World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000065707
Reproduction Date:

Title: Aerobatics  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Caproni Vizzola 2, Charlie Hillard, Solo Display Team, Aerobatics, AeroSuperBatics Ltd
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Patty Wagstaff show at JeffCo Airport in Denver, Colorado

Aerobatics is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight.[1][2] Aerobatics are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, recreation, entertainment, and sport. Additionally, some helicopters, such as the MBB Bo 105, are capable of limited aerobatic maneuvers.[3] The term is sometimes referred to as acrobatics, especially when translated.

Most aerobatic maneuvers involve rotation of the aircraft about its longitudinal (roll) axis or lateral (pitch) axis. Other maneuvers, such as a spin, displace the aircraft about its vertical (yaw) axis.[4] Maneuvers are often combined to form a complete aerobatic sequence for entertainment or competition. Aerobatic flying requires a broader set of piloting skills and exposes the aircraft to greater structural stress than for normal flight.[5] In some countries, the pilot must wear a parachute when performing aerobatics.[6]

While many pilots fly aerobatics for recreation, some choose to fly in aerobatic competitions, a refereed sport.[7]


In the early days of flying, some pilots used their aircraft as part of a flying circus to entertain. Among the earliest innovators in aerobatics the Frenchman Euclid's name is foremost.

Maneuvers were flown for artistic reasons or to draw gasps from onlookers. In due course some of these maneuvers were found to allow aircraft to gain tactical advantage during aerial combat or dogfights between fighter aircraft.

Aerobatic aircraft fall into two categories—specialist aerobatic, and aerobatic capable. Specialist designs such as the Pitts Special, the Extra 200 and 300, and the Sukhoi Su-26M and Sukhoi Su-29 aim for ultimate aerobatic performance. This comes at the expense of general purpose use such as touring, or ease of non aerobatic handling such as landing. At a more basic level, aerobatic capable aircraft, such as the Cessna 152 Aerobat model, can be dual purpose—equipped to carrying passengers and luggage, as well as being capable of basic aerobatic figures.

Flight formation aerobatics are flown by teams of up to sixteen aircraft, although most teams fly between four and ten aircraft.[8] Some are state funded to reflect pride in the armed forces while others are commercially sponsored. Coloured smoke trails may be emitted to emphasise the patterns flown and/or the colours of a national flag. Usually each team will use aircraft similar to one another finished in a special and dramatic colour scheme, thus emphasising their entertainment function.

Teams often fly V-formations (otherwise known as echelon formation)— they will not fly directly behind another aircraft because of danger from wake vortices or engine exhaust. Aircraft will always fly slightly below the aircraft in front, if they have to follow in line (the "trail formation").

The UK Swift Aerobatic Display Team at Kemble Battle of Britain Weekend 2009. A Swift glider is performing continuous full rolls while towed by a Piper Pawnee

Aerobatic maneuvers flown in a jet-powered aircraft are limited in scope as they cannot take advantage of the gyroscopic forces that a propeller driven aircraft can exploit. Jet-powered aircraft also tend to fly much faster, which increases the size of the figures and the length of time the pilot has to withstand increased g-forces. Jet aerobatic teams often fly in formations, which further restricts the maneuvers that can be safely flown.

To enhance the effect of aerobatic maneuveres smoke is sometimes generated; the smoke allows viewers to see the path travelled by the aircraft. Due to safety concerns, the smoke is not a result of combustion but is produced by the vaporization of fog oil into a fine aerosol, achieved either by injecting the oil into the hot engine exhaust[9] or by the use of a dedicated device[10] that can be fitted in any position on the aircraft. The first military aerobatic team to use smoke at will during displays was Fleet Air Arm 702 Squadron "The Black Cats" at the Farnborough Air show in September 1957.[11]


Aerobatics are taught to military fighter pilots as a means of developing flying skills and for tactical use in combat.

Aerobatics and formation flying is not limited solely to fixed-wing aircraft; the British Army, Royal Navy, Spanish Air Force and the Indian Air Force, among others, have helicopter display teams.

All aerobatic maneuvers demand training and practice to avoid accidents. Such accidents are rare but can result in fatalities. Low-level aerobatics are extremely demanding and airshow pilots must demonstrate their ability before being allowed to gradually reduce the height at which they may fly their show.


A Spanish Air Force Colibri demonstrates its agility with a barrel roll

Competitions start at Primary, or Graduate level and proceed in complexity through Sportsman, Intermediate and Advanced, with Unlimited being the top competition level. Experienced aerobatic pilots have been measured to pull +/-5g for short periods while unlimited pilots can perform more extreme maneuvers and experience higher g levels -possibly up to +8/−6g.[12] The limits for positive g are higher than for negative g and this is due to the ability to limit blood pooling for positive g maneuvers, but it is generally accepted that +9 g for more than a few seconds will lead to loss of consciousness (also known as GLOC).[12][13]


Aerobatics are most likely to be seen at a public airshows.

In popular culture

Video games

Flight simulator x AeroflyFs

See also


  1. ^  
  2. ^  
  3. ^ "Red Bull Bo-105 CBS Helicopter". Web page. Red Bull. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-28. 
  4. ^ Williams, Neil (1975). Aerobatics. L. R. Williams, Illustrator. Surrey, England: Airlife Publishing Ltd. pp. 32, et seq.  
  5. ^ Langewiesche, Wolfgang (1944). Stick and Rudder. Jo Kotula, Illustrator. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc. p. 327.  
  6. ^ "FAR 91.307(c)". USA Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 2009-05-01. 
  7. ^ Howard, Brian, ed. (2009). Official Contest Rules. Oshkosh, WI, USA: International Aerobatic Club. pp. 1–7. 
  8. ^ The record is a 22-aircraft formation in 1958.
  9. ^ "The smoke is generated by pumping smoke oil directly into the exhaust pipes just below the cylinder heads. The heat will vaporize, but not burn, the oil, creating thick white smoke. During an airshow routine, the smoke system will use around 5 gallons of smoke oil".
  10. ^ "Patentscope: 1. (WO2006096918) Smoke Generator". World Intellectual Property Association. 21 September 2006. 
  11. ^ "In June 1957 738 squadron was chosen to take part in a combined Naval display at the Farnborough Air show in September 1957, despite having a full operational programme. It was decided to have a team of five Hawker Seahawks. They were the first aerobatic team to produce smoke at will, by modifying the fuel injection system."
  12. ^ a b G forces
  13. ^ FAA Advisory Circular 91-61 2/28/84

External links

  • Audio of an aerobatic ride with air show performer Brett Hunter in a Pitts S-2C
  • Audio of an aerobatic ride with air show performer Michael Mancuso in an Extra 300L
  • Aerobatics and formation in New Zealand
  • Aerobatic maneuver website
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.