World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Australian hip hop

Article Id: WHEBN0000673690
Reproduction Date:

Title: Australian hip hop  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: WikiProject Hip hop/To-do list, Bliss n Eso, Music of Australia, The Herd (Australian band), Suffa
Collection: Australian Hip Hop
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Australian hip hop

Australian hip hop traces its origins to the early 1980s and is largely inspired by hip hop and other predominantly African-American musical genres from the United States.[1][2][3] As the form matured, Australian hip hop has become a commercially viable style of music that is no longer restricted to the creative underground, with artists such as Hilltop Hoods and Bliss n Eso achieving notable fame. Australian hip-hop is still primarily released through independent record labels, which are often owned and operated by the artists themselves. Despite its genesis as an offshoot of American hip hop, Australian hip hop has developed a distinct regional personality that reflects its evolution as an Australian musical style.[4]


  • History 1
    • Early years (1980s) 1.1
    • Major label releases (1990s) 1.2
    • Later years (2000s) 1.3
  • Style and influences 2
    • American influence 2.1
    • Australian identity 2.2
    • Indigenous Australian hip hop 2.3
  • Media 3
    • Radio 3.1
    • Television 3.2
    • Film 3.3
    • Publications 3.4
    • Online 3.5
  • Notable artists 4
  • Record labels 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


Early years (1980s)

In 1982, the music video for Malcolm McLaren's track, "Buffalo Gals", was shown on the Australian television music show Sound Unlimited. The music show was broadcast on Network Seven. The clip was staged in a Manhattan basketball court and featured images of graffiti and break dancers. The video left an impression on Australian teenagers, who began to copy the dancers' moves.[5]

The first hip hop album released in Australia was "Combined Talent" / "My Destiny". This album was released in 1988 by Just Us (consisting of Maltese DJ Case and Mentor).[6] Also in the late 1980s hip hop act Skippy the Butcher, formerly a funk band, released a five-track EP titled Full Blown Rap under the moniker "STB" which was recorded at ABC Studios in Elsternwick, Victoria, Australia. The band supported the 1988 Australian tour of Run DMC.[7][8]

Major label releases (1990s)

In the late 1980s, Sound Unlimited Posse joined Sony BMG, thereby becoming the first Australian hip hop group signed on to a major record label. In 1992, they released the first major-label Australian rap album titled, A Postcard from the Edge of the Under-side.[6]

In 1991, a 16-year-old Sydney-based solo artist named KIC was signed to Sony/Columbia Records. His first single, "Bring Me On", was popular in Australia, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Also in 1992, independent label company Random Records released Def Wish Cast's album Knights of the Underground Table. After 1992, independent CDs and tapes were released by various artists, primarily from the Western Suburbs of Sydney, a largely immigrant-populated area largely known as a working class, underprivileged, and crime-ridden area.[9]

MC Opi (aka Opi Nelson) was an underground hip hop and dancehall artist who rose to national success after her performance on Christine Anu and Paul Kelly's 1994 ARIA-nominated single "Last Train", released by Mushroom/EMI (White Label). Prior to this, MC Opi co-produced Women on the Rhyme, the first national radio documentary about Australian female hip hop artists, created at the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).[10]

MC Opi contributed to Anu's debut album Stylin' Up, which attained platinum status in Australia and won the ARIA Award for Best Indigenous Album. Following the winning of the award, Anu invited MC Opi to perform with her on the first 'Australian Jail Tour' as part of NAIDOC (National Aborigines and Islanders Day Observance Committee) Week in 1993 in order to raise awareness about indigenous deaths in custody.[10]

Later years (2000s)

The Melbourne hip hop group 1200 Techniques was formed in 1997 by "old-school" 1980s B-boy/aerosol artist DJ Peril (founding member of Melbourne hip hop crew, Island Boys).The group consisted of DJ Peril on production, turntables, and percussion, his brother Kem(Kemstar) on guitar and N'fa on vocals.[11] They released an EP in 2001 called Infinite Styles with the independent label company Rubber Records.[12] 1200 Techniques later released one of the first hip hop crossover hits, a track called "Karma" (from the album Choose One). The song spawned the first ARIA Award for a hip hop act in Australia even before there was a hip hop category. Additionally "Karma" won Michael Gracey an ARIA in the same year for Best Video.[13] In 2003, the band released the first Australian hip hop DVD titled One Time Live, which featured the band's music videos, live footage and two short documentaries. Their second album, Consistency Theory, was released in 2004.[14][15]

Hilltop Hoods, an Australian hip-hop group, have been awarded several ARIA Music Awards.

