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Alexander

Alexander
Paris, depicted in this c. 1636 painting by Peter Paul Rubens making his famous judgment, was given the surname Alexander as a child when he routed a gang of cattle-thieves.
Pronunciation ,
Gender Masculine, the feminine form being Alexandra.
Origin
Word/name From the Latin Alexander, itself from the Greek Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros), from alexein meaning "to ward off, keep off, turn away, defend, protect" and andros, genitive of anēr meaning "man".
Meaning "Defender, protector of man".

Alexander (, ) is a common male first name, and less common surname derived from the Greek "Αλέξανδρος" (Aléxandros). The most famous is Alexander the Great, who created one of the largest empires in ancient history.

Origin

Etymologically, the name is derived from the Greek Ἀλέξανδρος (Aléxandros), meaning "Defender of the people" or "Defending men"[1] and also, "Protector of men", a compound of the verb ἀλέξειν alexein, "to ward off, to avert, to defend"[2] and the noun ἀνήρ anēr, "man" (GEN ἀνδρός andros).[3] It is an example of the widespread motif of Greek (or Indo-European more generally) names expressing "battle-prowess", in this case the ability to withstand or push back an enemy battle line.

The earliest attested form of the name is the Mycenaean Greek feminine anthroponym 𐀀𐀩𐀏𐀭𐀅𐀨, a-re-ka-sa-da-ra (transcribed as Alexandra), written in the Linear B syllabic script.[4][5][6]

The name was one of the titles ("epithets") given to the Greek goddess Hera and as such is usually taken to mean "one who comes to save warriors". In the Iliad, the character Paris is known also as Alexander.[7] The name's popularity was spread throughout the Greek world by the military conquests of King Alexander III, commonly known as "Alexander the Great". Most later Alexanders in various countries were directly or indirectly named for him.

People known as Alexander

Alexander has been the name of many rulers, including kings of Macedon, of Scotland, emperors of Russia and popes.

Rulers of antiquity

Rulers of the Middle Ages

Modern rulers

Other royals

Several other princes have borne the name Alexander:

Religious leaders

Other people

Other people using the name Alexander include:

Antiquity

Middle Ages

Modern

  • Alexander (1880–1954), stage magician specializing in mentalism
  • Jeffrey C. Alexander (b. 1947), American sociologist
  • Alexander McQueen (1969-2010), British fashion designer and couturier
  • Olivinha (b. 1983), Brazilian basketball player also known as Alexandre
  • Alex Rodriguez (b. 1975), Major League Baseball star, won 3 AL MVP awards, also known as A-Rod

People with the given name Alexander

Internationally famous people with the given name Alexander or variants include:

