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Abdullah II

"Abdullah II" redirects here. Abdullah II may also refer to Abdullah II Al-Sabah.

Abdullah II
Abdullah II at the World Economic Forum in 2013
King of Jordan
Reign 7 February 1999 – present ( 15 years, 179 days )
Coronation 9 June 1999[1]
Predecessor Hussein bin Talal
Heir apparent Hussein bin Abdullah
Prime Ministers
Spouse Rania Al-Yassin
Issue
Crown Prince Hussein
Princess Iman
Princess Salma
Prince Hashem
Full name
Abdullah bin Hussein bin Talal bin Abdullah bin Hussein bin Ali
House House of Hashim
Father Hussein of Jordan
Mother Muna al-Hussein
Born (1962-01-30) 30 January 1962 (age 52)[1]
Amman, Jordan
Religion Sunni Islam

Abdullah II ibn Al-Hussein (Arabic: عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين‎, ʿAbdullāh aṯ-ṯānī ibn al-Ḥusayn [ʢæbˈdɑɫɫɐ ɨbʲn ālæʲjˈzˈzˈhusˈaˈyˈjʲˈjˈjˈn]; born 30 January 1962) is the reigning king of the Kingdom of Jordan. He ascended the throne on 7 February 1999 upon the death of his father King Hussein. King Abdullah, whose mother is Princess Muna al-Hussein, is a member of the Hashemite family.[1][2]

Early life

Abdullah was born in Amman to King Hussein during his marriage to British-born Princess Muna al-Hussein (born Antoinette Avril Gardiner). He was the king's eldest son[1] and as such he was heir apparent to the throne of Jordan under the 1952 constitution. However, due to unstable times in the 1960s, King Hussein decided to appoint his brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as his heir.[3][1]

King Abdullah II attended St Edmund's School, Hindhead, Surrey, before moving on to Eaglebrook School and Deerfield Academy in Deerfield, Massachusetts. He joined the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1980,[1] was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant, and served as a troop commander in the 13th/18th Royal Hussars. In 1993, he assumed command of Jordan's Special Forces.[1] In 1982, King Abdullah II attended Pembroke College at Oxford University where he completed a one-year Special Studies course in Middle Eastern Affairs. In 1987, he attended the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.[4] Abdullah would later serve in the Jordanian forces and became Major General in May 1998.

In the 1980s, King Hussein considered arranging for the throne to pass to his brother and then to his son Prince Ali bin Al Hussein, but changed his mind by 1992. He seriously considered appointing one of his nephews as heir, but on his deathbed, on 25 January 1999, he named Abdullah as his heir.[5]

King of Jordan

Abdullah became king on 7 February 1999, upon the death of his father King Hussein. Hussein had recently named him crown prince on 24 January, changing the constitutions and replacing Hussein's brother Hassan, who had served many years in the position (nearly 34 years, from 1965 to 1999). It is claimed that he is the 43rd-generation direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammad.[4] He is the namesake of King Abdullah I, his great grandfather who founded modern Jordan.[6]

Politics as king

King Abdullah II is the head of a constitutional monarchy in which the king retains substantial power. In 2010, he was chosen as the fourth most influential Muslim in the world.[7]

Jordan's economy has improved since Abdullah ascended to the throne in 1999, and he has been credited with increasing foreign investment, improving public-private partnerships, and providing the foundation for Aqaba's free trade zone and Jordan's flourishing ICT sector. He also set up five other special economic zones: Irbid, Ajloun, Mafraq, Ma'an and the Dead Sea. As a result of these reforms, Jordan's economic growth has doubled to 6% annually under King Abdullah's rule compared to the latter half of the 1990s.[8] Foreign direct investment from the West as well as the countries of the Persian Gulf has continued to increase.[9] He also negotiated a free trade agreement with the United States, which was the third free trade agreement for the U.S. and the first with an Arab country.[10]

In 2008, King Abdullah began his Decent Housing for Decent Living campaign in which all Jordanian citizens, and even Palestinian refugees, will be guaranteed high quality residential housing with easy access to community needs such as health, education, and community activities.

Abdullah's speech at The Catholic University of America's Columbus School of Law in September 2005 was entitled "Traditional Islam: The Path to Peace." While en route to the United States, King Abdullah met with Pope Benedict XVI to build on the relations that Jordan had established with Pope John Paul II to discuss ways in which Muslims and Christians can continue to work together for peace, tolerance, and coexistence.

The King announced on 2 March 2007 municipal elections in Jordan and in 25 November 2006 in his parliament address, told the parliament to work on reforms of the press and publication law.[11]

King Abdullah II has worked for the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, attending the Arab Summit in 2002, OIC conferences and having several summits with US, Israeli and Palestinian delegations to find a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.