By the early 2000s, the Australian Record Industry Association (ARIA) began to recognise the growing interest in hip-hop in Australia. In 2004, ARIA introduced a new category in their annual awards: Best Urban Album (R&B, hip-hop, soul, funk, reggae and dancehall). The inaugural award was won by Koolism for their album, Random Thoughts.[16] Koolism DJ Danielsan dedicated the award to the "Australian hip-hop community" and exclaimed: "Be yourselves, keep it real, enough of that American wannabe trash".[9]

At the 2006 and 2007 ARIA Awards, the Urban award was won by Hilltop Hoods for their albums The Hard Road and The Hard Road: Restrung, respectively.[17][18] The Hard Road also became the first Australian hip hop album to rank number 1 on the ARIA Charts in 2006. Other artists who have won the award include Bliss n Eso, for their album Flying Colours,[9] and Melbourne artist Illy, for his album Bring it Back, released on the Obese Records label.[19]

Australian hip-hop artists have also received international recognition. Australians have been featured on albums by artists from the US and Europe. In October 2014, Australian artist K21 appeared on a song, titled "Pas rentable", by French hip hop artist LinkRust.[20]

In 2015, Adelaide born rapper Allday became the second Australian hip-hop artist to sign with an American label. The first being Iggy Azalea.

Style and influences

Australian hip hop artists are strongly influenced by African American and Latino rappers from the US, and continue to incorporate such influences into their music.[21] Australian artists, however, still utilise an authentic and unique style in their own music.[22] Like many hip hop scenes outside the US, some Australian hip hop artists have also been influenced by funk and dancehall.[23] Indigenous Australian culture is also a strong influence for many hip hop artists.[5][24]

While hip hop artists in the US are predominantly African American, many Australian hip hop artists are of Anglo heritage. Numerous Australian hip hop artists, including Diafrix, Tkay Maidza, Miracle, Vida Sunshyne, KillaQueenz, Remi and N'fa, are of African descent, which has influenced their music.[25]

Bliss n Eso consists of an American and two Australians. According to Bliss, "When I [moved] to Australia [in 1992], I met Eso and he was the only guy at my school into hip-hop. It was so scarce you'd be lucky to find a hip-hop record in a store let alone a whole section."[26] Eso is seen here performing in 2011.

American influence

U.S. artists cited as key inspirations of Australian hip-hop artists include De La Soul in their "ideal festival line up".[31]

In Australia, dance moves associated with hip hop, like krumping, footworking, locking and popping, have drawn public interest to hip hop, and contributed to its dynamic popularity.[32] However, these dance moves have been criticized as not being original and a sign that Australia suffers from a lack of its own hip-hop identity.[33]

Australian identity

Although hip hop originated in the US, some Australian rappers see their hip hop scene as having its own unique character. Dialectrix has described it as a "mongrel mutation" of Afro-centric and Australian culture.[3] According to the lyrics of Def Wish Cast, it is "down under, comin' up."[5][34]

Australian hip hop has been localised with the introduction of aspects such as the Australian accent, Australian slang, political views, and references to localities and matters of Australian cultural identity. The lyrics of early Western Sydney artists like 046, Def Wish Cast and the White Boys represent the process of localising Australian hip hop. Additionally, the non-Anglo immigrants of these areas were attracted to hip hop because it tackles the theme of racial opposition, as in African American and Chicano hip hop.[9] Australian hip hop has been described as rich with Australian character, but also as inspirational for immigrants, providing "a voice and a purpose for those making their home anew in Australia."[25] For example, Diafrix use migrant experiences in some of their songs, although this is not their main focus.[35]

