World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

 

Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

Sleeve lace
Shoulder board
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags.[1]

Admiral of the Fleet is the highest rank of the British Royal Navy (NATO rank code OF-10) although routine appointments ceased in 1995. It is a five-star rank, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force.

Contents

  • History in Royal Navy 1
  • Admirals of the Fleet 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Sources 5
  • External links 6

History in Royal Navy

The rank evolved from sailing days and the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a vice-admiral and a rear admiral. In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The admiral of the red was pre-eminent and became known as the admiral of the fleet.[2]

The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. When the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828 (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904), the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time.

Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, and four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) had not seen service in the Royal Navy.

During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Naval Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. However, the rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet.[3]

Admirals of the Fleet

Appointed
Image
Name
Born
Died
Notes
Reference
1690 Russell, EdwardEdward Russell (later Earl of Orford) 1652 1727 [4]
1696 Rooke, Sir GeorgeSir George Rooke 1650 1709 circa [5]
13 January 1705 Shovell, Sir CloudesleySir Cloudesley Shovell 1650 1707 [6]
8 January 1708 Leake JohnSir John Leake 1656 1720 [7]
21 December 1708 Fairborne StaffordSir Stafford Fairborne 1666 1742 circa [8]
12 November 1709 Aylmer MatthewSir Matthew Aylmer 1650 1720 [9]
14 March 1718 Byng GeorgeSir George Byng (later Viscount Torrington) 1663 1733 [10]
20 February 1734 Norris JohnSir John Norris 1670 1749 [11]
1 July 1749 Ogle ChallonerSir Chaloner Ogle 1681 1750 [12]
22 November 1751 Steuart JamesJames Steuart 1690 1757 [13]
March 1757 Clinton GeorgeThe Hon. George Clinton 1686 1761 [14]
30 July 1761 AnsonThe Lord Anson 1697 1762 [15]
17 December 1762 Rowley WilliamSir William Rowley 1690 1768 circa [16]
15 January 1768 Hawke EdwardSir Edward Hawke (later Lord Hawke) 1705 1781 [17]
24 October 1781 Luke O'KeefeThe Hon. John Forbes 1714 1796 [18]
12 March 1796 HoweThe Earl Howe 1726 1799 [19]
16 September 1799 Parker PeterSir Peter Parker 1721 1811 [20]
24 December 1811 Clarence and Saint AndrewsThe Duke of Clarence and St Andrews (later King William IV) 1765 1837 [21]
19 July 1821 Saint VincentThe Earl of St Vincent 1735 1823 acting from May 1814 [22]
28 June 1830 Williams-Freeman WilliamWilliam Williams-Freeman 1742 1832 [23]
22 July 1830 GambierThe Lord Gambier 1756 1833 [24]
22 July 1830 Pole CharlesSir Charles Pole 1757 1830 [25]
24 April 1833 Nugent CharlesSir Charles Nugent 1759 1844 [26]
8 January 1844 Hawkins-Whitshed JamesSir James Hawkins-Whitshed 1762 1849 [27]
9 November 1846 Martin GeorgeSir George Martin 1764 1847 [28]
13 October 1849 Martin ThomasSir Thomas Byam Martin 1773 1854 [29]
1 July 1851 Cockburn GeorgeSir George Cockburn 1772 1853 [30]
8 December 1857 Ogle CharlesSir Charles Ogle 1775 1858 [31]
25 June 1858 West JohnSir John West 1774 1862 [32]
20 May 1862 Gage WilliamSir William Gage 1777 1864 [33]
10 November 1862 Hamond GrahamSir Graham Hamond 1779 1862 [34]