Variants and diminutives

  • Albanian – Aleksandër, Aleksandra (feminine), Alesandër, Aesandra (feminine), Aleks, Aleksa (feminine), Aleko, Leks, Lekë, Leka, Sandër, Sandra (feminine), Leandër, Leandra (feminine), Leksandër, Lisandër, Lisandra (feminine), Skender, Skënder, Iskender
  • Amharic – እስከንደር (Eskender)
  • Arabic – الاسكندر / اسكندر ([al-]Iskandar)
  • Aragonese – Alexandre, Alixandre
  • Armenian – Ալեքսանդր (Aleksandr/Alexandr), Աղեքսանդր (Agheksandr), Ալեքսան (Aleksan/Alexan), Ալեք (Aleq), Ալիկ (Alik)
  • Asturian – Alexandru
  • Azerbaijani – İsgəndər (Isgandar)
  • Bashkir – Искәндәр (Iskәndәr)
  • Basque – Alesander, Alesandere (feminine), Alexander, Alexandere (feminine)
  • Belarusian – Аляксандp (Aliaksandr, in normative spelling), Аляксандаp (Alaksandar, in Taraškievica spelling), Алeсь (Aleś)
  • BengaliSikandar Alakshendra, Iskandar, Skandar, Alekzandar
  • Bulgarian – Александър (Aleksandar), Александра (Alexandra feminine), Сандо (Sando), Сашо (Sasho), Aлекс (Aleks)
  • Catalan – Alexandra (feminine), Alexandre, Àlex, Aleix, Sandra (feminine), Xandre
  • Chinese – 亞歷山大/亚历山大 (Yàlìshāndà)
  • Corsican – Lisandru
  • Croatian – Aleksandar, Saša, Aco, Aleksandra (feminine)
  • Czech – Alexandr, Aleš, Saša
  • Danish – Alexander, Alex, Alexandra (feminine)
  • Dutch – Alexander, Alex, Lex, Alexandra (feminine), Sander, Sandra (feminine), Xander
  • Emiliano-Romagnolo - Lisàndar
  • English – Alexander, Alec, Alex, Al, Alexis, Alexa (feminine), Alexandria (feminine), Alexandra (feminine), Eck, Lex, Lexxi, Sandra (feminine), Lexy, Lexi, Lexie, Sandy, Sasha (feminine), Xander, Xandra (feminine), Zandra (feminine), Zander
  • Esperanto – Aleksandro, Aleksaĉjo, Aleĉjo, Aĉjo, Alekso, Alko, Alek, Alik, Aleksandra (feminine), Aleksino (feminine), Aleksanjo (feminine), Anjo (feminine)
  • Estonian – Aleksander, Sander, Sandra (feminine), Sass, Aleks
  • Ethiopian – Eskender, Iskinder
  • Extremaduran – Alejandru
  • Faroese – Aleksandur, Aksal, Aksel, Aleks, Sandur
  • Filipino – Alexander, Alejandro, Alejo, Alex, Sandy, Zandro, Alexandra (feminine), Alessandra (feminine)
  • Finnish – Aleksanteri, Santeri, Santtu
  • French – Alexandre, Alexis, Alex
  • Galician – Alexandre, Álex
  • Georgian – ალექსანდრე (Aleksandre), სანდრო (Sandro), ალეკო (Aleko), ლექსო (Lekso), ალექსანდრა (Aleksandra, feminine)
  • German – Alexander, Alex, Alexandrine (feminine), Alexandra (female), Sascha, Sandro, Sandra (female)
  • Greek – Αλέξανδρος (Aléxandros), Αλέκος (Alekos), Αλεξάνδρα (Alexandra - female), Αλέκα (Aleka)
  • Gujarati: એલેક્ઝાન્ડર (Ēlēkjhānḍara)
  • Hawaiian - Alika
  • Hebrew – אלכסנדר (Alexander), אלכס (Alex)
  • Hindi – Hindustani – Sikandar Alakshendra अलक्षेन्द्र
  • Hungarian – Sándor, Sanyi (Sanyika as young child)
  • Icelandic – Alexander, Alex, Alexis, Axel, Alexandra (feminine)
  • Indonesian – Iskandar
  • Interlingua – Alexandro
  • Irish (Gaeilge) – Alasandar, Alastar, Alsander
  • Italian – Alessandro, Ale, Alex, Sandro, Alessio, Aleandro, Alessandra (feminine), Sandra (feminine), Alessia (feminine)
  • Japanese – アレクサンドロス (Arekusandorosu), アレクサンダー (Arekusandā), アレキサンダー (Arekisandā)
  • Javanese – Alexander, Iskandar
  • Kazakh – Eskendir
  • Korean – 알렉산드로스 (Alleksandeuroseu), 알렉산더 (Alleksandeo), 알렉산더 (Allegsandeo)
  • Kurdish – Askander, Eskander, Îskenderê, Askanar, Aske
