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35th United States Congress

35th United States Congress
34th ← → 36th

United States Capitol (1860)

Duration: March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1859

Senate President: John C. Breckinridge
Senate Pres. pro tem: James M. Mason
Thomas J. Rusk
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
House Speaker: James L. Orr
Members: 66 Senators
237 Representatives
7 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic
House Majority: Democratic

Sessions
Special: March 4, 1857 – March 14, 1857
1st: December 7, 1857 – June 14, 1858
2nd: December 6, 1858 – March 3, 1859

The Thirty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1857 to March 4, 1859, during the first two years of James Buchanan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

Contents

  • Major events 1
  • Major legislation 2
  • Treaties 3
  • States admitted 4
  • Party summary 5
    • Senate 5.1
    • House of Representatives 5.2
  • Leadership 6
    • Senate 6.1
    • House of Representatives 6.2
  • Members 7
    • Senate 7.1
      • Alabama 7.1.1
      • Arkansas 7.1.2
      • California 7.1.3
      • Connecticut 7.1.4
      • Delaware 7.1.5
      • Florida 7.1.6
      • Georgia 7.1.7
      • Illinois 7.1.8
      • Indiana 7.1.9
      • Iowa 7.1.10
      • Kentucky 7.1.11
      • Louisiana 7.1.12
      • Maine 7.1.13
      • Maryland 7.1.14
      • Massachusetts 7.1.15
      • Michigan 7.1.16
      • Minnesota 7.1.17
      • Mississippi 7.1.18
      • Missouri 7.1.19
      • New Hampshire 7.1.20
      • New Jersey 7.1.21
      • New York 7.1.22
      • North Carolina 7.1.23
      • Ohio 7.1.24
      • Oregon 7.1.25
      • Pennsylvania 7.1.26
      • Rhode Island 7.1.27
      • South Carolina 7.1.28
      • Tennessee 7.1.29
      • Texas 7.1.30
      • Vermont 7.1.31
      • Virginia 7.1.32
      • Wisconsin 7.1.33
    • House of Representatives 7.2
      • Alabama 7.2.1
      • Arkansas 7.2.2
      • California 7.2.3
      • Connecticut 7.2.4
      • Delaware 7.2.5
      • Florida 7.2.6
      • Georgia 7.2.7
      • Illinois 7.2.8
      • Indiana 7.2.9
      • Iowa 7.2.10
      • Kentucky 7.2.11
      • Louisiana 7.2.12
      • Maine 7.2.13
      • Maryland 7.2.14
      • Massachusetts 7.2.15
      • Michigan 7.2.16
      • Minnesota 7.2.17
      • Mississippi 7.2.18
      • Missouri 7.2.19
      • New Hampshire 7.2.20
      • New Jersey 7.2.21
      • New York 7.2.22
      • North Carolina 7.2.23
      • Ohio 7.2.24
      • Oregon 7.2.25
      • Pennsylvania 7.2.26
      • Rhode Island 7.2.27
      • South Carolina 7.2.28
      • Tennessee 7.2.29
      • Texas 7.2.30
      • Vermont 7.2.31
      • Virginia 7.2.32
      • Wisconsin 7.2.33
      • Non-voting members 7.2.34
  • Changes in membership 8
    • Senate 8.1
    • House of Representatives 8.2
  • Employees 9
    • Senate 9.1
    • House of Representatives 9.2
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

Major events

Major legislation

Treaties

States admitted

  • May 11, 1858: Minnesota admitted as the 32nd state
  • February 14, 1859: Oregon admitted as the 33rd state

Party summary

Senate

Group photo of the U.S. Senate, in 1859, during this Congress.

During this congress, two Senate seats were added for each of the new states of Minnesota and Oregon.

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
American
(A)
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of the previous congress 1 40 (Opposition coalition)
20
1 62 0
Begin 5 36 20 0 61 1
End 41 66 0
Final voting share 7.6% 62.1% 30.3% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 2 38 26 0 66 0

House of Representatives

During this congress, two House seats were added for the new state of Minnesota and one House seat was added for the new state of Oregon.

