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Abergavenny

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Abergavenny

Abergavenny (Welsh: Y Fenni) is a town in Monmouthshire in southeast Wales.

Abergavenny, Monmouthshire

Understand

A thriving town, Abergavenny prides itself as a gateway to South Wales and the eastern gateway to the Brecon Beacons National Park where you can enjoy a relaxing short break or longer holiday amidst beautiful countryside. The town itself nestles within the beautiful Usk Valley at the point where the river emerges from amongst the mountains to flow through lowland Monmouthshire. The mass of the Black Mountains and their highly individual outliers of Sugar Loaf and Skirrid (Welsh: Ysgyryd Fawr) form a spectacular northern backdrop to the town. Along with Blorenge to the south, the opportunities for walkers are hugely varied.

See

  • Abergavenny Castle. Dates back to 1087 and makes for a fascinating visit.

Do

  • Abergavenny Museum is set in the grounds of the Norman Castle. If it’s a nice day, take a picnic, otherwise simply learn about the history of this historic market town.

Buy

One of the most well-known markets in Wales, Abergavenny’s Tuesday market has more than 200 stalls offering a huge array of goods. In addition there is a Friday and Saturday market and the occasional craft fair, flea market and antique fair.

Eat

Home of the famous Abergavenny Food Festival, it stands to reason that the number of eateries on offer is more than adequate. From fancy restaurants to old-fashioned pubs, from bars and cafes to takeways, there is something offer to suit every taste.

Drink

Abergavenny has a thriving nightlife of pubs and bars

The Kings Arms: Great social spot in the town centre. Generally quite quiet during the week but much busier on a Friday and Saturday night, often with live entertainment. Home to the Tudor Microbrewery serving a selection of local ales.

Sleep

  • Black Mountain LodgeHereford Road, Pandy , e-mail: . The Black Mountain Lodge is sited at the Old Pandy Inn, a 17th Century Country Inn some 4 miles north of Abergavenny, 15 miles south of Hereford at the foot of the Black Mountains. The Offa's Dyke Path is some 400 yards away.

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Abergavenny

Abergavenny
Welsh: Y Fenni

Abergavenny town centre, showing the Market Hall and town hall clock tower
Abergavenny is located in Monmouthshire
Abergavenny
Abergavenny
 Abergavenny shown within Monmouthshire
Population 10,078 (2011)[1]
OS grid reference
Community Abergavenny
Principal area Monmouthshire
Ceremonial county Gwent
Country Wales
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town ABERGAVENNY
Postcode district NP7
Dialling code 01873
Police Gwent
Fire South Wales
Ambulance Welsh
EU Parliament Wales
UK Parliament Monmouth
Welsh Assembly Monmouth
List of places
UK
Wales
Monmouthshire

Abergavenny (Welsh: Y Fenni), meaning Mouth of the River Gavenny, is a market town in Monmouthshire, Wales. It is located 15 miles (24 km) west of Monmouth on the A40 and A465 roads, 6 miles (10 km) from the English border. Originally the site of a Roman fort, Gobannium, it became a medieval walled town within the Welsh Marches. The town contains the remains of a medieval stone castle built soon after the Norman conquest of Wales.

Abergavenny is promoted as the "Gateway to Wales".[2][3] Situated at the confluence of a tributary stream, the Gavenny, and the River Usk,[4] it is almost surrounded by two mountains – the Blorenge (559 m)[5] and the Sugar Loaf (596 m)[6] – and five hills: Ysgyryd Fawr (The Skirrid), Ysgyryd Fach (Skirrid Fach), Deri, Rholben and Mynydd Llanwenarth, known locally as "Llanwenarth Breast". It provides access to the nearby Black Mountains and the Brecon Beacons National Park. The Offa's Dyke Path is close by and the Marches Way, the Beacons Way and Usk Valley Walk all pass through the town.