27 April 1863 Austen FrancisSir Francis Austen 1774 1865 [35]
27 April 1863 Parker WilliamSir William Parker 1781 1866 [36]
11 January 1864 Curtis LuciusSir Lucius Curtis 1786 1869 [37]
12 September 1865 Cochrane ThomasSir Thomas Cochrane 1789 1872 [38]
30 November 1866 Seymour GeorgeSir George Seymour 1787 1870 [39]
30 January 1868 Gordon JamesSir James Gordon 1782 1869 on the Retired List [40]
15 January 1869 Bowles WilliamSir William Bowles 1780 1869 [41]
2 July 1869 Sartorious GeorgeSir George Sartorius 1790 1885 [42]
21 January 1870 Moresby FairfaxSir Fairfax Moresby 1786 1877 [43]
20 October 1872 Stewart HoustonSir Houston Stewart 1791 1875 [44]
11 December 1875 Wallis ProvoSir Provo Wallis 1791 1892 [45]
22 January 1877 Codrington HenrySir Henry Codrington 1808 1877 [46]
5 August 1877 Keppel HenrySir Henry Keppel 1809 1904 [47]
27 December 1877 LauderdaleThe Earl of Lauderdale 1803 1878 [48]
27 December 1877 Mundy RodneySir Rodney Mundy 1805 1884 [49]
15 June 1879 Hope JamesSir James Hope 1808 1881 [50]
15 June 1879 Symonds ThomasSir Thomas Symonds 1813 1894 [50]
10 June 1881 Milne AlexanderSir Alexander Milne, Bt. 1806 1896 on the Retired List [51]
1 December 1881 Elliot CharlesSir Charles Elliot 1818 1895 [52]
29 April 1885 Ryder AlfredSir Alfred Ryder 1820 1888 [53]
18 July 1887 WalesThe Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) 1841 1910 honorary to non-Navy royalty [54]
1 May 1888 Hornby GeoffreySir Geoffrey Hornby 1825 1895 [55]
8 December 1888 Hay JohnLord John Hay 1827 1916 [56]
2 August 1889 William IIHIM German Emperor William II 1859 1941 honorary, to foreign royalty [57]
13 February 1892 Commerell JohnSir John Commerell 1829 1901 [58]
3 June 1893 EdinburghThe Duke of Edinburgh (later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) 1844 1900 [59]
20 February 1895 ClanwilliamThe Earl of Clanwilliam 1832 1907 [60]
23 August 1897 Lyons AlgernonSir Algernon Lyons 1833 1908 [61]
29 November 1898 Richards FrederickSir Frederick Richards 1833 1912 [62]
13 January 1899 Salmon NowellSir Nowell Salmon 1835 1912 [63]
3 October 1902 Erskine JamesSir James Erskine 1838 1911 [64]
30 August 1903 Hotham CharlesSir Charles Hotham 1843 1925 [65]
16 June 1904 Kerr WalterLord Walter Kerr 1839 1927 [66]
20 February 1905 Seymour EdwardSir Edward Seymour 1840 1929 [67]
5 December 1905 Fisher JohnSir John Fisher (later Lord Fisher) 1841 1920 [68]
1 March 1907 Wilson ArthurSir Arthur Wilson 1842 1921 [69]
11 June 1908 Nicholas IIHIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia 1868 1918 honorary, to foreign royalty [70]
2 December 1908 Noel GerardSir Gerard Noel 1845 1918 [71]
27 January 1910 Heinrich of PrussiaPrince Heinrich of Prussia 1862 1929 honorary, to foreign royalty [72]
30 April 1910 Fanshawe ArthurSir Arthur Fanshawe 1847 1936 [73]
6 May 1910 George V King George V 1865 1936 [74]
20 March 1913 May WilliamSir William May 1849 1930 [75]
5 March 1915 Meux HedworthThe Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux 1856 1929 [76]
2 April 1917 Callaghan GeorgeSir George Callaghan 1852 1920 [77]
3 April 1919 JellicoeThe Viscount Jellicoe (later Earl Jellicoe) 1859 1935 [78]
3 April 1919 Beatty DavidSir David Beatty (later Earl Beatty) 1871 1936 [79]
31 July 1919 Jackson HenrySir Henry Jackson 1855 1929 [80]
1 November 1919 Wemyss RosslynSir Rosslyn Wemyss (later Lord Wester Wemyss) 1864 1933 [81]
24 November 1920 Burney CecilSir Cecil Burney, Bt. 1858 1929 [82]
5 July 1921 Sturdee DovetonSir Doveton Sturdee, Bt. 1859 1925 [83]
22 August 1921 Milford HavenThe Marquess of Milford Haven 1854 1921 on the Retired List [84]
