start End
1st January 17, 1994 February 2, 1996
2nd February 27, 1996 April 27, 1997


  • Party standings 1
  • Members of the House of Commons 2
    • Newfoundland 2.1
    • Prince Edward Island 2.2
    • Nova Scotia 2.3
    • New Brunswick 2.4
    • Quebec 2.5
    • Ontario 2.6
    • Manitoba 2.7
    • Saskatchewan 2.8
    • Alberta 2.9
    • British Columbia 2.10
    • Territories 2.11
  • By-elections 3
  • References 4
  • Succession 5

Party standings

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

The party standings as of the election and as of dissolution were as follows:

Affiliation House Members Senate Members[1]
1993 Election
At Dissolution On Election
Day 1993[2]
At Dissolution
     Liberal Party of Canada 177 174 41 51
  Bloc Québécois 54 50 0 0
Reform 52 50 0 0
     New Democratic Party 9 9 0 0
     Progressive Conservative Party of Canada 2 2 58 50
     Independent 1 6 5 3
Total members 295 291 104 104
Vacant 0 4 0 0
Total seats 295 104

Members of the House of Commons

Members of the House of Commons in the 35th parliament arranged by province.


Riding Member Political Party
     Bonavista—Trinity—Conception Fred Mifflin Liberal
     Roger Simmons Liberal
     Gander—Grand-Falls George S. Baker Liberal
     Humber—St. Barbe—Baie Verte Brian Tobin Liberal
     Gerry Byrne* Liberal
     Labrador Bill Rompkey Liberal
     Lawrence O'Brien** Liberal
     St. John's East Bonnie Hickey Liberal
     St. John's West Jean Payne Liberal
* Brian Tobin left parliament in 1996 to become premier of Newfoundland; Gerry Byrne was elected in a by-election to replace him.
** Bill Rompkey was appointed to the Senate in September 1995; Lawrence O'Brien was elected to replace him in a 1996 by-election.

Prince Edward Island

Riding Member Political Party
     Cardigan Lawrence MacAulay Liberal
     Egmont Joe McGuire Liberal
     Hillsborough George Proud Liberal
     Malpeque Wayne Easter Liberal

Nova Scotia

Riding Member Political Party
     Annapolis Valley—Hants John Murphy Liberal
     Cape Breton Highlands—Canso Francis LeBlanc Liberal
     Cape Breton—East Richmond David Dingwall Liberal
     Cape Breton—The Sydneys Russell MacLellan Liberal
     Central Nova Roseanne Skoke Liberal
     Cumberland—Colchester Dianne Brushett Liberal
     Dartmouth Ron MacDonald Liberal
     Halifax Mary Clancy Liberal
     Halifax West Geoff Regan Liberal
     South Shore Derek Wells Liberal
     South West Nova Harry Verran Liberal

New Brunswick

Riding Member Political Party
     Acadie—Bathurst Doug Young Liberal
     Beauséjour Fernand Robichaud Liberal
     Carleton—Charlotte Harold Culbert Liberal
     Fredericton—York—Sunbury Andy Scott Liberal
     Fundy—Royal Paul Zed Liberal
     Madawaska—Victoria Pierrette Ringuette-Maltais Liberal
     Miramichi Charles Hubbard Liberal
     Moncton George Rideout Liberal
     Restigouche—Chaleur Guy Arseneault Liberal
     Saint John Elsie Wayne Progressive Conservative