History

Origins of the town and its name

Part of Abergavenny and Skirrid Fach (Little Skirrid) seen from the castle ruins

The name derives from a Brythonic word Gobannia meaning "river of the blacksmiths", and relates to the town's pre-Roman importance in iron smelting. The name is related to the modern Welsh word gof (blacksmith), and so is also associated with the Welsh smith Gofannon from folklore. The river later became, in Welsh, Gafenni, and the town's name became Abergavenny, meaning "mouth of (Welsh: Aber) the Gavenny (Gafenni)". In Welsh, the shortened form Y Fenni may have come into use for a very short period after about the 15th century, although pronounced similarly in English or Welsh the English spelling Abergavenny is in general use.[7]

Roman period

Gobannium was a Roman fort guarding the road along the valley of the River Usk,[4] which linked the legionary fortress of Burrium (Usk) and later Isca Augusta or Isca Silurum, (Caerleon) in the south with Y Gaer, Brecon and Mid Wales. It was also built to keep the peace among the local British Iron Age tribe, the Silures.

Remains of the walls of this fort were discovered west of the castle when excavating the foundations for a new post office and telephone exchange building in the late 1960s.

11th century

Abergavenny grew as a town in early Norman times under the protection of the Lords of Abergavenny. The first Baron was Hamelin de Balun, from Ballon, a small town and castle in Maine-Anjou called "Gateway to Maine", near Le Mans, today in the Sarthe département of France. He founded the Benedictine priory, now the Priory Church of St Mary, in the late 11th century. The Priory belonged originally to the Benedictine foundation of St. Vincent Abbaye at Le Mans. It was subsequently endowed by William de Braose, with a tenth or "tithe" of the profits of the castle and town. The church contains some unique alabaster effigies, church monuments and unique medieval wood carving, such as the Tree of Jesse.

12th and 13th centuries

Owing to its geographical location, the town was frequently embroiled in the border warfare and power play of the 12th and 13th centuries in the Welsh Marches. In 1175, Abergavenny Castle was the site of the Massacre. Reference to a market at Abergavenny is found in a charter granted to the Prior by William de Braose (d. 1211).

15th to 17th centuries

Abergavenny and Holy Mountain in the 1890s

Owain Glyndŵr attacked Abergavenny in 1404. According to popular legend, his raiders gained access to the walled town with the aid of a local woman who sympathised with the rebellion, letting a small party in via the Market Street gate at midnight. They were able to open the gate and allow a much larger party who set fire to the town and plundered its churches and homes leaving Abergavenny Castle intact. Market Street has been referred to as Traitors' Lane thereafter. In 1404 Abergavenny was declared its own nation by Ieuan ab Owain Glyndŵr, illegitimate son of Owain Glyndŵr. The arrangement lasted approximately two weeks.

At the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1541, the priory's endowment went towards the foundation of a free grammar school, King Henry VIII Grammar School, the site itself passing to the Gunter family.

During the Civil War, prior to the siege of Raglan Castle in 1645, King Charles I visited Abergavenny and presided in person over the trial of Sir Trefor Williams, 1st Baronet of Llangibby, a Royalist who changed sides, and other Parliamentarians.

In 1639, Abergavenny received a charter of incorporation under the title of bailiff and burgesses. A charter with extended privileges was drafted in 1657, but appears never to have been enrolled or to have come into effect. Owing to the refusal of the chief officers of the corporation to take the oath of allegiance to William III in 1688, the charter was annulled, and the town subsequently declined in prosperity. Chapter 28 of the 1535 Act of Henry VIII, which provided that Monmouth, as county town, should return one burgess to Parliament, further stated that other ancient Monmouthshire boroughs were to contribute towards the payment of the member. In consequence of this clause Abergavenny on various occasions shared in the election, the last instance being in 1685.

The right to hold two weekly markets and three yearly fairs, beginning in the 13th century, was held ever since as confirmed in 1657. Abergavenny was celebrated for the production of Welsh flannel, and also for the manufacture, whilst the fashion prevailed, of goats' hair periwigs.

19th and 20th centuries

Abergavenny Boys National School c. 1865

Abergavenny railway station opened 2 January 1854 by the Newport, Abergavenny and Hereford Railway. The London North Western Railway sponsored the construction of the railway linking Newport station to Hereford station. The line was taken over by the West Midland Railway in 1860 before becoming part of the Great Western Railway in 1863. The station is on the Welsh Marches Line and is mostly served by Arriva Trains Wales services. Adolf Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess was kept under escort at Maindiff Court Military Hospital during the Second World War, after his flight to Britain.[8]

