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Azerbaijani alphabet

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Azerbaijani alphabet

The Azerbaijani alphabet of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language. This superseded previous versions based on Cyrillic and Arabic scripts.

In Iran, the Perso-Arabic script is used to write the Azeri language. While there have been a few standardization efforts, the orthography and the set of letters used differs widely among Iranian Azeri writers, with at least two major branches, the orthography used by Behzad Behzadi and the Azari magazine, and the orthography used by the Varliq magazine (both are quarterlies published in Tehran).

In Russia, the Cyrillic alphabet is still used.[1]

Contents

  • History and development 1
    • Schwa (Ә) 1.1
  • Comparison 2
  • Transliteration 3
  • Sources 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

History and development

From the nineteenth century there were efforts by some intellectuals like Mirza Fatali Akhundov and Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski to replace the Arabic script and create a Latin alphabet for Azeri. In 1922, a Latin alphabet was created by Yeni türk əlifba komitəsi (New Turkish Alphabet Committee; Јени түрк əлифба комитəси) in Baku. In 1929, the Uniform Turkic Alphabet was introduced to replace the varieties of the Arabic script in use at the time. In 1939, because Joseph Stalin wished to sever the ties between the Republic of Turkey and the Turkic peoples living within the Soviet Union, he decreed that only the Cyrillic script be used. When the Soviet Union collapsed and Azerbaijan gained its independence, one of the first laws passed in the new Parliament was the adoption of the new Latin alphabet.

  • From 1922 until 1939 (old alphabet defined using the Latin script):
    Aa, Bʙ, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Əə, Ff, Gg, Ƣƣ, Hh, Ii, Ьь, Jj, Kk, Qq, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Ɵɵ, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Vv, Xx, Yy, Zz, Ƶƶ
  • From 1939 until 1958 (first version of the alphabet defined using the Cyrillic script):
    Аа, Бб, Вв, Гг, Ғғ, Дд, Ее, Әә, Жж, Зз, Ии, Йй, Кк, Ҝҝ, Лл, Мм, Нн, Оо, Өө, Пп, Рр, Сс, Тт, Уу, Үү, Фф, Хх, Һһ, Цц, Чч, Ҹҹ, Шш, Ыы, Ээ, Юю, Яя, ʼ (apostrophe)
  • From 1958 until 1991 (simplified version of the alphabet defined using the Cyrillic script and the letter Јј borrowed from Latin):
    Аа, Бб, Вв, Гг, Ғғ, Дд, Ее, Әә, Жж, Зз, Ии, Ыы, Јј, Кк, Ҝҝ, Лл, Мм, Нн, Оо, Өө, Пп, Рр, Сс, Тт, Уу, Үү, Фф, Хх, Һһ, Чч, Ҹҹ, Шш, ʼ (apostrophe)
  • From 1991 until 1992 (first version of the modern alphabet defined using the Latin script):
    Aa, Ää, Bb, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Ff, Gg, Ğğ, Hh, Xx, Iı, İi, Jj, Kk, Qq, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Yy, Zz
  • Since 1992 (current version of the modern alphabet defined using the Latin script, replacing Ää with the historic Əə for better sorting):
    Aa, Bb, Cc, Çç, Dd, Ee, Əə, Ff, Gg, Ğğ, Hh, Xx, Iı, İi, Jj, Kk, Qq, Ll, Mm, Nn, Oo, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Şş, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Yy, Zz

The Azerbaijani alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, except for Әə, Xx, and Qq, the letters for sounds which do not exist as separate phonemes in Turkish. When compared to the historic Latin alphabet: Ğğ has replaced the historic Ƣƣ (which was represented in Cyrillic by the stroked Ғғ); the undotted (also used in Turkish) has replaced the historic soft sign; the dotted İi (also used in Turkish) has replaced the historic soft-dotted Ii; Jj has replaced the historic Ƶƶ; Öö has replaced the historic Ɵɵ; Üü has replaced the historic Yy; and Yy has replaced the historic Jj.

Schwa (Ә)

When the new Latin script was introduced on December 25, 1991, A-umlaut was selected to represent the sound /æ/. However, on May 16, 1992, it was replaced by the historic schwa (Ə ə). Although use of Ä ä (also used in Tatar, Turkmen, and Gagauz) seems to be a simpler alternative as the schwa is absent in most character sets, particularly Turkish encoding, it was reintroduced; the schwa had existed continuously from 1929 to 1991 to represent Azeri's most common vowel, in both post-Arabic alphabets (Latin and Cyrillic) of Azerbaijan.

Comparison

This section contains the national anthem of Azerbaijan, in the current Latin, Cyrillic, Jaᶇalif, and Perso-Arabic alphabets.