31 July 1924 Madden CharlesSir Charles Madden, Bt. 1862 1935 [85]
8 May 1925 Calthorpe SomersetThe Honourable Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 1864 1937 [86]
24 November 1925 de Robeck JohnSir John de Robeck, Bt. 1862 1928 [87]
21 January 1928 Oliver HenrySir Henry Oliver 1865 1965 [88]
31 July 1929 Brock OsmondSir Osmond Brock 1869 1947 [89]
8 May 1930 Keyes RogerSir Roger Keyes, Bt. (later Lord Keyes) 1872 1945 [90]
21 January 1933 Field FrederickSir Frederick Field 1871 1945 [91]
31 July 1934 Tyrwhitt ReginaldSir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt. 1870 1951 [92]
8 May 1935 Chatfield ErnleSir Ernle Chatfield (later Lord Chatfield) 1873 1967 [93]
21 January 1936 Edward VIIIKing Edward VIII 1894 1972 [94]
12 July 1936 Kelly JohnSir John Kelly 1871 1936 [95]
11 December 1936 George VIKing George VI 1895 1952 [96]
21 January 1938 CorkThe Earl of Cork and Orrery 1873 1967 [97]
7 July 1939 Backhouse RogerSir Roger Backhouse 1878 1939 [98]
31 July 1939 Pound DudleySir Dudley Pound 1877 1943 [99]
8 May 1940 Forbes CharlesSir Charles Forbes 1880 1960 [100]
21 January 1943 Cunningham AndrewSir Andrew Cunningham (later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope) 1883 1963 [101]
22 October 1943 Tovey JohnSir John Tovey (later Lord Tovey) 1885 1971 [102]
8 May 1945 Somerville JohnSir James Somerville 1882 1949 [103]
21 January 1948 Cunningham JohnSir John Cunningham 1885 1965 [104]
22 October 1948 Fraser of North CapeThe Lord Fraser of North Cape 1888 1981 [105]
20 March 1949 Willis AlgernonSir Algernon Willis 1889 1976 [106]
22 April 1952 Power ArthurSir Arthur Power 1889 1960 [107]
1 June 1952 Vian PhilipSir Philip Vian 1894 1968 [108]
15 January 1953 EdinburghThe Duke of Edinburgh 1921 Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011– [109]
1 May 1953 McGrigor RhoderickSir Rhoderick McGrigor 1893 1959 [110]
22 April 1955 Creasy GeorgeSir George Creasy 1895 1972 [111]
22 October 1956 Mountbatten of BurmaThe Earl Mountbatten of Burma 1900 1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–65 [112]
10 May 1960 Lambe CharlesSir Charles Lambe 1900 1960 [113]
23 May 1962 John CasparSir Caspar John 1903 1984 [114]
12 August 1968 Begg VarylSir Varyl Begg 1908 1995 [115]
30 June 1970 Le Fanu MichaelSir Michael Le Fanu 1913 1970 [116]
12 March 1971 Hill-Norton PeterSir Peter Hill-Norton (later Lord Hill-Norton) 1915 2004 First Sea Lord 1970–1971
Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73
[117]
1 March 1974 Pollock MichaelSir Michael Pollock 1916 2006 First Sea Lord 1971–1974 [118]
9 February 1977 Ashmore EdwardSir Edward Ashmore 1919 First Sea Lord 1977-1977
Chief of the Defence Staff 1977
[119]
6 July 1979 Lewin TerenceSir Terence Lewin (later Lord Lewin) 1920 1999 First Sea Lord 1977–1979
Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–82
[120]
1 December 1982 Leach HenrySir Henry Leach 1923 2011 First Sea Lord 1979–1982 [121]
2 August 1985 Fieldhouse JohnSir John Fieldhouse (later Lord Fieldhouse) 1928 1992 First Sea Lord 1982–1985
Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–88
[122]
12 April 1988 King Olav V of Norway 1903 1991 honorary, to foreign royalty [123]
25 May 1989 Staveley WilliamSir William Staveley 1928 1997 First Sea Lord 1985–1989 [124]
2 March 1992 Oswald JulianSir Julian Oswald 1933 2011 First Sea Lord 1989–1993 [125]
10 July 1995 Bathhurst BenjaminSir Benjamin Bathurst 1936 First Sea Lord 1993–1995 [126]
16 June 2012 WalesThe Prince of Wales 1948 Honorary rank. Promoted 16 June 2012 [127]
13 June 2014 Boyce MichaelMichael Boyce, Baron Boyce 1943 Honorary rank. Promoted 13 June 2014 [128]