Baron of Abergavenny

The title of Baron Abergavenny, in the Nevill family, dates from Edward Nevill, 3rd Baron Bergavenny (d. 1476), who was the youngest son of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland by his second wife Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, first Duke of Lancaster. He married the heiress of Richard de Beauchamp, 1st Earl of Worcester, whose father had inherited the castle and estate of Abergavenny, and was summoned in 1392 to parliament as Lord Bergavenny. Edward Nevill was summoned to parliament with this title in 1450. His direct male descendants ended in 1587 in Henry Nevill, 6th Baron Bergavenny, but a cousin, Edward Nevill, 8th Baron Bergavenny (d. 1622), was confirmed in the Barony in 1604. From him it has descended continuously, through fifteen individuals, the title being increased to an Earldom in 1784; and in 1876 William Nevill [sic] 5th Earl (b. 1826), (d.1915) an indefatigable and powerful supporter of the Tory Party, was created 1st Marquess of Abergavenny.

Coldbrook Park was a country house in an estate some 2 km south east of the town. The house was originally built in the 14th century and belonged to the Herbert family for many generations until purchased by John Hanbury for his son, the diplomat Sir [10]

Welsh language

In recent decades the number of Welsh speakers in the town has increased dramatically. The 2001 census recorded 10% of the local population spoke the language, a five fold increase over ten years from the figure of 2% recorded in 1991.[11]

The town has one of the two Welsh-medium primary schools in Monmouthshire, Ysgol Gymraeg y Fenni,[12] which was founded in the early 1990s. It is also home to the Abergavenny Welsh society, Cymreigyddion y Fenni,[13] and the local Abergavenny Eisteddfod.[14]

Sporting traditions

Abergavenny is the home of Abergavenny Thursdays F.C., which was formed in 1927, and is currently a member of the Gwent County League Division 3. The club's current position comes within 15 years of their being one of the top sides in Welsh football, winning the old format Welsh Football League in 1991 and 1992, but being relegated in 1993 after just one season in the newly formed League of Wales. The club suffered relegation from the Welsh Football League in 2001 and has since slipped down through the next two divisions into its current position, although the future is now looking brighter.

Abergavenny Cricket Club play at Pen-y-Pound and plays in the South Wales Doubles League and Aegon Team Tennis. The club engages the services of a head tennis professional to run a coaching programme for the town and was crowned Tennis Wales' Club of the Year in 2010.

Abergavenny is also the home of Abergavenny RFC, a rugby union club founded in 1875 who play at Bailey Park. They play in the Welsh Rugby Union Division Two East league. Abergavenny Hockey Club, formed in 1897, currently compete in the Davis Woods hockey league and play at the Old Hereford Road ground. Abergavenny hosted the British National Cycling Championships in 2007, 2009 and 2014, as part of the town's Festival of Cycling.[15]

Markets and fairs

Cattle market

A cattle market has been held in Abergavenny on its current site since 1863.[4] During the period 1825–1863 a sheep market was held at a site in Castle Street, to stop the sale of sheep on the streets of the town. Today the market is leased and operated by Abergavenny Market Auctioneers Ltd, who hold regular livestock auctions on the site. Market days are: Tuesday – auction sale of finished sheep, cull ewe/store and fodder (hay and straw). Some Fridays - auction sale of cattle. A few other sales are held at the market on other days throughout the year. Following the closure of Newport's cattle market for redevelopment, Newport’s sales are held at Abergavenny every Wednesday.

In 2011, doubts about the future of Abergavenny Cattle Market were raised following the granting of planning permission by Monmouthshire County Council for its demolition and replacement with a supermarket, car park, and library.[16]

In January 2012, the Welsh Government announced the repeal the Abergavenny Improvement Acts of 1854 to 1871 which obliged the holding of a livestock market within the boundaries of Abergavenny town;[17] that repeal being effective from 26 March 2012.[18]

Monmouthshire County Council, which requested that the Abergavenny Improvement Acts be repealed, is supporting plans for a new cattle market to be established about ten miles from Abergavenny in countryside at Bryngwyn, some three miles from Raglan. There has been extensive local opposition to this site, which is situated on a notoriously dangerous B road.

The Market Hall

Abergavenny Market Hall in 2009

Various markets are held in the Market Hall, for example: Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays – retail market; Wednesdays – flea market; fourth Thursday of each month - farmers' market; third Sunday of each month – antique fair; second Saturday of each month – craft fair.

