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Attock District

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Attock District

Attock District
اٹک
District
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Headquarter Attock
Government
 • Members of National Assembly Sheikh Aftab Ahmed (NA-57)
Malik Ihtebar Khan (NA-58)
Muhammad Zain Elahi (NA-59)
Area
 • Total 6,857 km2 (2,648 sq mi)
Elevation 2,758 m (9,049 ft)
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
Languages Punjabi, Hindko, Urdu and Pashto,
No. of Tehsils 6
Tehsils Attock
Fateh Jang
Hazro
Hassan Abdal
Jand
Pindi Gheb

Attock District (Urdu: ضِلع اٹک‎) is a district in the north-west Punjab Province of Pakistan. Attock is the capital of the district.

The district was created in April 1904[1] by the merging tehsils of nearby districts. Today the District consists of 6 tehsils that are Attock, Fateh Jang, Hazro, Hassan Abdal, Jand and Pindi Gheb.

It is located in the north of the Punjab province, Attock district is bordered by Chakwal to its south, Mianwali to its south west, Rawalpindi to its east, Kohat to its west, Nowshera to its north west and Swabi and Haripur to its north.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Neighbours 2
  • Kabul River 3
  • Language 4
  • Resources 5
  • Geography and climate 6
  • Population 7
  • Main tribes and clans 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10

History

Attock region was agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture that invaded from Central Asia and settled in Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled ancient Punjab region. After overunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. The Attock region was ruled by Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region.

Emperor Akbar the Great, the grandson of Babar, recognising the strategic importance of this area, in 1581 built his famous Attock Fort complex here. The Sikh Empire occupied Attock district until the British took over Attock District in 1848.

Attock District original name was Attock. It was changed to Campbellpur after the Commander-in-Chief of British forces Sir Colin Campbell who rebuilt the city of Campbellpur. The name of the district was changed to Attock as of 1978 again.[2] Attock city is the district headquarters.

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Attock District.

Neighbours

Attock District is bordered by the Haripur and Swabi districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the north, the district of Rawalpindi and capital Islamabad to the east, the district of Chakwal to the southeast, the district of Mianwali to the southwest, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa's districts of Kohat and Nowshera to the west and northwest. The river Indus forms the western boundary of the district.

Kabul River

Attock is the eastern terminus of the Kabul-Attock corridor to the Central Asia through which for centuries have passed the armies and the caravans alike. However unlike the modern highways, this corridor is not a work of engineering marvel but an act of nature as it was naturally carved through the Hindu Kush Mountains by Kabul River.

The 435 miles long journey of River Kabul starts just west of the Kabul city in Afghanistan and ends at Attock where it ultimately falls into the River Indus.

Language

As per the 1998 census of Pakistan, the following are the demographics of the Attock district, by spoken language:

Inhabitants of Attock District speak a great variety of Punjabi dialects: which are

Other Languages include:

  • Pashto which is also spoken by sizeable population in the KPK province border areas and in the cities.
  • Urdu is mother tongue of few people but being national language is spoken and understood by the sizeable population.
  • English is also understood and spoken by the educated elite.

Resources

Dhullian is a village in Pindigheb Tehsil. This village has important resources namely oil and gas, It has been providing oil since the 1930s. There are all types of soil as mountains, plain areas fertile grounds and it also has a river flowing through it. There is a famous Ghala Mandi located in Dhullian Chowk. Here 90% of the total population area agricultural. This historical village is located at the end of Attock District.Tehsil Jand of the district also has gas and oil resources near Dhakni and recently discovered in Dhaknair.Khaur area of Tehsil Pindigheb is also contributor to oil and gas. Many oil and gas exploration companies are working to explore these valuable resources.Gypsum is also found in Tehsil Jand which is used in the improvement of soil.Some parts of the district especially Tehsil Jand has also hard rocks like stones which is used in the construction of roads and gravel.The district has also a cement manufacturing facilty,glass making industry,marble finishing and vegetable ghee production industry in the area Hassanabdal. Development: Though the district is still on the path of development, it is considered as an underdeveloped district when compared to the other major cities of the province. Four tehsils of the district namely Teh. Attock, Hassanabdal, Hazro and Fateh Jang are comparatively more developed than the two tehsils(Jand and Pindigheb). These two tehsils are extremely underdeveloped as compared to the rest of the district. Jand is the largest tehsil of the district by area and a major contributor to oil and gas.But has been considerably neglected despite contributing billions to the national exchequer via oil and gas.

Geography and climate

Attock District has a climate of hot summers and cold winters. The northern part of the district is more humid and is more moderate in climate relative to the southern part of the district due to the higher altitude. Geographically, the district is mainly hills, plateaus and dissected plains. The Indus River flows on the northern and western borders of the district. After Haripur, the Haro River passes through the north of the tehsil of Attock where there is a flood plain with fertile soil. The District's average annual rainfall is 783 mm.

Population

According to the 1998 census of Pakistan the district had a population of 1,274,935 of which 20.45% were urban,[3] The estimated population in 2008 was 1.58 million.

The city also had a significant Muhajir population. In fact, Attock city is dominated by the Muslim refugees that migrated from eastern portions of Punjab now in India, during the Partition of India. These Muslim refugees and descendents are majority of the population of the city. They have established businesses and dominate the politics, public service, commerce and industry in the Attock district.


Education Facilities: The district has many schools and colleges mainly in the city area of the district. Cadet college Hassanabdal, Army Public College Attock Cantt, Bahria Foundation College, Fouji Foundation College, Shaheen College, MRF College,Falcon College, Govt Commerce College,Govt Post Graduate College, Attock, Cadet College Fateh Jang, Cadet College Attock, Army Public College, Mansur Camp and Govt College for Women are famous colleges of the district. Now many famous private school and college chains have also established their campuses in the district. The district has also a campus of Comsat University, University of Education, a small campus of Virtual University and recently announced campus of Univ. of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi. A medical college has also been proposed for the district. There is also a vocational training institute in the name of Govt College of Technology(GCT,TEVTA) which imparts technical education to students after 10th grade. In the past decade, a sizable population has shifted from the rural areas to the Attock city for education purposes. This has considerably improved the literacy rates of the district and now the district is one of the leading districts in the area of literacy rates in the province(Punjab). The district has a famous and renowned Maddrassah with the name of Jamia Paracha in Injra of Tehsil Jand.It produces religious scholars(Mufti)of prestige. Most of them are moderate and progressive.

During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, hundred of thousands of Afghan refugees settled to Attock. Although majority of these refugees have returned to Afghanistan but still there is a considerable who have permanently settled in the Attock district specially in Awan Sharif and Amin Abad area of Attock City. Carpet industry of the district is contributed by these Afghan refugees. Now the Afghan refugees has started interest in getting education.

Main tribes and clans

The Moghals, Khattar, Awan, Shaikh, Jat, Qanungoh Shaikhs, Paracha, Arains, Pashtun, Gakharss, Gujjars, Khattak Rajput,Syeds and Qureshi and Karlal(Sardar) are the main tribes and clans of Attock district.[4] The district is going to become a multi-ethinic city where all the ethnicities live in peace and cooperate with another in the time of need. People of the district has frequent travelling to Rawalpindi, Peshawer, Islamabad, Kohat, Abbotabad, Noshera and Chakwal.

See also

References

  1. ^ Gazetteer of the Attock District 1930, Punjab Government, Lahore 1932. Reprinted version: Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 1989
  2. ^ "Official Website". Attock Police. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007. 
  3. ^ "Pakistan: Population 1901–98". Urban Resource Centre. Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007. 
  4. ^ District Profile: Central Punjab- Attock
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