Numerous Australian hip-hop artists have expressed concern that sections of Australia's hip hop fanbase seem to espouse a "redneck" mentality that is ignorant of the culture's international influences.[3][21] In a 2009 interview, Cross Bred Mongrels member Flak explained: "I don't go for that. [Only listening to Australian hip hop] I think that is a little narrow-minded. If it is dope hip hop, it is dope hip hop. If it is from Germany, Japan or Compton, and it is dope, I go for it."[36] Over time, Australian hip hop diversified, absorbing influences from New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the Caribbean. For example, Def Wish described his style as influenced by reggae from London, rather than North American rap, while also acknowledging Afro-Caribbean roots of that scene.[37]

Indigenous Australian hip hop

Briggs has the name of his Indigenous tribe, the Yorta Yorta people, tattooed on his forearms "so every time I rock the mic people know I’m representing."[38]

Since the early 1980s, many indigenous crews have focused on portraying their skills as better and their turf as tougher. Though not at the forefront of the Australian hip hop scene, Aboriginal rappers such as Brothablack, the South West Syndicate, Local Knowledge, Lez Beckett and the Native Ryme Syndicate produce songs that address the cultural situation of Indigenous Australians.[5][24] One of their musical influences is the American hip hop group Public Enemy.[27]

Triple J, which made an ABC TV documentary.[39] Munkimuk also hosts a nationally syndicated weekly radio program called "Indij Hip Hop Show", which is produced by Koori Radio in Sydney.

Briggs, a Yorta Yorta man from the rural location of Shepparton, became a prominent feature of the Australian hip hop scene since he began his career as an independent artist in 2005. In August 2014, he released his sophomore studio album, Sheplife, on the Golden Era Records label, owned by Hilltop Hoods. As of 2012, Briggs has been the recipient of two Deadly Awards nominations[40][41] and received the "Best New Talent" award at the 2014 National Indigenous Music Awards (NIMA).[42]

Indigenous producer and MC, Daniel Rankine (Trials), of the Adelaide Funkoars trio and Golden Era Records, also releases his own work, including occasional solo work. Rankine's production credits include Drapht,[43] Vents,[44] Reason,[45] Cross Bred Mongrels[46] and K21,[47] while he has provided guest verses for Purpose,[48] Hilltop Hoods,[49] and the Golden Era mixtapes.[50] At the commencement of 2015, Trials and Briggs were in a Sydney recording studio-undertaking work on their "A.B.Original" collaboration. They had recently performed at the "Beat The Drum" event for the Triple J Radio station on 16 January.[51][52]



Radio, particularly community radio, plays a significant role in the dissemination of hip hop within Australia. Additionally, the Australian Government funds projects,[53] such as the Australian Music Radio Airplay Project (AMRAP), which seeks to promote Australian music nationwide.[54] 3RRR was the first radio station to present an international hip-hop act to the city—Run-D.M.C.'s 1987 Australian tour—and it highlighted international hip hop culture as well as the local scene.

  • 3MDR (97.1FM): "The Bourne Collective" hosted by Bastian Killjoy[55]
Alternative text
Rob Farley on 3RRR's "Wheels of Steel"

  • 3RRR: "Hood Pass" hosted by Carlos Turner and Rob Steezy[56]
  • 106.7 3PBSFM: "Hippopotamus rex" hosted by Ronin Hamill; "Fresh Produce" hosted by Cosi; "B.P.M." hosted by PBS DJs and guests; "tHE bLEND" hosted by Bevin Campbell[57]
  • Triple J: "Hip Hop Show" hosted by Hau Latukefu[58]
  • Edge 96.1 (96.1 FM): "K-Sera & The Dirty Dozen" hosted by K-Sera[59]
  • 2SER (107.3FM): "Hardcore Classic" hosted by Thomas Rock, Ran-Dee and Raine Supreme[60]
  • 4ZZZ (102.1 FM): "Phat Tape" hosted by Chubba Dubbed, Complex, Dj Dcide and Sean B.[61]
  • Three D Radio (93.7FM): "Hazy Tones" hosted by Anders; "Episodes In Space" hosted by Sam & TimeSpace[62][63]
  • Fresh FM (92.7FM): "The Lesson" hosted by Sanchez[64]
  • RTRFM (92.1FM): "Down Underground" hosted by Nick Sweepah; "Full Frequency" (Monday and Friday) hosted by Micah and Philly Blunt (Monday) and Rok Riley (Friday)[65]
  • 89.7FM: "BRL" hosted by Gavin Crossley;[66]
  • SYN (90.7FM): "Hip Hop Night" hosted by Christopher Palmer[67]