Riding Member Political Party
  Abitibi Bernard Deshaies Bloc Québécois
  Ahuntsic Michel Daviault Bloc Québécois
  Anjou—Rivière-des-Prairies Roger Pomerleau Bloc Québécois
  Argenteuil—Papineau Maurice Dumas Bloc Québécois
     Beauce Gilles Bernier Independent
  Beauharnois—Salaberry Laurent Lavigne Bloc Québécois
  Beauport—Montmorency—Orléans Michel Guimond Bloc Québécois
  Bellechasse François Langlois Bloc Québécois
  Berthier—Montcalm Michel Bellehumeur Bloc Québécois
  Blainville—Deux-Montagnes Paul Mercier Bloc Québécois
     Bonaventure—Îles-de-la-Madeleine Patrick Gagnon Liberal
  Bourassa Osvaldo Nunez Bloc Québécois
  Brome—Missisquoi Gaston Péloquin Bloc Québécois
     Denis Paradis* Liberal
  Chambly Ghislain Lebel Bloc Québécois
  Champlain Réjean Lefebvre Bloc Québécois
  Charlesbourg Jean-Marc Jacob Bloc Québécois
  Charlevoix Gérard Asselin Bloc Québécois
  Chateauguay Maurice Godin Bloc Québécois
  Chicoutimi Gilbert Fillion Bloc Québécois
  Drummond Pauline Picard Bloc Québécois
  Frontenac Jean-Guy Chrétien Bloc Québécois
  Gaspé Yvan Bernier Bloc Québécois
     Gatineau—La Lièvre Mark Assad Liberal
  Hochelaga—Maisonneuve Réal Ménard Bloc Québécois
     Hull—Aylmer Marcel Massé Liberal
  Joliette René Laurin Bloc Québécois
  Jonquière André Caron Bloc Québécois
  Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup Paul Crête Bloc Québécois
  La Prairie Richard Bélisle Bloc Québécois
  Lac-Saint-Jean Lucien Bouchard Bloc Québécois
  Stéphan Tremblay** Bloc Québécois
     Lachine—Lac-Saint-Louis Clifford Lincoln Liberal
     LaSalle—Émard Paul Martin Liberal
  Laurentides Monique Guay Bloc Québécois
  Laurier—Sainte-Marie Gilles Duceppe Bloc Québécois
  Laval Centre Madeleine Dalphond-Guiral Bloc Québécois
  Laval East Maud Debien Bloc Québécois
     Laval West Michel Dupuy Liberal
  Lévis Antoine Dubé Bloc Québécois
  Longueuil Nic Leblanc Bloc Québécois
  Lotbinière Jean Landry Bloc Québécois
  Louis-Hébert Philippe Paré Bloc Québécois
  Manicouagan Bernard St-Laurent Bloc Québécois
  Matapédia—Matane René Canuel Bloc Québécois
  Mégantic—Compton—Stanstead Maurice Bernier Bloc Québécois
  Mercier Francine Lalonde Bloc Québécois
     Mount Royal Sheila Finestone Liberal
     Notre-Dame-de-Grâce Warren Allmand Liberal
     Outremont Martin Cauchon Liberal
     Papineau—Saint-Michel André Ouellet Liberal
     Pierre Pettigrew*** Liberal
     Pierrefonds—Dollard Bernard Patry Liberal
     Pontiac—Gatineau—Labelle Robert Bertrand Liberal
  Portneuf Pierre de Savoye Bloc Québécois
  Quebec Christiane Gagnon Bloc Québécois
  Quebec East Jean-Paul Marchand Bloc Québécois
  Richelieu Louis Plamondon Bloc Québécois
  Richmond—Wolfe Gaston Leroux Bloc Québécois
  Rimouski—Témiscouata Suzanne Tremblay Bloc Québécois
  Roberval Michel Gauthier Bloc Québécois
  Rosemont Benoît Tremblay Bloc Québécois
     Saint-Denis Eleni Bakopanos Liberal
     Saint-Henri—Westmount David Berger Liberal
     Lucienne Robillard**** Liberal
  Saint-Hubert Pierrette Venne Bloc Québécois
  Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot Yvan Loubier Bloc Québécois
  Saint-Jean Claude Bachand Bloc Québécois
     Saint-Laurent—Cartierville Shirley Maheu Liberal
     Stéphane Dion***** Liberal
     Saint-Léonard Alfonso Gagliano Liberal
     Saint-Maurice Jean Chrétien Liberal
  Shefford Jean Leroux Bloc Québécois
     Sherbrooke Jean Charest Progressive Conservative
  Témiscamingue Pierre Brien Bloc Québécois
  Terrebonne Benoit Sauvageau Bloc Québécois
  Trois-Rivières Yves Rocheleau Bloc Québécois
     Vaudreuil Nick Discepola Liberal
  Vercheres Stéphane Bergeron Bloc Québécois
     Verdun—Saint-Paul Raymond Lavigne Liberal
* Gaston Péloquin died in a car accident in 1994, and was replaced by Denis Paradis in a by-election on February 13, 1995.
** Lucien Bouchard left parliament in 1995 to become premier of Quebec; Stéphan Tremblay is elected in a by-election to replace him.
*** André Ouellet was appointed head of Canada Post, and was replaced by Pierre Pettigrew in a March 25, 1996 by-election
**** David Berger was appointed Canadian Ambassador to Israel and high commissioner to Cyprus in 1994, and was replaced by Lucienne Robillard in a February 13, 1995 by-election.
***** Shirley Maheu was appointed to the Senate, and was replaced by Stéphane Dion also in a March 26, 1996 by-election.