See also

References

  1. ^ Prothero, David (3 December 2002). "United Kingdom: Royal Navy rank flags". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2006. 
  2. ^ "Squadronal Colours of the Royal Navy". Royal Naval Museum. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  3. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  4. ^ "Russell, Edward, Earl of Orford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "Rooke, Sir George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "Shovell, Sir Cloudesley". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  7. ^ "Leake, Sir John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  8. ^ "Fairborne, Stafford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  9. ^ "Aylmer, Matthew". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  10. ^ "Byng, George, first Viscount Torrington". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  11. ^ Heathcote, p. 197
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 8864. p. 6. 4 July 1749. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  13. ^ Heathcote p. 236
  14. ^ Heathcote, p. 45
  15. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10126. p. 2. 28 July 1761. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: no. 10275. p. 1. 1 January 1763. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  17. ^ Heathcote, p. 109
  18. ^ Heathcote, p. 87
  19. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13875. p. 258. 15 March 1796. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  20. ^ Heathcote, p. 271
  21. ^ The London Gazette: no. 16554. p. 2454. 21 December 1811. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  22. ^ The London Gazette: no. 17727. p. 1511. 20 July 1821. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  23. ^ The London Gazette: no. 18701. p. 1369. 2 July 1830. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  24. ^ The London Gazette: no. 18709. p. 1539. 23 July 1830. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  25. ^ The London Gazette: no. 18709. p. 1539. 23 July 1830. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  26. ^ The London Gazette: no. 19042. p. 793. 26 April 1833. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  27. ^ The London Gazette: no. 20305. p. 146. 16 January 1844. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  28. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 20660. p. 3994. 10 November 1846. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  29. ^ The London Gazette: no. 21037. p. 3387. 13 November 1849. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  30. ^ The London Gazette: no. 21225. p. 1769. 8 July 1851. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
  31. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22071. p. 4367. 11 December 1857. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  32. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22157. p. 3090. 29 June 1858. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  33. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22627. p. 2616. 20 May 1862. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
  34. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22679. p. 5343. 10 November 1862. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  35. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22730. p. 2246. 28 April 1863. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  36. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22730. p. 2246. 28 April 1863. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  37. ^ The London Gazette: no. 22806. p. 157. 12 January 1864. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  38. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23014. p. 4466. 15 September 1865. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  39. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23187. p. 6158. 20 November 1866. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  40. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23349. p. 537. 4 February 1868. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  41. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23462. p. 407. 26 January 1869. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  42. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23516. p. 3958. 13 July 1869. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  43. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23582. p. 598. 1 February 1870. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  44. ^ The London Gazette: no. 23915. p. 5106. 1 November 1872. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  45. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24278. p. 6577. 24 December 1875. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  46. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24411. p. 436. 30 January 1877. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  47. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24497. p. 4957. 24 August 1877. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  48. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24537. p. 2. 1 January 1878. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  49. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24537. p. 2. 1 January 1878. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  50. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 24734. p. 3967. 17 June 1879. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  51. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24997. p. 3548. 19 July 1881. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
  52. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25044. p. 6470. 2 December 1881. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  53. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25466. p. 1984. 1 May 1885. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  54. ^ Heathcote, p. 68
  55. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25816. p. 2766. 15 May 1888. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  56. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25883. p. 7140. 14 December 1888. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  57. ^ Heathcote, p. 261
  58. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26262. p. 1108. 26 February 1892. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  59. ^ Heathcote, p. 10
