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Abdülmecid II

Abdülmecid II
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Caliph Abdülmecid II
Caliph of Islam
Reign 19 November 1922 – 3 March 1924
Predecessor Mehmed VI
Successor Abolished (Disputed)
Head of the House of Osman
Pretence 16 May 1926 – 23 August 1944
Predecessor Mehmed VI
Successor Ahmed Nihad
Born (1868-05-30)30 May 1868[1][2]
Beşiktaş, Ottoman Empire
Died 23 August 1944(1944-08-23) (aged 76)[1]
Paris, France
Spouses Şehsüvar Kadınefendi
Hayrünissa Kadınefendi,
Mehisti Kadınefendi
Issue Şehzade Omer Faruk Efendi,
Dürrüşehvar Sultan
House House of Osman
Father Abdülaziz
Mother Hayranidil Kadın Efendi
Religion Sunni Islam

Abdülmecid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد المجید الثانی‎, Abd al-Madjeed al-ThâniTurkish: Halife İkinci Abdülmecit Efendi or Abdülmecit Osmanoğlu) (29 May 1868 – 23 August 1944) was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman Dynasty, nominally the 37th Head of the Ottoman Imperial House from 1922 to 1924.

His name has various alternate spellings, including Abdul Mejid, Aakhir Khalifatul Muslimeen Sultan Abd-ul-Madjeed and Abd ul Madjeed.

Contents

  • Biography 1
    • Artist 1.1
    • Death 1.2
  • Family 2
    • First marriage and issue 2.1
    • Second marriage 2.2
    • Third marriage and issue 2.3
  • Titles and styles 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Biography

On 30 May 1868,[1][2] he was born at Dolmabahçe Palace or at Beşiktaş Palace, Beşiktaş, in Constantinople,[3] to then Sultan Abdülaziz and his wife Hayranidil Kadın Efendi. He was educated privately.

Portrait of Abdülmecid II in Topkapı Saray Museum.

According to custom, Abdulmecid was confined to the palace until he was 40. On 4 July 1918, his first cousin Mehmed VI became Sultan and Abdul Mejid was named Crown Prince.[1] Following the deposition of his cousin on 1 November 1922, the Sultanate was abolished. But on 18 November 1922, the Crown Prince was elected Caliph by the Turkish National Assembly at Ankara.[1] He established himself in Constantinople[4][5] on 24 November 1922.

On 3 March 1924, six months after the foundation of the Turkish Republic, the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished and the Ottoman dynasty was deposed and expelled from Turkey.[6]

Artist

Abdülmecid was given the title of General in the Ottoman Army, but did not in fact have strong military inclinations, and his more significant role was as Chairman of the Ottoman Artists' Society.

He is considered as one of the most important painters of late period Ottoman art.

His paintings of the Harem, showing a modern musical gathering, and of a woman reading Goethe's Faust were displayed at an exhibition of Ottoman paintings in Vienna in 1918. His personal self-portrait can be seen at Istanbul Modern.

Abdülmecid was an avid collector of butterflies, an activity that he occupied himself with during the last 20 years of his life.

Death

On 23 August 1944, Abdul Mejid II died at his house in the Boulevard Suchet, Paris XVIe, France. His death coincided with the Liberation of Paris from Nazi occupation. He was buried in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Family

Princess Dürrühsehvar, Princess of Berar; Caliph Abdulmecid II of the Ottoman Empire, and Nawab Azam Jah, Prince of Berar.

First marriage and issue

He married firstly at Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, on 22/23 December 1896 to HH Şehsüvar Kadınefendi (Constantinople, 2 May 1881 – Paris, 1945, buried there at Bobigny Cemetery), and had:

  • Prince Şehzade Ömer Faruk (Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, 27/29 February 1898 – 28 March 1969/1971), married firstly at Yıldız Palace on 29 April 1920 to his cousin Princess Rukiye Sabiha Sultan Kadın (Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, 19 March/1 April 1894 – Istanbul, 26 August 1971), and had three daughters, and married secondly in İskenderiye on 31 July 1948 to his cousin Princess Mihriban Mihrishah Sultan Kadın (Constantinople, Beşiktaş, Beşiktaş Palace, 1 June 1916 – Istanbul, 25 January 1987), without issue:
    • Princess Fatma Neslişah Osmanoğlu Sultan (Constantinople, Nişantaşı, Nişantaşı Palace, 4 February 1921 – 1 April 2012), married in Heliopolis Palace, Cairo, on 26 September 1940 to her cousin Damat Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim (Alexandria, Montaza Palace, 20 February 1899 – Istanbul, 1/2 December 1979, buried in Cairo), heir apparent to the throne of Egypt from 1899 to 1914, created HH in 1922, created HRH in 1952, Regent of Egypt from 1952 to 1953, and had issue
    • Princess Zehra Hanzade Sultan (Constantinople, Dolmabahçe Palace, 12 September 1923 – Paris, 19 March 1998, buried on 26 March 1998), married in Cairo in September 1940 to Damat Prince Muhammed Ali Ibrahim (Cairo, 29 April 1900 – Paris, 2 July 1977), and had issue:
      • Nabila Sabiha Fazila Ibrahim Hanımsultan (b. Neuilly-sur-Seine, 8 August 1941), was the fiance of King Faisal II of Iraq until 1958 when the king was killed. Few years later she married Kheri Oglu, together they had two sons Ali and Saleem
      • Nabil Sultanzade Ahmad Rifat Ibrahim (b. 31 August 1942), married on 26 June 1969 to Emine Ushakidil, without issue
    • Princess Necla Heybetullah Sultan (Nice, 15 May 1926 – 16 October 2006), married in Cairo in February 1943 to Nabil Amr Ibrahim (Cairo, 18 April 1903 – 1977), and had issue:
      • Prince Nabil Sultanzade Osman Rifat Ibrahim Beyefendi (b. 20 May 1951), unmarried and without issue
Standard of Abdülmecid II.

Second marriage

He married secondly at Constantinople, Ortaköy, Ortaköy Palace, on 18 June 1902 to HH Hayrünissa Kadınefendi (Bandırma, 2 March 1876 – Nice, 3 September 1936), without issue.

Third marriage and issue

He married thirdly at Constantinople, Üsküdar, Çamlıca Palace, on 16 April 1912 to HH Atiyye Mehisti Kadınefendi (Adapazarı, 27 January 1892 – London, Middlesex, 1964), sister of Kamil Bey, and had:

Photo of Abdülmecid II during his exile

Titles and styles

  • 4 July 1918 – 18 November 1922: His Imperial Highness The Crown Prince
  • 18 November 1922 – 3 March 1924: His Imperial Majesty The Commander of the Faithful on Earth, Caliph of the Faithful and the Servant of Mecca and Medina, Sovereign of the Imperial House of Osman

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdümecid II". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 23.  
  2. ^ a b There are sources that give the 29th as the day of his birth.
  3. ^ Caroline Finkel, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2005), 57.
  4. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire...
  5. ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
  6. ^  

External links

Abdülmecid II
Born: 29 May 1868 Died: 23 August 1944
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mehmed VI
Caliph of Islam
19 November 1922 – 3 March 1924
Vacant
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Mehmed VI
— TITULAR —
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
19 November 1922 – 23 August 1944
Reason for succession failure:
Empire abolished in 1922
Succeeded by
Ahmed Nihad
— TITULAR —
Caliph of Islam
3 March 1924 – 23 August 1944
Reason for succession failure:
Caliphate abolished on March 3, 1924
Vacant
Caliphate abolished in 1924
(The religious position and the official representation of the caliph's powers was transferred to Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı)
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