1991– 1958–1991 1933–1939 –1922
Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!
Ey qəhrəman övladın şanlı Vətəni!
Səndən ötrü can verməyə cümlə hazırız!
Səndən ötrü qan tökməyə cümlə qadiriz!
Üçrəngli bayrağınla məsud yaşa!
Üçrəngli bayrağınla məsud yaşa!
Minlərlə can qurban oldu,
Sinən hərbə meydan oldu!
Hüququndan keçən əsgər,
Hərə bir qəhrəman oldu!
Sən olasan gülüstan,
Sənə hər an can qurban!
Sənə min bir məhəbbət
Sinəmdə tutmuş məkan!
Namusunu hifz etməyə,
Bayrağını yüksəltməyə
Namusunu hifz etməyə,
Cümlə gənclər müştaqdır!
Şanlı Vətən! Şanlı Vətən!
Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!
Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!
Азәрбајҹан! Азәрбајҹан!
Еј гәһрәман өвладын шанлы Вәтәни!
Сәндән өтрү ҹан вермәјә ҹүмлә һазырыз!
Сәндән өтрү ган төкмәјә ҹүмлә гадириз!
Үчрәнҝли бајрағынла мәсуд јаша!
Үчрәнҝли бајрағынла мәсуд јаша!
Минләрлә ҹан гурбан олду,
Синән һәрбә мејдан олду!
Һүгугундан кечән әсҝәр,
Һәрә бир гәһрәман олду!
Сән оласан ҝүлүстан,
Сәнә һәр ан ҹан гурбан!
Сәнә мин бир мәһәббәт
Синәмдә тутмуш мәкан!
Намусуну һифз етмәјә,
Бајрағыны јүксәлтмәјә
Намусуну һифз етмәјә,
Ҹүмлә ҝәнҹләр мүштагдыр!
Шанлы Вәтән! Шанлы Вәтән!
Азәрбајҹан! Азәрбајҹан!
Азәрбајҹан! Азәрбајҹан!
Azərʙajçan! Azərʙajçan!
Ej qəhrəman ɵvladьn şanlь Vətəni!
Səndən ɵtry çan verməjə çymlə hazьrьz!
Səndən ɵtry qan tɵkməjə çymlə qadiriz!
Ycrəngli ʙajraƣьnla məsud jaşa!
Ycrəngli ʙajraƣьnla məsud jaşa!
Minlərlə çan qurʙan oldu,
Sinən hərʙə mejdan oldu!
Hyququndan kecən əsgər,
Hərə ʙir qəhrəman oldu!
Sən olasan gylystan,
Sənə hər an çan qurʙan!
Sənə min ʙir məhəʙʙət
Sinəmdə tutmuş məkan!
Namusunu hifz etməjə,
Bajraƣьnь jyksəltməjə
Namusunu hifz etməjə,
Çymlə gənçlər myştaqdьr!
Şanlь Vətən! Şanlь Vətən!
Azərʙajçan! Azərʙajçan!
Azərʙajçan! Azərʙajçan!
!آذربایجان، آذربایجان
ای قهرمان اولادین شانلی وطنی
سندن اوترو جان ورمه‌یه جومله حاضریز
سندن اوتروقان توکمه‌یه جومله قادیریز
!اوچ رنگلی بایراقین‌لا مسعود یاشا
!اوچ رنگلی بایراقین‌لا مسعود یاشا
مینلرله جان قوربان اولدو
!سینن حربه میدان اولدو
حقوقوندان کچن عسکر
!هره بیر قهرمان اولدو
!سن اولاسان گولوستان
!سنه هرآن جان قوربان
سنه مین بیر محبت
!سینه‌مده توتموش مکان
ناموسونو حیفظ اتمه‌یه
بایراقینی یوکسلتمه‌یه
ناموسونو حیفظ اتمه‌یه
جومله گنجلر موشتاقدیر
!شانلی وطن! شانلی وطن
!آذربایجان، آذربایجان
!آذربایجان، آذربایجان

Transliteration

The Arabic, Latin, and Cyrillic alphabets each have a different sequence of letters. The table below is ordered according to the latest Latin alphabet:

Azerbaijani alphabet transliteration table
Arabic Cyrillic Latin IPA
–1922 1939–1958 1958–1991 1922–1933 1933–1939 1991–1992 1992–
ا А а A a [ɑ]
ب Б б B b B ʙ B b [b]
ج Ҹ ҹ C c Ç ç C c [dʒ]
چ Ч ч Ç ç C c Ç ç [tʃ]
د Д д D d [d]
ێ Е е E e [e]
ع Ә ә Ə ə Ä ä Ə ə [æ]
ف Ф ф F f [f]
گ Ҝ ҝ Ƣ ƣ G g [ɟ]
غ Ғ ғ G g Ƣ ƣ Ğ ğ [ɣ]
ح,‎ ه Һ һ H h [h]
خ Х х X x [x]
ی Ы ы I̡ ı̡ Ь ь I ı [ɯ]
ی И и I i İ i [ɪ]
ژ Ж ж Ƶ ƶ J j [ʒ]
ک К к Q q K k [c], [ç], [k]
ق Г г K k Q q [ɡ]
ل Л л L l [l]
م М м M m [m]
ن Н н N n [n]
ۆ О о O o [ɔ]
و Ө ө Ɵ ɵ Ö ö [œ]
پ П п P p [p]
ر Р р R r [r]
ث,‎ س,‎ ص С с S s [s]
ش Ш ш З з Ş ş [ʃ]
ت,‎ ط Т т T t [t]
و У у Y y U u [u]
و Ү ү U u Y y Ü ü [y]
ڤ,‎ ۋ В в V v [v]
ی Й й Ј ј J j Y y [j]
یَ Я я ЈА jа ЈА ја YA ya [jɑ]
یێ Е е1 ЈЕ је ЈE јe YE ye [je]
یع Э э1 Е е E e [e]
یۆ Йо йо ЈО јо ЈO јo YO yo [jɔ]
یُ Ю ю ЈУ ју JY jy ЈU јu YU yu [ju]
ذ,‎ ز,‎ ض,‎ ظ З з Z z [z]

1 – in the beginning of a word and after vowels

The Azeri Perso-Arabic alphabet also contains the letter ڭ. Originally ڭ stood for the sound [ŋ], which then merged with [n]. Initial versions of the Azeri Latin alphabet contained the letter N̡ᶇ, which was dropped in 1938.

The letter Цц, intended for the sound [ts] in loanwords, was used in Azerbaijani Cyrillic until 1951. In Azerbaijani, the sound [ts] generally becomes [s].

Sources

References

  1. ^ http://derbend.etnosmi.ru/vip_files/51bebadda448c.pdf

External links

  • Source: azeri.org
  • Turned e in Azerbaijani
  • Azerbaijani alphabet (with video)
  • [1]
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