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Ancistrocladus

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Ancistrocladus

Ancistrocladaceae
Ancistrocladus heyneanus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Ancistrocladaceae
Planch. ex Walp.[1]
Genera

Ancistrocladus Wall.

Ancistrocladaceae is a monotypic family of flowering plants. The family consists of a single genus, Ancistrocladus, of about a dozen species of lianas, found in the tropics of the Old World.

Classification

The APG II system, of 2003 (unchanged from the APG system, of 1998), also recognizes this family and assigns it to the order Caryophyllales in the clade core eudicots. The family consists of a single genus, Ancistrocladus, of about a dozen species of lianas, found in the tropics of the Old World.

Recent molecular and biochemical evidence (see the clade. This family Ancistrocladaceae would belong to this same clade, although the plants in the family are not carnivorous.

A close relationship between this family and the family Dioncophyllaceae (containing the carnivorous species T. peltatum) is supported by similar pollen and petiole structure. The Cronquist system, 1981, placed the family in the order Violales (together with Dioncophyllaceae). The Takhtajan system placed the family in its own order Ancistrocladales.

Description

The only genus in the family Ancistrocladaceae is Ancistrocladus, a little-known genus of about 20 species. These are palaeotropical, climbing, twining plants, found in lowland to submontane, wet to seasonal evergreen or swamp forests. The sparingly branched, sympodial stem is complex and can exceed 10 cm in diameter. It is along one side attached to the tree with grapnels (short, hooked lateral thorns, formed from modified stem apices), opposite to the leaves. Their leaves are borne in dense, evergreen rosettes. They are entire, have short petioles and lack stipules. They have a single wax-secreting trichome in the epidermal pits and glands on the abaxial surface. The flowers are small with a basally connate corolla, that are imbricate or rolled up lengthwise. The fruit is a nut with often wing-like accrescent sepals.

Distribution

11 species occur in tropical Africa and at least five species in West India, Southeast Asia, Borneo and Taiwan.

Medicinal potential

Scientific interest in this genus has grown considerably because the antimalarial drug extracted from the same plant.

A. abbreviatus has been used on traditional medicine in Ghana, as treatment against measles and fever. The active ingredient is ancistrobrevine D, an alkaloid extracted from this plant.

Ancistrocline, an alkaloid derived from A. tectorius, is used against dysentery.

Many other alkaloids are still being found in the other species.

Species

  • Ancistrocladus abbreviatus Airy Shaw
    • Ancistrocladus abbreviatus subsp. lateralis Gereau
  • Ancistrocladus attenuatus Dyer (Myanmar)
  • Ancistrocladus barteri Scott-Elliot (Guinea)
  • Ancistrocladus congolensis J. Léonard (Congo)
  • Ancistrocladus ealaensis J. Léonard (Congo)
  • Ancistrocladus extensus Wall. ex Planch. (Cambodia)
  • Ancistrocladus grandiflorus Cheek (Cameroon)
  • Ancistrocladus griffithii Planch.
  • Ancistrocladus guineensis Oliv. (Nigeria)
  • Ancistrocladus hainanensis Hayata. (Hainan, China)
  • Ancistrocladus hamatus (Vahl) Gilg (Sri Lanka)
  • Ancistrocladus heyneanus Wall. ex J. Graham (India)
  • Ancistrocladus korupensis D.W. Thomas & Gereau (Cameroon)
  • Ancistrocladus letestui Pellegr. (Gabon)
  • Ancistrocladus likoko J. Léonard (Congo)
  • Ancistrocladus pentagynus Warb.
  • Ancistrocladus pinangianus Wall. ex Planch.
  • Ancistrocladus robertsoniorum J. Léonard (Kenya)
  • Ancistrocladus sagittatus Wall. ex Planch.
  • Ancistrocladus stelligerus Wall. ex DC.
  • Ancistrocladus tanzaniensis Cheek & Frim. (Tanzania)
  • Ancistrocladus tectorius (Lour.) Merr. (Andaman Islands, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam)
  • Ancistrocladus uncinatus Hutch. & Dalziel (Nigeria)
  • Ancistrocladus wallichii Planch.
  • Ancistrocladus sp. (proposed name : Ancistrocladus benomensis) (Malaysia)

References

  • anti-AIDS source
  • [1]
  • [2]
  • Cheek, M. (2000a). A synoptic revision of Ancistrocladus (Ancistrocladaceae) in Africa, with a new species from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin

External links

  • http://delta-intkey.com
  • NCBI Taxonomy Browser
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