Jordan received criticism when Toujan al-Faisal, Jordan's first female member of Parliament and an outspoken advocate for freedom of expression and human rights, was jailed for slandering the government after she charged it with corruption in a letter to Abdullah.[12] She was pardoned and released by King Abdullah. Despite these events, King Abdullah has continued his aggressive liberalization of Jordan's media. He recently issued a declaration forbidding detention of journalists in Jordan.


Major General Yair Naveh, GOC of the Israel Defense Forces Homefront Command and former GOC of Israeli Central Command, said in a gathering with reporters that King Abdullah might fall and that he could be Jordan's last king. The statement created tension between the two countries, and afterwards Naveh retracted his statement and apologized.[13] Later, the Israeli prime minister Olmert expressed the disagreement of Israel with Naveh's statement, and referred to it as a personal and irrelevant view.[14][15]

In March 2007, Ehud Olmert commented on any American withdrawal from Iraq by saying that: "Israel is worried a hasty American withdrawal from Iraq could have negative impact on the Hashemite regime in Jordan..." Jordan's spokesman Nasser Jawdeh replied by saying: "The Israeli prime minister should worry about his political future before worrying about us."[16]

King Abdullah has a strong belief in a powerful military and has led Jordan into adopting a "quality over quantity" policy. This policy has led Jordan to acquire advanced weaponry and greatly increase and enhance its F-16 fighter jet fleet.[17] The ground forces have acquired the Challenger 1 main battle tank,[18] a vehicle far superior to the T-72/55 tanks that have traditionally dominated Arab armies.

Abdullah has made women's rights an important part of his dynasty.[1]

Successor

See Line of succession to the Jordanian throne.

On 28 November 2004, Abdullah removed the title of crown prince from his half-brother, Hamzah, whom he had appointed on 7 February 1999, in accordance with their father's wishes. In a letter from Abdullah to Hamzah, read on Jordanian state television, he said, "Your holding this symbolic position has restrained your freedom and hindered our entrusting you with certain responsibilities that you are fully qualified to undertake." No successor to the title was named at that time, but it was anticipated that Abdullah intended to appoint formally his own son and new heir apparent, Prince Hussein, as crown prince.[19] Hussein was granted the title on 2 July 2009.[20]

Democracy in Jordan

In 2005 BBC international published an article titled "Jordan edging towards democracy", where King Abdullah expressed his intentions of making Jordan a democratic country. According to the article, president George W. Bush "urged King Abdullah, a U.S. ally, to take steps towards democracy."[21] Thus far, however, democratic development has been limited, with the monarchy maintaining most power and its allies dominating parliament.

Elections were held in November 2010, and following the Arab Spring 2011, a new prime minister was appointed. In June 2011 the King has announced a move to a British style of Cabinet Government but it is still under debate.

Economic liberalization

Jordanian Royal Family

HM The King
HM The Queen


HM Queen Noor

Jordan has embarked on an aggressive economic liberalization program under King Abdullah II in an effort to stimulate the economy and raise the standard of living. Jordan's economic growth peaked at 8 percent in 2004 and has been averaging at 7 percent. King Abdullah II has liberalized the telecommunications sector and has implemented an ICT curriculum into Jordan's education system. This has made Jordan's telecommunications sector the most competitive in the region. King Abdullah called on the government to lower internet prices in an effort to increase internet penetration to 50% by 2010. He is also very involved in promoting Jordan's tourism sector, especially with the establishment of the Aqaba Special Economic Zone.

Under King Abdullah II, the air transport sector was liberalized. Also, King Abdullah II established six special economic zones: Aqaba, Ma'an, Mafraq, Irbid, the Dead Sea, and Ajloun. Each SEZ has its own niche which will carve a unique identity for that region of Jordan. The Aqaba SEZ is primarily devoted to tourism and industry. The Ma'an SEZ is industrial primarily with a focus on renewable energy resources especially solar energy. The world's largest solar power plant will be constructed in Ma'an. The Mafraq SEZ will become a regional hub in transport and logistics with planned air, road, and rail connections to neighboring countries. The Irbid SEZ is adjacent to the Jordan University of Science and Technology and it will focus on scientific and medical facilities. The recently launched Dead Sea zone will focus on tourism and entertainment. The Ajloun SEZ consists of 24 proposed tourism projects, including a 2,000 dunum tourism city that will comprise 900 hotel rooms, restaurants, and other entertainment facilities with environmental considerations.