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates plurality caucus)
Total
American
(A)
Democratic
(D)
Independent
Democratic
(ID)
Republican
(R)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 52 81 0 1 (Opposition coalition)
96
230 4
Begin 14 127 0 92 0 233 1
End 130 1 237 0
Final voting share 5.9% 55.3% 38.8% 0.0%
Beginning of next Congress 6 84 7 113 (Anti-Lecompton
Democratic
+ Opposition)

25
235 2

Leadership

Senate

President of the Senate
John C. Breckinridge

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1862; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1858; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1860.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Tennessee
(1)
Vacant Vacancy in term Andrew Johnson (D) October 8, 1857
South Carolina
(3)
Andrew Butler (D) Died May 25, 1857 James H. Hammond (D) December 7, 1857
New Hampshire
(3)
James Bell (R) Died May 26, 1857 Daniel Clark (R) June 27, 1857
Texas
(1)
Thomas J. Rusk (D) Died July 29, 1857 J. Pinckney Henderson (D) November 9, 1857
North Carolina
(3)
Asa Biggs (D) Resigned May 5, 1858 after being appointed judge of US District Court of NC Thomas L. Clingman (D) May 7, 1858
South Carolina
(2)
Josiah J. Evans (D) Died May 6, 1858 Arthur P. Hayne (D) May 11, 1858
Minnesota
(1)
New seat Minnesota admitted to the Union May 11, 1858 Henry M. Rice (D) May 11, 1858
Minnesota
(2)
New seat Minnesota admitted to the Union May 11, 1858 James Shields (D) May 11, 1858
Texas
(1)
J. Pinckney Henderson (D) Died June 4, 1858 Matthias Ward (D) September 27, 1858
South Carolina
(2)
Arthur P. Hayne (D) Successor elected December 2, 1858 James Chesnut, Jr. (D) December 3, 1858
Oregon
(2)
New seat Oregon admitted to the Union February 14, 1859 Delazon Smith (D) February 14, 1859
Oregon
(3)
New seat Oregon admitted to the Union February 14, 1859 Joseph Lane (D) February 14, 1859

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Missouri 3rd Vacant Rep. James S. Green was elected to this term but resigned after being elected in turn to the US Senate John B. Clark (D) Seated December 7, 1857
Indiana 10th Samuel Brenton (R) Died March 29, 1857 Charles Case (R) Seated December 7, 1857
Pennsylvania 12th John G. Montgomery (D) Died April 24, 1857 Paul Leidy (D) Seated December 7, 1857
Indiana 1st James Lockhart (D) Died September 7, 1857 William E. Niblack (D) Seated December 7, 1857
Massachusetts 7th Nathaniel P. Banks (R) Resigned December 24, 1857 after being elected Governor of Massachusetts Daniel W. Gooch (R) Seated January 31, 1858
North Carolina 8th Thomas L. Clingman (D) Resigned May 7, 1858 after being appointed to the US Senate Zebulon B. Vance (D) Seated December 7, 1858
Minnesota At-Large New seat Minnesota was admitted to the Union May 11, 1858 James M. Cavanaugh (D) Seated May 11, 1858
Minnesota Territory At-Large William W. Kingsbury (D) Minnesota was admitted to the Union May 11, 1858 Seat eliminated
Minnesota At-Large New seat Minnesota was admitted to the Union May 11, 1858 William W. Phelps (D) Seated May 11, 1858
Ohio 3rd Lewis D. Campbell (R) Lost contested election May 25, 1858 Clement Vallandigham (D) Seated May 25, 1858
Mississippi 5th John A. Quitman (D) Died July 17, 1858 John J. McRae (D) Seated December 7, 1858
Pennsylvania 8th J. Glancy Jones (D) Resigned October 30, 1858 William H. Keim (R) Seated December 7, 1858
Illinois 6th Thomas L. Harris (D) Died November 24, 1858 Charles D. Hodges (D) Seated January 4, 1859
New York 4th John Kelly (D) Resigned December 25, 1858 Thomas J. Barr (D) Seated January 7, 1859
Oregon Territory At-Large Joseph Lane (D) Oregon was admitted to the Union February 14, 1859 Seat eliminated
Oregon At-Large New seat Oregon was admitted to the Union February 14, 1859 La Fayette Grover (D) Seated February 14, 1859

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d United States Representatives were elected statewide on a general ticket.
  2. ^ The 35th Congress discontinued the custom of electing a Senate chaplain, choosing instead to invite the clergy of the District of Columbia to take turns opening the daily sessions with prayer.

References

Specific citations
  1. ^ Charles J. Kappler, ed. (1904). "Treaty with the Ponca, 1858". Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington D.C.:  
  2. ^ "Senate Chaplain". Art and History. U.S. Senate. Retrieved 2013-11-09. The 35th Congress (1857-1859) discontinued the custom of electing a Senate chaplain, and extended an invitation to the clergy of the District of Columbia to alternate in opening the daily sessions with prayer. The 36th Congress returned to the former practice. 
General references
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links

  • Statutes at Large, 1789-1875
  • Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: House History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
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