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Andrew Fire

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Title: Andrew Fire  
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Subject: Heineken Prizes, List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation, Craig Mello, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, RNA interference
Collection: 1959 Births, American Biologists, American Geneticists, American Nobel Laureates, Jewish American Scientists, Johns Hopkins University Faculty, Living People, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Alumni, Massry Prize Recipients, Members of the European Molecular Biology Organization, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine, People from Palo Alto, California, People from Sunnyvale, California, Scholars from California, Stanford University School of Medicine Faculty, University of California, Berkeley Alumni, Winners of the Heineken Prize
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Andrew Fire

Andrew Fire
Born Andrew Zachary Fire
(1959-04-27) April 27, 1959
Palo Alto, California
Residence Stanford, California
Nationality American
Fields Biologist
Institutions Johns Hopkins University
Stanford University
Alma mater University of California, Berkeley
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Doctoral advisor Phillip Allen Sharp
Known for RNA interference
Notable awards Meyenburg Prize (2002)
NAS Award in Molecular Biology (2003)
Wiley Prize (2003)
Massry Prize (2005)
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2006)

Andrew Zachary Fire (born April 27, 1959) is an American biologist and professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Craig C. Mello, for the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi). This research was conducted at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and published in 1998.


  • Biography 1
  • Nobel prize 2
  • Awards and honors 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Andrew Fire was born in Palo Alto, California and raised in Sunnyvale, California.[1] He graduated from Fremont High School. The only two colleges to which he applied were Stanford and UC Berkeley. Though he wished to go to Stanford, he was rejected and so attended the University of California, Berkeley, where he received a B.A. in mathematics in 1978 at the age of 19.[2] He then proceeded to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received a Ph.D. in biology in 1983 under the mentorship of Nobel laureate geneticist Phillip Sharp.

Fire moved to Cambridge, England, as a Helen Hay Whitney Postdoctoral Fellow. He became a member of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology group headed by Nobel laureate biologist Sydney Brenner.

From 1986 to 2003, Fire was a staff member of the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Department of Embryology in Baltimore, Maryland. The initial work on double stranded RNA as a trigger of gene silencing was published while Fire and his group were at the Carnegie Labs.[1] Fire became an adjunct professor in the Department of Biology at Johns Hopkins University in 1989 and joined the Stanford faculty in 2003. Throughout his career, Fire has been supported by research grants from the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

Fire is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He also serves on the Board of Scientific Counselors and the National Center for Biotechnology, National Institutes of Health.

Nobel prize

In 2006, Fire and Craig Mello shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work first published in 1998 in the journal Nature.[3] Fire and Mello, along with colleagues SiQun Xu, Mary Montgomery, Stephen Kostas, and Sam Driver, reported that tiny snippets of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) effectively shut down specific genes, driving the destruction of messenger RNA (mRNA) with sequences matching the dsRNA. As a result, the mRNA cannot be translated into protein. Fire and Mello found that dsRNA was much more effective in gene silencing than the previously described method of RNA interference with single-stranded RNA. Because only small numbers of dsRNA molecules were required for the observed effect, Fire and Mello proposed that a catalytic process was involved. This hypothesis was confirmed by subsequent research.

The Nobel Prize citation, issued by Sweden's Karolinska Institute, said: "This year's Nobel Laureates have discovered a fundamental mechanism for controlling the flow of genetic information." The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) quoted Nick Hastie, director of the Medical Research Council's Human Genetics Unit, on the scope and implications of the research:

Awards and honors

Fire has received the following awards and honors:
(By chronological year of award [5])

See also


  1. ^ a b "Andrew Fire wins 2006 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine". Stanford School of Medicine. 2006-10-02. Archived from the original on 10 October 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-02. 
  2. ^ Shaw, Richard. "Rejected by Stanford? You'll Live.". L.A. Times. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Fire, A.; Xu, S.; Montgomery, M.; Kostas, S.; Driver, S.; Mello, C. (1998). "Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature 391 (6669): 806–811.  
  4. ^ "Nobel prize for genetic discovery".  

External links

  • Nobel Prize information
  • Nobel Prize lecture
  • Carnegie Institution for Science
  • Nobel announcement from Stanford University
  • Nobel announcement from the University of Massachusetts
  • US Patent 6506559 Genetic inhibition by double-stranded RNA (patent)
  • Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans, in Nature, via University of Massachusetts Medical School
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