Nuclear plans for Jordan

On 20 January 2007, King Abdullah revealed to Haaretz that Jordan has plans to develop nuclear power for internal energy purposes because unlike other countries in the region Jordan has almost no oil.[22] Jordan is one of the few non-petroleum producing nations in the region and is strategically dependent on oil from its neighbor, Iraq. Continuing civil unrest in Iraq puts Jordanian national and energy security at risk. Jordan's first nuclear power plant will be ready by 2015 and it will be located in Aqaba. There are more nuclear power plants planned in Karak and near the proposed Red Sea-Dead Sea project which will provide Jordan with all the much needed water resources it needs, it will also supply the shrinking Dead Sea and nuclear power plants with water. In turn, the nuclear power plants will desalinate the water and pump it to northern Jordan. (According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Jordan is one of the poorest countries in terms of water resources.[23])

Interfaith work

In 2010, King Abdullah proposed a [1]

Foreign relations

King Abdullah visited Palestinian Authority on 6 December 2012 and became the first statesman to visit the country after being accepted as a non-member observer state to the United Nations.[24]

Marriage and children

King Abdullah is married to Palestinian Rania al-Abdullah.[1] They have four children:

Interests

King Abdullah enjoys sky diving, rally racing, scuba diving, football, and science fiction. He promotes tourism in Jordan, having acted as a tour guide for Discovery Channel travel host Peter Greenberg in order to produce a show called "Jordan: The Royal Tour".[25] In the program the king notes that since assuming the throne, he is no longer permitted to sky dive. King Abdullah also likes motorcycles, and toured Northern California on a Harley-Davidson in July 2010.[26]

King Abdullah is claimed by Prince Ali bin Al Hussein, one of his brothers and president of the Jordan Football Association, as the biggest fan of the Jordan national football team. King Abdullah himself was a former president of the football association until he assumed his father's throne and became King of Jordan and was succeeded by Prince Ali.

King Abdullah attended Deerfield Academy in his youth, and in appreciation of the schooling he received, he has created a sister institution King's Academy in Jordan. He hired Deerfield Headmaster Eric Widmer to lead it, along with many other Deerfield staff. Prior to Deerfield, King Abdullah attended Eaglebrook School. He is the Colonel-in-Chief of the UK Light Dragoons regiment; his previous connection to the unit includes his service as a Troop Leader in the 13th/18th Royal Hussars.

He is a fan of the science fiction series Star Trek. In 1996, while still a prince, he appeared briefly in the Star Trek: Voyager episode "Investigations", in a non-speaking role (as he is not a member of the Screen Actors Guild).[27] A Star Trek theme park will open in 2014 as part of the $1.5-billion Red Sea Astrarium project in Aqaba, with the King being the majority local investor.[28]

His interest in the film industry has also influenced his decision to create the Red Sea Institute of Cinematic Arts in the Red Sea coastal town of Aqaba, in partnership with the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts on 20 September 2006.[29] When the producers of Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen chose to film in Jordan, he called on 38 military helicopters to help transport equipment into Petra.

King Abdullah II has an interest in the internet and information technology, and commented on two Jordanian blogs that discussed his interview with the Petra News Agency: the Black Iris and the newspaper daily Ad-Dustor.[30]

He is also a fan of stand-up comedian Russell Peters, granting him an audience in 2009 and inviting him for dinner.[31]

Titles, Honours and Awards

Titles

  • 20 January 1962 – 1 March 1965: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan
  • 1 March 1965 – 24 January 1999: His Royal Highness The Prince Abdullah of Jordan
  • 24 January 1999 – 7 February 1999: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan
  • 7 February 1999 – present: His Majesty the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Honours

This article incorporates information from the italiano World Heritage Encyclopedia.
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the polski World Heritage Encyclopedia.
Jordan
  • Grand Master of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
  • Grand Master of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance
  • Grand Master of the Order of the Star of Jordan
  • Grand Master of the Order of Independence
Foreign

Ancestry

Published works

  • al-Hussein, Abdullah II bin. Our Last Best Chance: The Pursuit of Peace in a Time of Peril, New York City: Viking Adult, 2011. ISBN 978-0-670-02171-0

See also

References

Further reading

  • Robins, Philip. A History of Jordan, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-521-59895-8

External links

  • Official website of his majesty King Abdullah II
  • The Family Line of HM King Abdullah
  • C-SPAN
  • Internet Movie Database
  • WorldCat catalog)
  • King's Academy
  • Ancestry of Antoinette Avril Gardiner (born 1941)
  • His Majesty's official channel
  • King Abdullah II of Jordan coins
Articles
  • King of Jordan meets troops in UK
  • interview with King Abdullah II: "Iraq is the Battleground – the West against Iran"
  • A letter from the Committee to Protect Journalists directed to King Abdullah
  • Amnesty International report on alleged violations of human rights in Jordan under King Abdullah
  • King sees shared Jerusalem
  • Jordan's King Abdullah Pushes for Moderation
Abdullah II of Jordan
Born: 4 February 1962
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hussein
King of Jordan
1999–present
Incumbent
Heir apparent:
Hussein bin Abdullah

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