  • Kyrgyz – Искендер (İskender)
  • Latin – Alexander, Alexandrus
  • Latvian – Aleksandrs, Sandis, Sandris
  • Lithuanian – Aleksandras, Aleksas, Sandra (feminine)
  • Lombard – Lisander
  • Luxembourgish - Alexander, Alexandra (feminine)
  • Macedonian – Александар (Aleksandar), Алек (Alek), Аце (Ace), Ацо (Aco), Сашо (Sašo), Александра (Aleksandra, feminine), Сандра (Sandra, feminine), Сашка (Saška, feminine)
  • Malay – Iskandar
  • Malayalam – ചാണ്ടി (Chandy)
  • Maltese – Lixandru
  • Mandarin Chinese - Yalishanda or Alishanda
  • Manx – Alastar, Alister
  • Marathi - Alakshendra (अलक्षेन्द्र), Sikandar, अलेक्झांडर (Alēkjhāṇḍara)
  • Mirandese – Alxandre
  • Mongolian: Александр (Alyeksandr)
  • Nepali: सिकन्दर (Sikandara)
  • Norwegian – Aleksander, Alek, Alexander, Alex, Sander, Alexandra (feminine)
  • Occidental – Alexandro
  • Occitan – Alexandre
  • Persian – اسكندر (Eskandar). Middle Persian: Aleksandar
  • Polish name – Aleksander, Alek, Olek, Aleks
  • Portuguese – Alexandre, Xandre, Alexandra (feminine), Alexandro (rare), Alex, Sandro, Sandra (feminine), Alessandro, Alessandra (feminine)
  • Punjabi: ਸਿਕੰਦਰ (Sikadara)
  • Romanian — Alexandru, Alexandra (feminine), Alex, Alexe, Sandu, Sanda (feminine), Sandra (feminine), Alecu, Aleca (feminine), Lisandru, Sașa
  • Russian — Александр (Aleksandr), Александра (Aleksandra, feminine), Алик (Alik, male), Аля (Alia, male and feminine), Саша (Sasha), Шурик (Shurik), Саня (Sanya)
  • Sanskrit language – Alakshendra(अलक्षेन्द्र), Aliksundara, Ilukshendra
  • Scots Gaelic – Alasdair, Alastair, Alistair, Alisdair, Aldair, Ally, Ali, Al
  • Serbian – Александар (Aleksandar), Алекса (Aleksa), Алекс (Aleks), Алек (Alek), Лексо (Lekso), Саша (Saša), Сале (Sale), Ацa (Aca), Ацо (Aco), Александра (Aleksandra, feminine), Сандра (Sandra, feminine), Сашка (Saška, feminine) or Бранко, Бранило (Branko, Branilo) derived from бранити (from Greek: Αλέξανδρος which means to defend)
  • Sicilian – Alissandru
  • Sinhala - Ishkander
  • Old Church Slavonic – Алєѯандръ (Aleksandr, Alexandr)
  • Slovak – Alexander
  • Slovene – Aleksander, Aleks, Sandi, Sašo
  • Spanish – Alejandro, Alexandro, Alejo, Álex, Ale, Jandro, Jano, Cano, Lisandro, Sandro, Alejandra (feminine), Lisandra (feminine), Sandra (feminine)
  • Swedish – Alexander, Alex, Alexandra (feminine)
  • Tamil – Aleksandar, அலெக்சாண்டர் (Alekcāṇṭar)
  • Telugu – Alexandaru, అలెగ్జాండర్ (Alegjāṇḍar)
  • Thai – อเล็กซานเดอร์ (Aleksāndə̄[r] (Aleksandar)), อเล็กซานเด (Xlĕksānde)
  • Turkish – İskender
  • Ukrainian — Олександр (Olexandr, Oleksandr), Олекса (Oleksa, Olexa), Сашко (Sashko), Олесь (Oles')
  • Urdu – Pakistani – الیگزینڈر, سکندر (Sikandar) or اسكندر (Eskandar)
  • Uzbek – Iskandar
  • Venetian – Alessandro
  • Vietnamese – Alêchxăngđrơ, A-Lịch-Sơn
  • Võro – Aleksandri
  • Welsh – Alecsander
  • West Frisian – Aleksander
  • Yiddish – סענדער – Sender, Senderl, אלעקסאנדער (ʼlʻqsʼndʻr)

See also

References

  1. ^ Ἀλέξανδρος. Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  2. ^ ἀλέξειν in Liddell and Scott.
  3. ^ ἀνήρ in Liddell and Scott.
  4. ^ Tablet MY V 659 (61).
  5. ^
  6. ^ Mycenaean (Linear B) – English Glossary
  7. ^ Ἀλέξανδρος, Georg Autenrieth, A Homeric Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library
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