Riding Member Political Party
     Algoma—Manitoulin Brent St. Denis Liberal
     Beaches—Woodbine Maria Minna Liberal
     Bramalea—Gore—Malton Gurbax Malhi Liberal
     Brampton Colleen Beaumier Liberal
     Brant Jane Stewart Liberal
     Broadview—Greenwood Dennis Mills Liberal
     Independent Liberal
     Bruce—Grey Ovid Jackson Liberal
     Burlington Paddy Torsney Liberal
     Cambridge Janko Peric Liberal
     Carleton—Gloucester Eugène Bellemare Liberal
     Cochrane—Superior Réginald Bélair Liberal
     Davenport Charles Caccia Liberal
     Don Valley East David Collenette Liberal
     Don Valley North Sarkis Assadourian Liberal
     Don Valley West John Godfrey Liberal
     Durham Alex Shepherd Liberal
     Eglinton—Lawrence Joe Volpe Liberal
     Elgin—Norfolk Gar Knutson Liberal
     Erie John Maloney Liberal
     Essex-Kent Jerry Pickard Liberal
     Essex-Windsor Susan Whelan Liberal
     Etobicoke Centre Allan Rock Liberal
     Etobicoke North Roy MacLaren Liberal
     Roy Cullen** Liberal
     Etobicoke—Lakeshore Jean Augustine Liberal
     Glengarry—Prescott—Russell Don Boudria Liberal
     Guelph—Wellington Brenda Chamberlain Liberal
     Haldimand—Norfolk Bob Speller Liberal
     Halton—Peel Julian Reed Liberal
     Hamilton East Sheila Copps Liberal
     Hamilton Mountain Beth Phinney Liberal
     Hamilton—Wentworth John Bryden Liberal
     Hamilton West Stan Keyes Liberal
     Hastings—Frontenac—Lennox and Addington Larry McCormick Liberal
     Huron—Bruce Paul Steckle Liberal
     Kenora—Rainy River Robert Daniel Nault Liberal
     Kent Rex Crawford Liberal
     Kingston and the Islands Peter Milliken Liberal
     Kitchener John English Liberal
     Lambton—Kent—Middlesex Rose-Marie Ur Liberal
     Lanark—Carleton Ian Murray Liberal
     Leeds—Grenville Jim Jordan Liberal
     Lincoln Tony Valeri Liberal
     London East Joe Fontana Liberal
     London—Middlesex Pat O'Brien Liberal
     London West Sue Barnes Liberal
     Markham—Whitchurch—Stouffville Jag Bhaduria Liberal
     Independent Liberal***
     Mississauga East Albina Guarnieri Liberal
     Mississauga South Paul Szabo Liberal
     Mississauga West Carolyn Parrish Liberal
     Nepean Beryl Gaffney Liberal
     Niagara Falls Gary Pillitteri Liberal
     Nickel Belt Ray Bonin Liberal
     Nipissing Bob Wood Liberal
     Northumberland Christine Stewart Liberal
     Oakville—Milton Bonnie Brown Liberal
     Ontario Dan McTeague Liberal
     Oshawa Ivan Grose Liberal
     Ottawa Centre Mac Harb Liberal
     Ottawa South John Manley Liberal
     Ottawa West Marlene Catterall Liberal
     Ottawa—Vanier Jean-Robert Gauthier Liberal
     Mauril Belanger**** Liberal
     Oxford John Baird Finlay Liberal
     Parkdale—High Park Jesse Flis Liberal
     Parry Sound—Muskoka Andy Mitchell Liberal
     Perth—Wellington—Waterloo John Richardson Liberal
     Peterborough Peter Adams Liberal
     Prince Edward—Hastings Lyle Vanclief Liberal
     Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke Len Hopkins Liberal
     Rosedale Bill Graham Liberal
     Sarnia—Lambton Roger Gallaway Liberal
     Sault Ste. Marie Ron Irwin Liberal
     Scarborough Centre John Cannis Liberal
     Scarborough East Doug Peters Liberal
     Scarborough West Tom Wappel Liberal
     Scarborough—Agincourt Jim Karygiannis Liberal
     Scarborough—Rouge River Derek Lee Liberal
  Simcoe Centre Ed Harper Reform
     Simcoe North Paul DeVillers Liberal
     St. Catharines Walt Lastewka Liberal
     St. Paul's Barry Campbell Liberal
     Stormont—Dundas Bob Kilger Liberal
     Sudbury Diane Marleau Liberal
     Thunder Bay—Atikokan Stan Dromisky Liberal
     Thunder Bay—Nipigon Joe Comuzzi Liberal
     Timiskaming—French River Benoit Serré Liberal
     Timmins—Chapleau Peter Thalheimer Liberal
     Trinity—Spadina Tony Ianno Liberal
     Victoria—Haliburton John O'Reilly Liberal
     Waterloo Andrew Telegdi Liberal
     Welland—St. Catharines—Thorold Gilbert Parent Liberal
     Wellington—Grey—Dufferin—Simcoe Murray Calder Liberal
     Willowdale Jim Peterson Liberal
     Windsor West Herb Gray Liberal
     Windsor—St. Clair Shaughnessy Cohen Liberal
     York Centre Art Eggleton Liberal
     York North Maurizio Bevilacqua Liberal
     York South—Weston John Nunziata Liberal
     Independent Liberal*****
     York—Simcoe Karen Kraft Sloan Liberal
     York West Sergio Marchi Liberal
* Dennis Mills quit the Liberal caucus to sit as an Independent Liberal in May 1996, but returned to the party in August of the same year.
** Roy MacLaren was appointed High Commission of Canada to the United Kingdom, and his seat was filled by Roy Cullen in a 1996 by-election.
*** Jag Bhaduria was expelled from the Liberal Party for falsifying his credentials.
**** Jean-Robert Gauthier was appointed to the Senate in 1994, and replaced by Mauril Belanger in a 1995 by-election.
***** John Nunziata was expelled from the Liberal Party for voting against the 1996 budget on April 16 of that year, and sat for the rest of the session as an Independent.


