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Anatolian leopard

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Title: Anatolian leopard  
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Subject: Leopards, FNSS Pars, Wildlife of Turkey, The 39 Clues, Panthera
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Anatolian leopard

Anatolian leopard
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species: Panthera pardus
Subspecies: Anatolian leopard
Trinomial name
Panthera pardus tulliana
(Valenciennes, 1856)

The Anatolian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana), also called the Asia Minor leopard, was proposed in the 19th century as a distinct leopard subspecies native to southwestern Turkey, and is currently subsumed to the Caucasian leopard.[1]

The first camera trap photograph of a leopard in Turkey was obtained in September 2013 in the Trabzon Province.[2] In November 2013, a leopard was killed in the Çınar district of Diyarbakır Province.[3] This specimen is considered the western-most observation of a Persian leopard.[4]

Distribution and habitat

The Anatolian leopard was first described on the basis of a skin of a leopard that was shot in the extreme west of Asia Minor, near Izmir in Turkey.[5] Anatolian leopards are thought to have ranged in the Aegean and western parts of Turkey but were not known to be present in the Black Sea region.[6]

Since surveys were not carried out in western Turkey until the mid 1980s, biologists doubted whether leopards still survived in this part of Anatolia. Sighting reports from the environs of Alanya in the south of the Lycian peninsula suggested that a scattered population existed between Finike, Antalya and Alanya in the early 1990s. Fresh faecal pellets found in Termessos National Park in 1992 were attributed to an Anatolian leopard.[7] A decade later, no signs of the presence of leopards were detected in the Termessos National Park. Interviews conducted with local people and national park personnel did not corroborate the presence of leopards in this area.[8]

During surveys carried out between 1993 and 2002, zoologists found evidence of leopards in the upper forest and alpine zones of the Pontic Mountains in northern Anatolia. In this area, possible prey species include wild ungulates such as deer, chamois, wild goat, wild pig but also mountain hare and Caucasian grouse.[9] It is unknown whether a significant number of leopards still exist in Anatolia. Extensive trophy hunting is thought to be the prime factor for the decline and possible extinction of the Anatolian leopard. One hunter named Mantolu Hasan killed at least fifteen leopards between 1930 and 1950.[10]

In eastern Turkey, the range of Anatolian leopards converges with the range of Vashlovani National Park in 2003 was considered a Caucasian leopard.[12]

The last leopard in Syria is reputed to have been killed in 1963 about 20 km (12 mi) from the Turkish border in the Al-Ansariyah mountains.[13] Leopards reported from the Galilee, the Golan Heights and the Judaean Desert are considered Arabian leopards.[14]

Sightings and encounters

In 1974, a leopard was killed in Bağözü village near Beypazarı following an attack on a woman. For three decades, this encounter was considered to have been the last confirmed sighting of an Anatolian leopard.[9][10]

In 2010, a leopard was killed and skinned in the Siirt Province.[3] In September 2013, an animal captured by camera traps in the Trabzon Province in Turkey's northern region was identified as a leopard by biologists from the Karadeniz Technical University who asserted to have obtained several photos of leopards in the surveyed area.[2] On 3 November 2013, a leopard was killed after it attacked a shepherd in Diyarbakır Province in the country's southern region.[3][15][16]

The Kaplani of Samos Island in Greece

There are no recent reports of encounters with the animal in Greece, though at the end of the 18th century an Anatolian leopard from Asia Minor was forced, either by a flooding of the Maeander River or by wildfire, to swim over to the nearby Samos Island, where it became the apex predator and the scourge of domestic animals.

The Kaplani (Greek: Καπλάνι from Turkish: Kaplan meaning Tiger) was hunted by farmers and shepherds and was forced to take refuge in a cave. The entrance was documented as being blocked with large stones so that the animal would die out of hunger and thirst. After some time, a villager named Gerasimos Gliarmis opened a hole and climbed down the cave unarmed, in order to find the leopard's corpse. But the animal had managed to survive eating the remains of its old prey and drinking the water which had gathered in the cave's hollow. The leopard tried to fight his way out, but the villager's brother, Nikolaos Gliarmis, also climbed down the cave for help and managed to kill it. Gerasimos Gliarmis was injured by the wildcat in his chest and died a short time later from infection.