The first appearance [68] of an Australian hip hop act on Australian television was in November 1988, when Skippy The Butcher performed live on the ABC's "The Factory" during the Run DMC tour.[69] The first Australian hip hop documentary, Basic Equipment, was made in 1996 and released in 1997. Narrated by Paul Westgate (aka Sereck) from Def Wish Cast, the documentary examined the Sydney hip hop culture. It was created by Paul Fenech (creator of SBS' Pizza series) and featured artists such as MC Trey, Def Wish Cast, DJ Bonez, DJ Ask.[70]

During the 1990s, SBS TV's MC Tee Vee, the first Australian dance music show became a hit. In 1992, following an invitation from Annette Shun Wah from the alternative arts show, The Noise, MC Opi became the first hip hop artist to become a reporter and assistant producer for MC Tee Vee. MC Tee Vee is notable for being the first national Australian music program dedicated to dance, rap and house music.[71]

In August 2006, the ABC program Compass showed a documentary entitled The Mistery of Hip Hop, which explored the cultural movement and popularity of hip hop in Australia. The film followed one of the "founding fathers" of the Sydney hip hop scene Matthew "Mistery" Peet. Mistery works full-time as graffiti artist and is also emcee/rapper in the group Brethren. The 28-minute documentary looked at the "four elements of hip hop": breakdancing, DJing, rapping, and graffiti. It features interviews with the then-host of Triple J's hip hop show Maya Jupiter, and the other half of Brethren: Wizdm and DJ Kool Herc.[72][73]

In December 2007, ABC Television aired the documentary Words from the City, which includes interviews with a number of high-profile Australian hip hop artists, including: Hilltop Hoods, Koolism, Downsyde, TZU, MC Layla, Bliss n Eso, MC Trey, Wire MC, and Jupiter.[74]


In 2004, independent film-maker Oriel Guthrie, debuted her documentary "Skip Hop" at the Melbourne International Film Festival (MIFF). The film includes live footage of freestyle battles and prominent gigs around Australia, as well as interviews with Def Wish Cast, DJ Peril, Hilltop Hoods, Koolism, Blades of Hades, Maya Jupiter, The Herd and Wicked Force Breakers.[75]

"Out4Fame presents 2003 MC Battle For Supremacy" was the first (documented) national MC tournament and was responsible for supporting the careers of many MCs across Australia. The following year, MCs were invited to enter the tournament for the chance to compete in New Zealand. MCs who have competed in Battle For Supremacy tournaments include Weapon X, 360, Anecdote, Nfa, Justice, Dragonfly, Robby Bal Boa, Kaos, Tyna, Surreal, Cyphanetics, Delta. Guthrie also documented the 2004 and 2005 events and released them on DVDs. MC Justice went on to win 2005 "Scribble Jam MC Battle" in the US and is the first Australian to win the competition.


One of the oldest hip hop magazines in the world,[76] Vapors, is an Australian publication and is produced by Blaze. Stealth Magazine debuted in 1999 and was distributed worldwide via Tower Records. Notable zines include Hype, Zest, Raptanite, Arfek, Damn Kids, Artillery, Blitzkrieg and Slingshot.

Following the popular Out4Fame: Battle For Supremacy tournaments, Out4Fame Magazine was launched as a free publication. Out4Fame Magazine was later relaunched as Out4Fame presents ACCLAIM Magazine, which then became ACCLAIM Magazine. ACCLAIM Magazine is distributed throughout Australia, as well as other countries including New Zealand, Singapore and the UK.


  • is an Australian hip hop internet forum that was established in 2002. As of 2004, the website's CEO is Mass MC.[77] In 2011, OzHipHop.Com was sold for an undisclosed amount to LJ Krooker who took over the website administration. The website promptly experienced a sharp decline in patronage and support in response.
  • is an independent website and Australia's One Stop Hip Hop Shop that features the latest in Australian hip hop news, interviews, products (Cd's, Digital,Vinyl) and events. The website has many great features including the most comprehensive range of free downloadable Australian hip-hop albums and mixtapes ready to download and play.They also have a massive section of Australian hip hop, graffiti, breakdancing and beatboxing videos ready to watch. was the first to implement a calendar style Australian wide hip hop gig guide early in 2014 and is still the go-to online place to keep up to date with what hip hop gigs are happening across Australia.