  60. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26601. p. 1066. 22 February 1895. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  61. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26885. p. 4726. 24 August 1897. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  62. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27029. p. 7818. 2 December 1898. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  63. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27043. p. 298. 17 January 1899. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  64. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27483. p. 6569. 17 October 1902. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  65. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27593. p. 5476. 1 September 1903. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  66. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27692. p. 4259. 5 July 1904. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  67. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27766. p. 1279. 21 February 1905. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  68. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27861. p. 8812. 8 December 1905. Retrieved 1 February 2008.
  69. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28001. p. 1574. 5 March 1907. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  70. ^ Heathcote, p. 192
  71. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28201. p. 9182. 1 December 1908. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  72. ^ Heathcote, p. 113
  73. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28362. p. 3063. 3 May 1910. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  74. ^ Heathcote, p. 98
  75. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28703. p. 2159. 21 March 1913. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  76. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29094. p. 2365. 9 March 1915. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  77. ^ The London Gazette: no. 30008. p. 3206. 3 April 1917. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  78. ^ The London Gazette: no. 31327. p. 5653. 6 May 1919. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  79. ^ The London Gazette: no. 31327. p. 5653. 6 May 1919. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  80. ^ The London Gazette: no. 31489. p. 9961. 5 August 1919. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  81. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31715. p. 57. 2 January 1920. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  82. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32150. p. 11942. 3 December 1920. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
  83. ^ The London Gazette: no. 32394. p. 5733. 19 July 1921. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  84. ^ Order in Council of 19 August 1921; ADM 196/38
  85. ^ The London Gazette: no. 32962. p. 5889. 5 August 1924. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  86. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33049. p. 3445. 22 May 1925. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  87. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33110. p. 7950. 1 December 1925. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  88. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33354. p. 856. 7 February 1928. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  89. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33523. p. 5145. 6 August 1929. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  90. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33604. p. 2867. 9 May 1930. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
  91. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33905. p. 524. 24 January 1933. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  92. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34076. p. 5054. 7 August 1934. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  93. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34159. p. 3048. 10 May 1935. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
  94. ^ Heathcote, p. 69
  95. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34308. p. 4742. 24 July 1936. Retrieved 27 September 2014.
  96. ^ Heathcote, p. 99
  97. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34476. p. 512. 25 January 1938. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
  98. ^ Heathcote, p. 21
  99. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34651. p. 5393. 4 August 1939. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  100. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34849. p. 2892. 14 May 1940. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  101. ^ Heathcote, p. 60
  102. ^ The London Gazette: no. 36255. p. 5088. 19 November 1943. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
  103. ^ Heathcote, p. 233
  104. ^ The London Gazette: no. 38210. p. 1128. 17 February 1948. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  105. ^ Heathcote, p. 90
  106. ^ The London Gazette: no. 38595. p. 2052. 26 April 1949. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  107. ^ The London Gazette: no. 39571. p. 3238. 13 June 1952. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  108. ^ The London Gazette: no. 39606. p. 3999. 25 July 1952. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  109. ^ Heathcote, p. 210
  110. ^ Heathcote, p. 162
  111. ^ The London Gazette: no. 40487. p. 3011. 24 May 1955. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  112. ^ The London Gazette: no. 40927. p. 6492. 16 November 1956. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  113. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 42058. p. 4037. 7 June 1960. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  114. ^ The London Gazette: no. 42704. p. 4777. 15 June 1962. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
  115. ^ Heathcote, p. 29
  116. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 45138. p. 7183. 26 June 1970. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  117. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 45331. p. 2937. 30 March 1971. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  118. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 46225. p. 2887. 4 March 1974. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  119. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 47160. p. 2825. 1 March 1977. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  120. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 47904. p. 8998. 16 July 1979. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  121. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 49174. p. 15293. 22 November 1982. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  122. ^ Heathcote, p.78
  123. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 51297. p. 4327. 12 April 1988. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
  124. ^ Heathcote, p. 235
  125. ^ Heathcote, p. 204
  126. ^ Heathcote, p. 23
  127. ^ The London Gazette: no. 60350. p. 23557. 7 December 2012.
  128. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 

Sources

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd.  

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.