Culture

  • Abergavenny hosted the National Eisteddfod of Wales in 1838 and 1913. It will host the next one in 2016.
  • Lord Abergavenny is a character in William Shakespeare's play Henry VIII.
  • In 1968 Abergavenny was the title of a UK single by Marty Wilde. In 1969 it was also released in the US, under the pseudonym "Shannon", where it was also a minor hit.[19]
  • In 1996 a film, Intimate Relations starring Julie Walters, Rupert Graves, Les Dennis and Amanda Holden was filmed at many locations in and around Abergavenny.
  • The town's local radio stations are currently Sunshine Radio, at 107.8 FM, and NH Sound 1287 AM.
  • Abergavenny is twinned with Östringen in Germany, Beaupréau in France and Sarno in Italy.
  • The pop-rock band Ruby Cruiser came from Abergavenny, releasing an album on One Little Indian records in 1999.
  • Abergavenny is home to an award winning brass band.[20] Formed in Abergavenny prior to 1884[21] the band became joint National Welsh League Champions in 2006[22] and SEWBBA and again joint National Welsh League Champions in 2011.[23] The band also operate a Junior Band training local young musicians
  • Sherlock Holmes refers, in The Adventure of the Priory School, to a case he's working on in Abergavenny.[24]
  • In the book Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Abergavenny is mentioned by Stan Shunpike, the conductor of the Knight Bus when the bus takes a detour there to drop off a passenger.
  • In the classic 70s period drama Upstairs, Downstairs, a major character in the second season, which is circa 1909-10, is Thomas Watkins, the devious Bellamy family chauffeur. Watkins came from Abergavenny. In the 1979 spinoff of Upstairs, Downstairs entitled Thomas & Sarah, Watkins and Sarah Moffat, another major character, marry and return briefly to Abergavenny.
  • Abergavenny has the The Borough Theater, which hosts live events covering drama, opera, ballet, music, children’s events, dance, comedy, storytelling, tribute bands and talks.[25]

During September the town holds the Abergavenny Food Festival.

Notable people

See also Category:People from Abergavenny

Buildings of note

From 1851, the Monmouthshire Lunatic Asylum, later Pen-y-Fal Hospital, a psychiatric hospital, stood on the outskirts of Abergavenny. Between 1851 and 1950, over 3,000 patients died at the hospital. A memorial plaque for the deceased has now been placed at the site. After closure in the 1990s, its buildings and grounds were redeveloped as a luxury housing development comprising houses as well as apartments. Some psychiatric services are now administered from Maindiff Court Hospital on the outskirts of the town, close to the foot of the Skirrid mountain. The hospital is housed in historic buildings, and is known for Rudolf Hess who was incarcerated here during WW2.

Twin towns


Abergavenny as seen from the Monmouthshire Canal 2014, with the Skirrid in the centre of the picture, and showing its characteristic notched outline

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c
  5. ^ Geograph British Isles – The Blorenge from the B4598 road at Ty'r-pwll
  6. ^ Geograph British Isles – River Usk with Sugar Loaf in background
  7. ^ Hywel Wyn Owen, The Place-Names of Wales, 1998, ISBN 0-7083-1458-9
  8. ^ BBC. WW2 People's War – Marjorie's War
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ Minutes of the Planning Committee held at County Hall, Cwmbran on 14 June 2011
  17. ^ , 12 January 2012Law change spells end for Abergavenny cattle marketBBC News,
  18. ^ The Abergavenny Improvement Act 1854 (Repeal) Order 2012, 12 January 2012
  19. ^ Shannon - Songs
  20. ^ Welcome to Abergavenny Borough Brass Band
  21. ^ History of Abergavenny Borough Brass Band in South Wales
  22. ^ Archived News 2006 at Abergavenny Borough Band
  23. ^ Current News at Abergavenny Borough Band
  24. ^ Sherlock Holmes - The Adventure of the Priory School Page 02
  25. ^ http://www.boroughtheatreabergavenny.co.uk/home.htm
  26. ^

Sources

External links

  • Abergavenny Borough Band
  • Abergavenny and District Round Table
  • Abergavenny Food Festival
  • Abergavenny Forum
  • Abergavenny Museum
  • BBC, South East Wales – Feature on Abergavenny
  • Geograph British Isles – Photos of Abergavenny and surrounding areas

Abergavenny

Subcategories

This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.

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