Riding Member Political Party
     Brandon—Souris Glen McKinnon Liberal
     Churchill Elijah Harper Liberal
     Dauphin—Swan River Marlene Cowling Liberal
  Lisgar—Marquette Jake Hoeppner Reform
     Portage—Interlake Jon Gerrard Liberal
     Provencher David Iftody Liberal
     Selkirk—Red River Ron Fewchuk Liberal
     Saint Boniface Ronald Duhamel Liberal
     Winnipeg North Centre David Walker Liberal
     Winnipeg North Rey Pagtakhan Liberal
     Winnipeg South Reg Alcock Liberal
     Winnipeg St. James John Harvard Liberal
     Winnipeg South Centre Lloyd Axworthy Liberal
     Winnipeg—Transcona Bill Blaikie New Democrat


Riding Member Political Party
  Kindersley—Lloydminster Elwin Hermanson Reform
     Mackenzie Vic Althouse New Democrat
  Moose Jaw—Lake Centre Allan Kerpan Reform
     Prince Albert—Churchill River Gordon Kirkby Liberal
     Regina—Lumsden John Solomon New Democrat
     Regina—Qu'Appelle Simon de Jong New Democrat
     Regina—Wascana Ralph Goodale Liberal
     Saskatoon—Clark's Crossing Chris Axworthy New Democrat
     Saskatoon—Dundurn Morris Bodnar Liberal
     Saskatoon—Humboldt Georgette Sheridan Liberal
     Souris—Moose Mountain Bernie Collins Liberal
  Swift Current—Maple Creek—Assiniboia Lee Morrison Reform
     The Battlefords—Meadow Lake Len Taylor New Democrat
  Yorkton—Melville Garry Breitkreuz Reform


Riding Member Political Party
  Athabasca David Chatters Reform
  Beaver River Deborah Grey Reform
  Calgary Centre Jim Silye Reform
  Calgary North Diane Ablonczy Reform
  Calgary Northeast Art Hanger Reform
  Calgary Southeast Jan Brown Reform
  Calgary Southwest Preston Manning Reform
  Calgary West Stephen Harper Reform
  Crowfoot Jack Ramsay Reform
     Edmonton East Judy Bethel Liberal
     Edmonton North John Loney Liberal
     Edmonton Northwest Anne McLellan Liberal
     Edmonton Southeast David Kilgour Liberal
  Edmonton Southwest Ian McClelland Reform
  Edmonton—Strathcona Hugh Hanrahan Reform
  Elk Island Ken Epp Reform
  Lethbridge Ray Speaker Reform
  Macleod Grant Hill Reform
  Medicine Hat Monte Solberg Reform
  Peace River Charlie Penson Reform
  Red Deer Bob Mills Reform
  St. Albert John G. Williams Reform
  Vegreville Leon Benoit Reform
  Wetaskiwin Dale Johnston Reform
  Wild Rose Myron Thompson Reform
  Yellowhead Cliff Breitkreuz Reform
* Jan Brown was suspended from the Reform Party, and then quit the party to sit as an Independent Reform member.

