World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Adam's apple

Article Id: WHEBN0000381794
Reproduction Date:

Title: Adam's apple  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Neck, Harisu, Surface anatomy, Adam's apple (disambiguation), Secondary sexual characteristics
Collection: Adam and Eve, Human Head and Neck, Secondary Sexual Characteristics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Adam's apple

Laryngeal prominence
Front view of the laryngeal prominence.
Details
Latin Prominentia laryngea
Precursor 4th and 6th branchial arch
Identifiers
Dorlands
/Elsevier
12669875
Anatomical terminology

The laryngeal prominence (commonly referred to as Adam's apple), a feature of the human neck, is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx.

Contents

  • Structure 1
    • Sex difference 1.1
  • Function 2
  • Society and culture 3
  • History 4
    • Etymology 4.1
  • Additional images 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Structure

The structure of the laryngeal prominence forms a bump under the skin. It is larger in adult men, in whom it is usually clearly visible and palpable. In women, the bump is much less visible and is hardly perceived on the upper edge of the thyroid cartilage.[1]

The meeting point of the two portions of the cartilage generally forms an acute angle (of about 90°) in men, while in women it forms an open arc (of about 120°).

Sex difference

Although both sexes have it, the Adam's apple is considered to be a characteristic feature of adult men, because its size tends to increase considerably during puberty.[2]

Its development is considered a secondary sexual characteristic of males that appears as a result of hormonal activity. Its level of development varies among individuals and the widening of that area in the larynx can occur very suddenly and quickly.

The laryngeal prominence is more prominent in adult males than in females because of the difference in the size of the angle: 90° in males and 120° in females.

Function

The Adam's apple, in conjunction with the thyroid cartilage which forms it, helps to protect the walls and the frontal part of the larynx, including the vocal cords (which are located directly behind it).

Another function of the laryngeal prominence is related to the deepening of the voice. During adolescence, the thyroid cartilage grows together with the larynx. Consequently, the laryngeal prominence grows in size mainly in men. Together, a larger soundboard is made up in phonation apparatus and, as a result, the man gets a deeper voice note.[3][4]

Society and culture

Cosmetic surgery to reduce the size of laryngeal prominence is called chondrolaryngoplasty (thyroid chondroplasty). The surgery is effective, such that complications tend to be few and, if present, transient.[5]

History

Etymology

An example of male laryngeal prominence.

There are two main theories as to the origin of the term "Adam's apple". The "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable" and the 1913 edition of Webster's Dictionary point at an ancient belief that a piece of forbidden fruit was embedded in Adam's throat (the first man, according to Abrahamic religions).[6] However, neither the Bible nor other Judeo-Christian writings mention such a story. In fact, the biblical story does not even specify the type of fruit that Adam ate.[7]

Linguist Alexander Gode claimed that the Latin phrase to designate the laryngeal prominence was very probably translated incorrectly from the beginning. The phrase in Latin was "pomum Adami" (literally: 'Adam's apple'). This, in turn, came from the Hebrew "tappuach ha adam" meaning "apple of man". The confusion lies in the fact that in Hebrew language the proper name "Adam" (אדם) literally means "man", while the late Hebrew word used to refer "bump" is very similar to the word used to refer "apple".[8][9] Proponents of this version contend that the subsequent phrases in Latin and other Romance languages represent a mistranslation from the start.[10]

The medical term "prominentia laryngea" was introduced by the Basle Nomina Anatomica in 1895.[11]

In the American South, goozle is used colloquially to describe the Adam's apple, likely derived from guzzle.[12][13][14][15]

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ "Laringe". Sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  2. ^ "Prominentia laryngea Medical Term Medical Dictionary". Medicine Online. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ P. J. Bentley (1980), "Endocrine Pharmacology: Physiological Basis and Therapeutic Applications", CUP Archive, pág 240
  4. ^ "Pubertad, nuestras diferencias". Esmas.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  5. ^ Wolfort FG, Dejerine ES, Ramos DJ, Parry RG (1990). "Chondrolaryngoplasty for appearance". Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86 (3): 464–9; discussion 470.  
  6. ^ E. Cobham Brewer (1810–1897). Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898. "Adam's Apple"
  7. ^ George Crabb (1823), "Universal technological dictionary", Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, "Pomum Ada'mi"
  8. ^ William S. Haubrich (2003), "Medical Meanings: A Glossary of Word Origins", ACP Press, pág 5.
  9. ^ "Adam's apple". Medicine.academic.ru. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  10. ^ Robert B. Taylor (2008), "White Coat Tales: Medicine's Heroes, Heritage and Misadventures", Springer, pág 82.
  11. ^ Axel Karenberg, Amor, Äskulap & Co: klassische Mythologie in der Sprache der modernen Medizin, Schattauer, Stuttgart 2006, S. 128-129.
  12. ^ Morris, Evan (November 2008). "Goozle « The Word Detective". The Word Detective. Retrieved 22 December 2014. If we follow 'goozle' back a bit further, we come to an interesting intersection with a far more common word, 'guzzle.' 
  13. ^ Roy Blount, Jr. (29 September 2009). Alphabet Juice: The Energies, Gists, and Spirits of Letters, Words, and Combinations Thereof; Their Roots, Bones, Innards, Piths, Pips, and Secret Parts, Tinctures, Tonics, and Essences; With Examples of Their Usage Foul and Savory. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.  
  14. ^ Roy Wilder (1 September 1998). You All Spoken Here. University of Georgia Press. p. 55.  
  15. ^ "goozle | Dictionary of American Regional English". Directory of American Regional English. University of Wisconsin–Madison. Retrieved 22 December 2014. gullet, windpipe, or Adam’s apple. [Varr of guzzle 1] chiefly Sth, S Midl 

External links

  • lesson11 at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.