Notable artists

Record labels

See also


  1. ^ Kalantzis-Cope, Phillip (19 September 2002). "Hip Hop – a Way of Life". Community Broadcasting Online (Stephen Hahn).  
  2. ^ Quartermaine, Craig. NITV News Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Does Aussie hip-hop have a problem with racism?". The Vine. 
  4. ^ "Phat of the land". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  5. ^ a b c d Maxwell, Ian (2001). "Chapter 11: Sydney Stylee: Hip-Hop Down Under Comin' Up". In Tony Mitchell. Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA.  
  6. ^ a b Bloustein, Gerry (1999). Musical Visions.  
  7. ^ "Full Blown Rap". songstall. 
  8. ^ "STB (SKIPPY THE BUTCHER)". STB (SkippyThe Butcher) on Soundcloud. Soundcloud. 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d Mitchell, Tony (18 March 1998). "Australian Hip Hop as a 'global' Subculture" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  10. ^ a b Alfred Aborga (2 October 2014). "Our Chat With MC Opi: First National Female HipHop Artiste in Australia". Loud Sound Ghana. Loud Sound Ghana. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  11. ^ Andrew Drever (28 June 2002). "Don't fence me in". The Age. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "Infinite Styles – EP 1200 Techniques". iTunes Preview. Apple Inc. 2001. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  13. ^ "2002 ARIA Award Winners". 1998–2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  14. ^ "1200 Techniques: One Time Live". inthemix. inthemix Pty Ltd. 30 July 2003. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  15. ^ "1200 Techniques – Consistency Theory". 1200 Techniques on Discogs. Discogs. 2014. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  16. ^ "2004: 18th Annual ARIA Awards".  
  17. ^ "2006: 20th Annual ARIA Awards".  
  18. ^ "2007: 21st Annual ARIA Awards".  
  19. ^ Greg Moskovitch (1 December 2013). "ARIA Awards 2013 Winners Rundown". Music Feeds. Music Feeds. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  20. ^ "Pas rentable (feat K21)" (Audio upload). LinkRust on SoundCloud. SoundCloud. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  21. ^ a b Quartermaine, Craig. NITV News 
  22. ^ "New York Music News, Concerts and Reviews - Village Voice". Village Voice. 
  23. ^ Marshall, Wayne (29 December 2005). "downunder underground". Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 
  24. ^ a b c "Tony Mitchell, The New Corroboree, 1 April 2006, ''The Age''". 1 April 2006. Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  25. ^ a b "Phat of the land". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  26. ^ Murffet, Andrew (4 September 2008). "Bliss n Eso". Melbourne:  
  27. ^ a b Shapiro, Michael J. 2004. "Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject." Routledge.
  28. ^ a b "Hayd". Triple J. 
  29. ^ "Byte". Triple J. 
  30. ^ "Diafrix". Triple J. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  31. ^ "Hilltop Hoods". Coffs Coast Focus. CREATIVE HOUSE PUBLICATIONS PTY LTD. 2005–2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  32. ^ Henderson, April K. "Dancing Between Islands: Hip-Hop and the Samoan Diaspora" p.180-197
  33. ^ Park, M. & G. Northwood. "Australian Dance Culture." Accessed 18 April 2008.
  34. ^ Mitchell, Tony. "World Music and the Popular Music Industry: An Australian View." Ethnomusicology, Vol. 37, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 309–338.
  35. ^
  36. ^ Gareth Bryant (30 September 2009). "Cross Bred Mongrels Interview". Scene Magazine. Eyeball Media Pty Ltd. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  37. ^ Ian Maxwell (10 November 2003). Phat Beats, Dope Rhymes: Hip Hop Down Under Comin' Upper. Wesleyan University Press.  
  38. ^ Matthew Dunn (10 March 2012). "BRIGGS". G&T. Retrieved 19 August 2012. “Being Koori is me; it’s not a hat I take on or off. I have my tribe tattooed on my arm, so every time I rock the mic people know I’m representing” Briggs explained. 
