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42nd United States Congress

 

42nd United States Congress

42nd United States Congress
41st ← → 43rd

United States Capitol (1869)

Duration: March 4, 1871 – March 4, 1873

Senate President: Schuyler Colfax
Senate Pres. pro tem: Henry B. Anthony
House Speaker: James G. Blaine
Members: 74 Senators
243 Representatives
10 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Republican

Sessions
1st: March 4, 1871 – April 20, 1871
2nd: December 4, 1871 – June 10, 1872
3rd: December 2, 1872 – March 4, 1873

The Forty-second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1871 to March 4, 1873, during the third and fourth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

Contents

Major events

  • June 10, 1871: U.S. Marines make naval attack on the Han River forts in Korea
  • March 1, 1872: Yellowstone National Park was established as the world's first national park

Major legislation

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Liberal
Republican

(LR)
Republican
(R)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 12 0 62 0 74 0
Begin 16 1 55 0 72 2
End 17 54
Final voting share 25.0% 75.0% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 19 3 50 0 72 2

House of Representatives

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Liberal
Republican

(LR)
Republican
(R)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 67 0 169 0 (Conservative
-Virginia
)

5
241 2
Begin 93 3 144 1 0 243 2
End 97 141 242 1
Final voting share 41.3% 58.7% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 91 4 189 0 (Independent
Democratic
)

6
290 2

Leadership

President of the Senate Schuyler Colfax

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

President pro tempore Henry B. Anthony

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1874; Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term ended in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1872.

House of Representatives

Speaker of the House James G. Blaine

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 0
  • deaths: 0
  • resignations: 2
  • contested elections: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 4
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Georgia (2) Vacant Failure to elect Thomas M. Norwood (D) November 14, 1871
Mississippi (2) Vacant Delayed taking seat in order to serve as Governor of Mississippi James L. Alcorn (R) December 1, 1871
Louisiana (3) William P. Kellogg (R) Resigned November 1, 1872 after being elected Governor of Louisiana Vacant Not filled this term
Massachusetts (2) Henry Wilson (R) Resigned March 3, 1873 after being elected Vice-President of the United States Vacant Not filled this term

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
District of Columbia At-large New seat District of Columbia's At-large district created March 4, 1871 and remained vacant until April 21, 1871 Norton P. Chipman (R) April 21, 1871
Illinois At-large Vacant Rep. John A. Logan resigned at the end of the previous congress after being elected to the US Senate John L. Beveridge (R) November 7, 1871
Michigan 4th Vacant Rep. Thomas W. Ferry resigned at the end of the previous congress after being elected to the US Senate Wilder D. Foster (R) December 4, 1871
Illinois 6th Burton C. Cook (R) Resigned August 26, 1871 Henry Snapp (R) December 4, 1871
Louisiana 4th James McCleery (R) Died November 5, 1871 Alexander Boarman (LR) December 3, 1872
Massachusetts 9th William B. Washburn (R) Resigned December 5, 1871 after being elected Governor of Massachusetts Alvah Crocker (R) January 2, 1872
Ohio 1st Aaron F. Perry (R) Resigned some time in 1872 Ozro J. Dodds (D) August 8, 1872
Arkansas 3rd John Edwards (LR) Lost contested election February 9, 1872 Thomas Boles (R) February 9, 1872
Massachusetts 7th George M. Brooks (R) Resigned May 13, 1872 after becoming judge of probate for Middlesex County Constantine C. Esty (R) December 2, 1872
Texas 3rd William T. Clark (R) Lost contested election May 13, 1872 Dewitt C. Giddings (D) December 13, 1872
Georgia 4th Thomas J. Speer (R) Died August 18, 1872 Erasmus W. Beck (D) December 2, 1872
Connecticut 1st Julius L. Strong (R) Died September 7, 1872 Joseph R. Hawley (R) December 2, 1872
Pennsylvania 13th Ulysses Mercur (R) Resigned December 2, 1872 after becoming an assoc. justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania Frank C. Bunnell (R) December 24, 1872
Illinois At-large John L. Beveridge (R) Resigned January 4, 1873 after being elected Lieutenant Governor of Illinois Vacant Not filled this term
Florida At-large Josiah T. Walls (R) Lost contested election January 29, 1873 Silas L. Niblack (D) January 29, 1873

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links

  • Statutes at Large, 1789-1875
  • Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: House History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
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