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Balkhash (city)

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Balkhash (city)

Balkhash
Балқаш
City
Centre of the city
Centre of the city
Balkhash is located in Kazakhstan
Balkhash
Balkhash
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates:
Country Kazakhstan
Region Karaganda Region
Founded 1931
Incorporated (city) 1937
Government
 • Akim (mayor) Nurlan Erikbaevich Aubakirov (since 29 May 2012)
Elevation 440 m (1,440 ft)
Population (2009)
 • City 68,833
 • Urban 77,662
Postal code 100300 - 100316
Area code(s) +7 71036
Website .kz.balkhashwww
Southern view of the city Balkhash.

Balkhash (; }

}}: Балхаш, Balkhash) is a city in Kazakhstan, located on the northern shore of the Lake Balkhash, on the Bay Bertys, and in south of Kazakh Uplands. Population of the city:

Balkhash was founded in 1937 as an industrial city centred on the mining and smelting of copper, and presently copper is still exploited there. The city lies approximately 500 km west of the Chinese border on the north side of the lake at an altitude of 440 m.

The history of the city is closely connected with mining of deposits of copper and development of a smelting plant.

History

In 11 April 1937, a small worker`s settlement "Pribalhashstroy", designed in connection with the construction of a copper factory - BGMC, was transformed into the city of Balkhash by decision of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh SSR. In this way, the copper factory effected the city's appearance.

In 9 November 1932, the first school was established in the city - school № 1. The school educated a few children of the builders of the city that time. Among these children was Maria Nicolaevna Guseva (Halova). This school became a matter of her life: firstly she was one of the first pupils. Later, she became a teacher. In 1935, a section for parachuting was opened. Its first director was Dyusembayev.

During the Great Patriotic War (Russian term for World War II), most of the male population was conscripted into the military service and women replaced them in the copper factory.

After World War II, Japanese war prisoners took part in the building of the city. In particular, they built buildings, the "Palace of Metallurgists" and the local airport.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, between 1992 and 1996, the city and its residents, like most former Soviet citizens, experienced an acute crisis, including power outages, weak central heating and intermittent operation of the copper factory. Some people cooked on fires in their yards; in winter they heated their apartments with potbelly stoves. Summer cottages served as an additional source of foodstuffs, contributing to the populace's survival. In the late 1990s, the city's and country's economies stabilised. A new neighborhood was built in the city, the so-called "Canadian cottages". All schools, medical facilities and the college started to function normally.

Administration and directorates

Due to the appointment of former Mayor Kadyrzhan Teylyanova as Chairman of the Committee of Fisheries of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nurlan Erikbaevich Aubakirov (born 29.12.1975) has been the mayor of Balkash since 29 May 2012.[1]

Balkhash's city government also administers the urban-type settlements of Sayak (3669 people), Gulshat and Chubar-Tubek (625 people). In May 1997, the city of Balkhash was transferred from Dzhezkazgan Region to Karaganda Region due to a boundary change.

Population

The combined population of the city and its urban area is 75,453 people (2010). The ethnic composition in 1 January 2010 was:[2]

In recent years, the number of Russian speakers is dramatically declining, but this is more than compensated by an influx of Kazakhs, who come mostly from rural areas, resulting in growth of the city's population after the substantial decline in the 1990s.

Climate

Winter in Balkhash. One of the central streets.

Balkhash has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with warm summers and very cold winters. Precipitation is low throughout the year. Snow is common, though light, in winter. The lowest temperature on record is −41.2 °C (−42.2 °F), recorded in December 1938, and the highest temperature is 40.9 °C (105.6 °F), recorded in July 2005.[3]

Climate data for Balkhash
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 3.9
(39)
6.1
(43)
24.5
(76.1)
32.5
(90.5)
34.4
(93.9)
37.6
(99.7)
40.9
(105.6)
39.5
(103.1)
37.6
(99.7)
27.2
(81)
17.4
(63.3)
7.5
(45.5)
40.9
(105.6)
Average high °C (°F) −8.7
(16.3)
−6.7
(19.9)
1.7
(35.1)
14.3
(57.7)
22.1
(71.8)
27.9
(82.2)
29.6
(85.3)
28.1
(82.6)
21.7
(71.1)
12.9
(55.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
11.73
(53.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −13.3
(8.1)
−12.1
(10.2)
−3.6
(25.5)
8.3
(46.9)
16.4
(61.5)
22.3
(72.1)
24.2
(75.6)
22.4
(72.3)
15.6
(60.1)
7.1
(44.8)
−1.8
(28.8)
−9.7
(14.5)
6.32
(43.37)
Average low °C (°F) −17.6
(0.3)
−16.8
(1.8)
−8.2
(17.2)
3.1
(37.6)
10.7
(51.3)
16.3
(61.3)
18.5
(65.3)
16.3
(61.3)
9.3
(48.7)
2.0
(35.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
−13.7
(7.3)
1.18
(34.12)
Record low °C (°F) −40.1
(−40.2)
−40.2
(−40.4)
−30.8
(−23.4)
−14.2
(6.4)
−5.5
(22.1)
4.0
(39.2)
6.9
(44.4)
3.7
(38.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−14.8
(5.4)
−32.7
(−26.9)
−41.2
(−42.2)
−41.2
(−42.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13
(0.51)
11
(0.43)
12
(0.47)
10
(0.39)
15
(0.59)
12
(0.47)
14
(0.55)
9
(0.35)
4
(0.16)
9
(0.35)
16
(0.63)
13
(0.51)
138
(5.41)
Average rainy days 2 2 5 7 9 8 9 6 4 7 7 4 70
Average snowy days 14 11 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 12 50
Average relative humidity (%) 79 78 74 56 51 46 49 47 47 60 75 79 61.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 153 179 228 276 335 367 377 363 299 222 151 131 3,081
Source #1: pogoda.ru.net[3]
Source #2: NOAA (sun only, 1961-1990)[4]

Photo gallery

Economy

Infrastructure

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ BNEWS KZ (in russ.)
  2. ^ Национальный состав населения Казахстана по переписи 2009
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^

External links

  • All info of Balkhash
  • Info page of BBC about Balkhash town, with picture material
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