British Columbia

Riding Member Political Party
     Burnaby—Kingsway Svend Robinson New Democrat
  Capilano—Howe Sound Herb Grubel Reform
  Cariboo—Chilcotin Philip Mayfield Reform
  Comox—Alberni Bill Gilmour Reform
  Delta John Cummins Reform
  Esquimalt—Juan de Fuca Keith Martin Reform
  Fraser Valley East Chuck Strahl Reform
  Fraser Valley West Randy White Reform
     Kamloops Nelson Riis New Democrat
  Kootenay East Jim Abbott Reform
  Kootenay West—Revelstoke Jim Gouk Reform
  Mission—Coquitlam Daphne Jennings Reform
  Nanaimo—Cowichan Bob Ringma Reform
  New Westminster—Burnaby Paul Forseth Reform
  North Island—Powell River John Duncan Reform
  North Vancouver Ted White Reform
  Okanagan Centre Werner Schmidt Reform
  Okanagan—Shuswap Darrel Stinson Reform
  Okanagan—Similkameen—Merritt Jim Hart Reform
  Port Moody—Coquitlam Sharon Hayes Reform
  Prince George—Bulkley Valley Richard Harris Reform
  Prince George—Peace River Jay Hill Reform
     Richmond Raymond Chan Liberal
  Saanich—Gulf Islands Jack Frazer Reform
  Skeena Mike Scott Reform
  Surrey North Margaret Bridgman Reform
  Surrey—White Rock—South Langley Val Meredith Reform
     Vancouver Centre Hedy Fry Liberal
     Vancouver East Anna Terrana Liberal
     Vancouver Quadra Ted McWhinney Liberal
     Vancouver South Herb Dhaliwal Liberal
     Victoria David Anderson Liberal


Riding Member Political Party
     Western Arctic Ethel Blondin-Andrew Liberal
     Nunatsiaq Jack Anawak Liberal
     Yukon Audrey McLaughlin New Democrat


By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause Retained
Hamilton East June 17, 1996 Sheila Copps      Liberal Sheila Copps      Liberal Resignation Yes
Humber—St. Barbe—Baie Verte March 25, 1996 Brian Tobin      Liberal Gerry Byrne      Liberal Resignation Yes
Labrador March 25, 1996 Bill Rompkey      Liberal Lawrence O'Brien      Liberal Resignation Yes
Etobicoke North March 25, 1996 Roy MacLaren      Liberal Roy Cullen      Liberal Resignation Yes
Lac-Saint-Jean March 25, 1996 Lucien Bouchard      Bloc Québécois Stéphan Tremblay      Bloc Québécois Resignation Yes
Papineau—Saint-Michel March 25, 1996 André Ouellet      Liberal Pierre Pettigrew      Liberal Resignation Yes
Saint-Laurent—Cartierville March 25, 1996 Shirley Maheu      Liberal Stéphane Dion      Liberal Called to the Senate Yes
Ottawa—Vanier February 13, 1995 Jean-Robert Gauthier      Liberal Mauril Bélanger      Liberal Resignation Yes
Brome—Missisquoi February 13, 1995 Gaston Péloquin      Bloc Québécois Denis Paradis      Liberal Death (car accident) No
Saint-Henri—Westmount February 13, 1995 David Berger      Liberal Lucienne Robillard      Liberal Resignation Yes


  1. ^
  2. ^ Members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and remain as Senators until the age of 75, even if the House of Commons has been dissolved or an election has been called.
  • Government of Canada. "26th Ministry". Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation. Privy Council Office. Retrieved 2006-11-09. 
  • Government of Canada. "35th Parliament". Members of the House of Commons: 1867 to Date: By Parliament. Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-11-30. 
  • Government of Canada. "Duration of Sessions". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "General Elections". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Key Dates for each Parliament". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Leaders of the Opposition in the House of Commons". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Party Standings (1974 to date): At the Senate". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  • Government of Canada. "Prime Ministers of Canada". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 
  • Government of Canada. "Speakers". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12. 


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