World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Arabic Braille

Article Id: WHEBN0035634257
Reproduction Date:

Title: Arabic Braille  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Braille, Persian Braille, Algerian Braille, Arabic alphabet, French Braille
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Arabic Braille

Arabic Braille
Type
abjad ca. 1950
Languages Arabic
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Arabic alphabet

Arabic Braille (Arabic: بريل عربية‎, birēl ʻarabīyah / birayl ) is the braille alphabet for the Arabic language. It descends from a braille alphabet brought to Egypt by an English missionary prior to 1878, so the letter assignments generally correspond to English Braille and to the same romanization as in other braille systems, like Greek and Russian. However, there were once multiple standards, some of which (such as Algerian Braille) were unrelated to Egyptian Braille. A unified Arabic Braille was adopted in the 1950s as part of the move toward international braille, and it is the standard throughout the Arab world.[1] Other Arabic-based alphabets have braille systems similar to Arabic Braille, such as Urdu and Persian Braille, but differ in some letter and diacritic assignments.[2]

Arabic Braille is read from left to right, following the international convention. Numbers are also left to right, as they do in printed Arabic.

Arabic braille chart

Arabic braille includes numerous abbreviations, some marked by dot 4 or dot 5 (the comma), which are not described here. A conference in Saudi Arabia in 2002 set up a unified braille standard for Arabic, but as of 2013 not all countries had signed up; those not adopting the standard include some Arab countries but also non-Arab Muslim countries such as Iran, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

Letters

Although short-vowel letters are not diacritics in Arabic Braille, they are optional and generally omitted, just as in print Arabic.

Print ا ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر
Braille ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
Print ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف
Braille ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356) ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346) ⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456) ⠿ (braille pattern dots-123456) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
Print ق ك ل م ن ه و ي ى ة
Braille ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135) ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
Print ال أ إ آ أو ؤ ئ ء
Braille ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345) ⠪ (braille pattern dots-246) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3)
Print ــُ ــَ ــِ ــٌ ــً ــٍ ــْ ــّ
Braille ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6)

Shaddah comes before the consonant; sukun and the vowels after.

Punctuation and formatting

There are some differences in quotation marks, brackets, and underlining between traditional and unified Arabic braille conventions.

Common punctuation
Print ، ؛ : . ! ؟ -
Braille ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36)
Legacy punctuation
Print “...” (...) * abbre-
viation
under-
lining
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
Unified Arabic punctuation
Print “...” (...) [...] {...} underlining
Braille ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36)

External links

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "World Braille Usage". UNESCO. Retrieved 2012-04-27. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.