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Arthur Campbell (doctor)

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Arthur Campbell (doctor)

Archibald Campbell or Arthur Campbell (1805–1874) of the Bengal Medical Service (the Indian Medical Service according to some sources) was the first superintendent of the sanitarium town of Darjeeling in north east India. Sources differ regarding his first name. While some say that the "A" in "Dr A. Campbell" stands for Arthur,[1] the name register of the Darwin Correspondence Online Database gives his name as Archibald,[2] supported by Teagenius.com.[3] However, in the same database, the footnote of a letter from Darwin to Sir Joseph Hooker cites his name as Andrew.[4] Family papers and census returns refer to his first name as Archibald. He is also referred to as the first superintendent of Darjeeling.[1] He was transferred from Kathmandu to Darjeeling in 1839.[1][5]

In India

Campbell transferred from the position of British Resident in Nepal to Darjeeling in 1839. His efforts to develop the area led to a population increase from less than 100 in 1839 to around 10,000 in 1849, swelled by immigrants from Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan.[6]

He brought tea seeds from the Kumaun region in China In 1841, which he started to grow near his residence at Beechwood, Darjeeling, on an experimental basis.[5] His experiments were followed by similar efforts by several others, and soon, tea began to be cultivated in the area as Darjeeling tea.

In 1849, Campbell and Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, a noted naturalist and explorer, were imprisoned by Namguey, the "Mad Dewan" of Sikkim as they toured the Sikkim region towards the Cho La in Tibet.[4][7] A British team was sent to negotiate with the king of Sikkim and they were released without any bloodshed.[8]

By 1852, Campbell had organised the construction of 70 European style houses, a bazaar and jail along with roads. Forced labour was abolished and more the Rs. 50,000/- had been raised in revenue.[6]

Campbell wrote many papers on Himalayan geography[2] and at least one paper on the Lepchas of Sikkim.[1] The magnolia species, Magnolia campbellii, is named after him.[9]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Kennedy Dane. The Magic Mountains: Hill Stations and the British Raj, Berkeley: University of California Press, c1996 1996.
  2. ^ a b Archibald Campbell, 1805–74
  3. ^ History of Darjeeling tea TeaGenius.com
  4. ^ a b Letter number 1558: To J. D. Hooker. 10 March 1854. The Darwin Correspondence Online Database.
  5. ^ a b Darjeeling Tea History. Darjeelingnews.net
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^
  8. ^ History of Darjeeling Darjeelingnews.net
  9. ^ , p. 303
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