The dead leopard was embalmed and is today displayed at the Natural History Museum of the Aegean on Samos Island.[17] The story of the animal and the exhibit inspired distinguished Greek author Alki Zei for her novel Wildcat under glass (Greek: Το καπλάνι της βιτρίνας, a.k.a. The Tiger in the Shop Window, 1963).

See also

  • Pardus, a Turkish Linux distribution named after the Anatolian leopard
  • Ankaraspor A.Ş., Turkish football club which is nicknamed after the animal


  1. ^ a b Khorozyan, I. (2008). "Panthera pardus ssp. saxicolor".  
  2. ^ a b World Bulletin (2013). "Panthera pardus" spotted in Turkey. World Bulletin, 11 September 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Hürriyet Daily News (2013). Shepherd kills first Anatolian leopard sighted in Turkey for years Hürriyet Daily News, 3 November 2013.
  4. ^ Breitenmoser, U. 2013. The Persian leopard at risk. Cat News 59: Editorial.
  5. ^ Valenciennes, M. A. (1856). Sur une nouvelles espèce de Panthère tuée par M. Tchihatcheff à Ninfi, village situé à huit lieues est de Smyrne. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences 42: 1035–1039.
  6. ^ Can, O. E. (2004). Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats. Standing Committee, 24th meeting, 29 November-3 December 2004, Strasbourg.
  7. ^ Ullrich, B., Riffel, M. (1993). New evidence for the occurrence of the Anatolian Leopard, Panthera pardus tulliana (Valenciennes, 1856), in Western Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 8 (1): 5–14.
  8. ^ Giannatos, G., Albayrak, T., Erdogan, A. (2006). Status of the Caracal in Protected Areas in Southwestern Turkey. Cat News 45: 23–24.
  9. ^ a b Baskaya, S., Bilgili, E. (2004). Does the leopard Panthera pardus still exist in the Eastern Karadeniz Mountains of Turkey ? Oryx 38 (2): 228–232.
  10. ^ a b Ertüzün, M. (2006). The last Anatolian Panther.
  11. ^ Khorozyan, I. G., Gennady, F., Baryshnikov, G. F. and Abramov, A. V. (2006). Taxonomic status of the leopard, Panthera pardus (Carnivora, Felidae) in the Caucasus and adjacent areas. Russian Journal of Theriology 5(1): 41–52.
  12. ^ Antelava, N. (2004). Lone leopard spotted in Georgia. BBC News, 25 May 2004
  13. ^ Masseti, M. (2009). Carnivores of Syria In: Neubert E, Amr Z, Taiti S, Gümüs B (eds.) Animal Biodiversity in the Middle East. Proceedings of the First Middle Eastern Biodiversity Congress, Aqaba, Jordan, 20–23 October 2008. ZooKeys 31: 229–252.
  14. ^ Perez I., Geffen, E., Mokady, O. (2006). Critically endangered Arabian leopards Panthera pardus nimr in Israel: estimating population parameters using molecular scatology. Oryx 40 (3): 295–301.
  15. ^ HDN (2013). "Anatolian Leopard Sighted in Turkey for First Time in Years After Being Killed by Shepherd". 
  16. ^ HDN (2013). "Mystery Anatolian Leopard Seen, Shot Before: Forensics". 
  17. ^ Natural History Museum of the Aegean

External links

  • Panthera pardus saxicolorIUCN Red List of Threatened Species:
  • Leopards in Palestine Gazelle - The Palestinian Biological Bulletin
  • The story of the last Anatolian LeopardLeopards .:. :
  • Anatolian Leopard Research Group: photos of footprints and scat
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