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An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language

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An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language

An Essay towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language (London, 1668) is the best-remembered of the numerous works of John Wilkins, in which he expounds a new universal language, meant primarily to facilitate international communication among scholars, but envisioned for use by diplomats, travelers, and merchants as well. Unlike many universal language schemes of the period, it was meant merely as an auxiliary to — not a replacement of — existing "natural" languages.

The first edition cover page

Background

One of the aims of the Essay was to provide a replacement for the Latin language, which had been the international language of scholars in Western Europe by then for 1000 years.[1] Comenius and others interested in international languages had criticisms of the arbitrary features of Latin that made it harder to learn, and Wilkins also made such points.[2] A scheme for a lingua franca based on numerical values had been published by John Pell (1630); and in his 1640 work Mercury or the Secret Messenger (1640) Wilkins had mentioned the possibility of developing a trade language.[3]

[5]

There was immediate interest in the Essay; Wilkins is said to have regarded his work only in terms of a proof of concept.[6] But in the medium term enthusiasm for this kind of constructed language declined. The problem of a universal language remained as a topic of debate.[4]

Composition and influences

The stimulus for Wilkins to write the Essay came from the Council of the Royal Society, in 1662. The work was delayed by the Great Fire of London of 1666, which destroyed some of it in draft.[7]

The book was written by Wilkins, assisted by [8] Also influential, as Wilkins acknowledged, was The Ground-Work or Foundation Laid … for the Framing of a New Perfect Language (1652) by Francis Lodwick.[9]

Structure

The work is in five parts, of which the fourth contains the discussion of the "real character" and "philosophical language". The third deals with "philosophical grammar" (universal grammar). The last part is the "alphabetical dictionary".[10] It was compiled by William Lloyd.[11]

Wilkins' scheme

Sample of the "real character" from the Essay. Joseph Moxon created the symbols for the printing of the book.[12]

Wilkin's "Real Character" is a constructed family of symbols, corresponding to a classification scheme developed by Wilkins and his colleagues. It was intended as a pasigraphy, in other words, to provide elementary building blocks from which could be constructed the universe's every possible thing and notion. The Real Character is not an orthography: i.e. it is not a written representation of spoken language. Instead, each symbol represents a concept directly, without (at least in the early parts of the Essay's presentation) there being any way of vocalizing it. Inspiration for this approach came in part from contemporary European accounts of the Chinese writing system, which were somewhat mistaken.

Later in the Essay Wilkins introduces his "Philosophical Language," which assigns phonetic values to the Real Characters. For convenience, the following discussion blurs the distinction between Wilkins' Character and his Language.

Concepts are divided into forty main Genera, each of which gives the first, two-letter syllable of the word; a Genus is divided into Differences, each of which adds another letter; and Differences are divided into Species, which add a fourth letter. For instance, Zi identifies the Genus of “beasts” (mammals); Zit gives the Difference of “rapacious beasts of the dog kind”; Zitα gives the Species of dogs. (Sometimes the first letter indicates a supercategory— e.g. Z always indicates an animal— but this does not always hold.) The resulting Character, and its vocalization, for a given concept thus captures, to some extent, the concept's semantics.

The Essay also proposed ideas on weights and measure similar to those later found in the metric system.[13][14] The botanical section of the essay was contributed by John Ray; Robert Morison's criticism of Ray's work began a prolonged dispute between the two men.[15]

Related efforts, discussions, and literary references

The Essay has received a certain amount of academic and literary attention, usually casting it as brilliant but hopeless.

One criticism (among many) is that "words expressing closely related ideas have almost the same form, differing perhaps by their last letter only...[I]t would be exceedingly difficult to remember all these minute distinctions, and confusion would arise, in rapid reading and particularly in conversation."[16] (Umberto Eco notes[17] that Wilkins himself made such a mistake in the Essay, using Gαde (barley) where apparently Gαpe (tulip) was meant.)

[18] More recent a priori languages (among many others) are Solresol and Ro.

Celestial Emporium of Benevolent Knowledge and expressing doubts about any attempt at a universal classification.

In Neal Stephenson's Quicksilver, character Daniel Waterhouse spends considerable time supporting the development of Wilkins' classification system.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Ute Dons (2004). Descriptive adequacy of early modern English grammars. Walter de Gruyter. p. 21.  
  2. ^ Françoise Waquet, translator John Howe, Latin, or the Empire of a Sign (2001), p. 238.
  3. ^ Daniel Murphy, Comenius: a critical reassessment of his life and work (1995) pp. 209–10.
  4. ^ a b John Wilkins (1984). Mercury, or, The secret and swift messenger: shewing how a man may with privacy and speed communicate his thoughts to a friend at any distance ; together with an abstract of Dr. Wilkins's Essays towards a real character and a philosophical language. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 29.  
  5. ^ Henry, John. "Ward, Seth".   (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  6. ^ Henry G. Van Leeuwen (1970). The problem of certainty in English thought, 1630-1690. Springer. p. 56.  
  7. ^ Joseph L. Subbiondo (1992). John Wilkins and 17th-century British linguistics. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 144 note 34.  
  8. ^  
  9. ^ Salmon, Vivian. "Lodwick, Francis".   (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  10. ^ John P. Considine (27 March 2008). Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage. Cambridge University Press. p. 298.  
  11. ^  
  12. ^ Bryden, D. J. "Moxon, Joseph".   (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  13. ^ Reproduction and transcription of a short section of the original document
  14. ^ John Wilkins invents the meter
  15. ^  
  16. ^  
  17. ^ Eco, Umberto (1995). The Search for the Perfect Language [Ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea]. Oxford: Blackwell.  
  18. ^ Edmonds, George (1856). A Universal Alphabet, Grammar, and Language, Comprising a Scientific Classification of the Radical Elements of Discourse: and Illustrative Translations from the Holy Scriptures and the Principal British Classics: to which is Added, A Dictionary of the Language. Retrieved October 2010. 

Further reading

  • E.N. da C. Andrade, The real character of bishop Wilkins. Ann. Science, Vol. 1, Iss. 1 (January 1936), pp. 4–12
  • Steven Pinker, Words and Rules: The Ingredients of Language, 2000

External links

  • The Analytical Language of John Wilkins, by Jorge Luis Borges
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