  39. ^ "Aboriginal Hip-hop: a modern day corroboree, at ''Local Noise''". Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  40. ^ "Your 2011 Deadlys Nominees". Deadly Vibe. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  41. ^ "Deadlys 2012 Nominees" (PDF). Deadly Vibe. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  42. ^ Rico Adjrun, Rhianna Patrick (11 October 2014). "Sheplife: Briggs" (Audio upload). Awaye!. ABC. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  43. ^ "Drapht – Brothers Grimm". Drapht on Discogs. Discogs. 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  44. ^ "Vents – Hard To Kill". Vents on Discogs. Discogs. 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  45. ^ "Reason (2) – The Tides Are Turning". Reason on Discogs. Discogs. 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  46. ^ "Cross Bred Mongrels – Restore Your Faith". Cross Bred Mongrels on Discogs. Discogs. 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  47. ^ "K21 (2) – Single Minded Civilian". K21 on Discogs. Discogs. 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  48. ^ "Purpose (5) – Where It Starts". Purpose on Discogs. Discogs. 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  49. ^ "Hilltop Hoods – State Of The Art". Hilltop Hoods on Discogs. Discogs. 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  50. ^ "03 Macho Man Randy Savage Feat. Trials & Briggs (Scratches by Jaytee)". Golden Era Records on SoundCloud. SoundCloud. 9 April 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  51. ^ "17 hours ago". hauiebeast on Instagram. Instagram. 17 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015. 
  52. ^ "A.B. Original (Briggs & Trials @funkoars) performing live @ @triplej's Beat The Drum! Jan 16th Sydney!". BRIGGS on Twitter. Twitter. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 19 January 2015. 
  53. ^ "Community radio". Australian Department of Communications. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  54. ^ "Amrap – Home". Community Broadcasting Association of Australia. Retrieved 28 March 2015. 
  55. ^ "The Bourne Collective". 3MDR FM. 3MDR FM. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  56. ^ "Hood Pass with Carlos Turner,Rob Steezy". RRR FM. RRR FM. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  57. ^ "Electronic & Hip Hop". PBS FM. PBS FM. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  58. ^ "Hip Hop Show". triple j. ABC. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  59. ^ "K-Sera & The Dirty Dozen". The Edge. Australian Radio Network. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  60. ^ "Hardcore Classic". 2SER. 2SER. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  61. ^ "Phat Tape". 4ZZZ. 4ZZZ. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  62. ^ "Hazy Tones". Three D Radio. Progressive Music Broadcasting Association, Inc. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  63. ^ "Episodes In Space". Three D Radio. Progressive Music Broadcasting Association, Inc. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  64. ^ "The Lesson". fresh 92.7. fresh 92.7. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  65. ^ "Hip Hop". RTRFM. RTRFM 92.1. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  66. ^ "Hip Hop". 897FM. 897FM 92.1. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2015. 
  67. ^ "Hip Hop Night". SYN. SYN Media. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014. 
  68. ^ "The Factory", Episode 54. Broadcast 12 November 1988, EntertainmentOnABC, 13 July 2010
  69. ^ "5 Points on the Star by STB (Skippy the Butcher) on ABC's The Factory 1988" (Video upload). frettebene1 on YouTube. Google Inc. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  70. ^ "Basic Equipment". Screen Australia. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  71. ^ "SBS". Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  72. ^ "Compass program summary – 'The Mistery of Hip Hop' at". 6 August 2006. Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  73. ^ Compass program summary – 'The Mistery of Hip Hop' on YouTube
  74. ^ "ABC TV guide December 2007". 7 December 2007. Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  75. ^ "'"Nation Library of Australia – listing 'Skip Hop. Retrieved 2012-01-05. 
  76. ^ Out4Fame Magazine, Issue #25, 2004, page 32 "DJ Peril's Tales from the Old School – interview with DJ Blaze"
  77. ^ Karl (8 July 2004). "Reason – A True Aussie Icon of Hip Hop". Resident Advisor. Resident Advisor Ltd. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  78. ^ "What Happened To Nurcha?". Nurcha Records. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.