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Battle of the Caucasus

Battle of the Caucasus
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II

German advances in summer of 1942.
Date 25 July 1942 – 12 May 1944
Location Greater Caucasus, Soviet Union
Result Soviet victory. Axis evacuation of the area in 1943.
Belligerents
 Germany
Romania
 Bulgaria[1]
 Kingdom of Hungary
 Kingdom of Italy
Croatia
 Soviet Union

The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.

Contents

  • Order of battle 1
    • Red Army 1.1
    • Wehrmacht 1.2
  • German operations 2
    • Preparations 2.1
    • Events 2.2
  • Soviet operations 3
    • 1941 3.1
    • 1942 3.2
    • 1943 3.3
    • 1944 3.4
  • Anti-Soviet insurgency (1940–1944) 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Order of battle

c870,000 Soviet personnel were awarded this Medal "For the Defence of the Caucasus" from 1 May 1944.

Red Army

Wehrmacht

Army Group A - General Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Wilhelm List

German operations

Operation Edelweiss (German: Edelweiß), named after the mountain flower, was a German plan to gain control over the Caucasus and capture the oil fields of Baku during the Soviet-German War. The operation was authorised by Hitler on 23 July 1942. The main forces included Army Group A commanded by Wilhelm List, 1st Panzer Army (Ewald von Kleist), 4th Panzer Army (Colonel-General Hermann Hoth), 17th Army (Colonel-General Richard Ruoff), part of the Luftflotte 4 (Generalfeldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen) and the 3rd Romanian Army (General Petre Dumitrescu). Army Group A was supported to the east by Army Group B commanded by Fedor von Bock and by the remaining 4th Air Fleet aircraft (1,000 aircraft in all). The land forces, accompanied by 15,000 oil industry workers, included 167,000 troopers, 4,540 guns and 1,130 tanks.

Preparations

Several oil firms such as "German Oil on Caucasus", "Ost-Öl" and "Karpaten-Öl" had been established in Germany. They were awarded an exclusive 99-year lease to exploit the Caucasian oil fields. For this purpose, a large number of pipes—which later proved useful to Soviet oil industry workers—were delivered. A special economic inspection "A", headed by Lieutenant-General Nidenfuhr was created. Bombing of the oil fields was forbidden. To defend them from destruction by Soviet units under the command of Nikolai Baibakov and Semyon Budyonny, an SS guard regiment and a Cossack regiment were formed. The head of the Abwehr developed Operation Schamil, which called for landing in the Grozny, Malgobek and Maikop regions. They would be supported by the local fifth column.

Events

After neutralizing the Soviet counter-attack in the Izyum-Barvenkovsk direction the German Army Group A rapidly attacked towards the Caucasus. When

The starting point of the operation on the 1st Mountain Division planted a National Socialist flag on the summit of Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in the Caucasus and Europe.

Soviet operations

1941

There were no military operations in the region in 1941. But the region was affected by warfare elsewhere in the Soviet Union.

In his memoirs, Soviet Transcaucasian Front commander Ivan Tiulenev recounts how thousands of civilians attempted to flee from Ukraine to the comparatively safe Caspian ports, such as Makhachkala and Baku. The Caucasus area became a new area of industry when 226 factories were evacuated there during the 1941 industrial evacuation in Soviet Union. After the Grozny to Kiev line was captured during Axis advances, a new link between Moscow and Transcaucasia was established with the construction of the new railway line running from Baku to Orsk (via Astrakhan), bypassing the front line Grozny, while a shipping line was maintained over the Caspian Sea through the town of Krasnovodsk in Turkmenistan.

1942

In 1942, the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) launched Operation Edelweiss which was aimed at advancing to the oil fields of Azerbaijan. The German offensive slowed as it entered the mountains in the southern Caucasus and did not reach all of its 1942 objectives. After the Soviet breakthroughs in the region around Stalingrad, the German forces in the Caucasus were put on the defensive.

Soviet military operations included

Tikhoretsk-Stavropol Defensive Operation (25 July 1942 – 5 August 1942)
Armavir-Maikop Defensive Operation (6 August 1942 – 17 August 1942)
Novorossiysk Defensive Operation (19 August 1942 – 26 September 1942)
Mozdok-Malgobek Defensive Operation (1 September 1942 – 28 September 1942)
Tuapse Defensive Operation (25 September 1942 – 20 December 1942)
Nalckik-Ordzhonikidze Defensive Operation (25 October 1942 – 12 November 1942)

1943

In early 1943, the Germans began to withdraw and consolidate their positions in the region due to setbacks elsewhere. They established a defensive line in the Taman Peninsula from which they hoped to eventually launch new operations in the Caucasus. The fighting remained reasonably static until September 1943 when the Germans ordered fresh withdrawals which effectively ended the period of fighting in the Caucasus.

Soviet Operations in 1943 consisted of the following.

Salsk-Rostov Offensive Operation (1 January 1943 – 4 February 1943)
Mozdok-Stavropol Offensive Operation (1 January 1943 – 24 January 1943)
Novorossiysk-Maikop Offensive Operation (11 January 1943 – 4 February 1943)
Tikhoretsk-Eisk Offensive Operation (24 January 1943 – 4 February 1943)

The key military base of Novorossiysk was retaken in September, 1943.

  • January 3, 1943 - Red Army retake Mozdok
  • January 21, 1943 - Red Army retake Stavropol
  • January 23, 1943 - Red Army retake Armavir
  • January 29, 1943 - Red Army retake Maykop
  • 4 February 1943 - Soviet marines beat off a German attempt to land at Malaya Zemlya
  • February 5, 1943 - Soviet forces landing in Novorossiysk
  • February 12, 1943 - Red Army retake Krasnodar
  • September 9, 1943 - the Germans begin to retreat from the Blue Line defensive positions
  • September 16, 1943 - Red Army occupies Novorossiysk
  • October 9, 1943 - Red Army controls the whole of the Taman Peninsula

1944

During the Winter Spring Campaign of 1944 (1 January - 31 May), the Soviet army was able to launch an invasion of the Crimea from the Caucasus.

Operations included:

Kerch-Eltingen Amphibious Offensive Operation (31 October 1943 – 11 December 1944)
Perekop-Sevastopol Offensive Operation (8 April 1944 – 12 May 1944)
Kerch-Sevastopol Offensive Operation (11 April 1944 – 12 May 1944)

Anti-Soviet insurgency (1940–1944)

See also

References

  • Alexander Werth, The Battle of Stalingrad, Chapter 7, "Caucasus, there and back", P.648-651
  • Ivan Tyulenev, "Cherez Tri Voyny" (Through Three Wars), Moscow, 1960, P.176.
  1. ^ Hayward 1998, pp. 50–51: Allowed German and Italian warships to use Bulgarian ports for operations in the Black Sea.

Bibliography

  • (Russian) Иван Тюленев. Крах операции "Эдельвейс". Орджоникидзе, 1975.
  • (Russian) К.-М. Алиев. В зоне "Эдельвейса". М.-Ставрополь, 2005.

External links

  • World War 2 Battles: The Battle of The Caucasus
  • (Russian) Ясен Дьяченко. История альпинизма. Война на Кавказе
  • (Russian) Великая Война - Кавказ
  • (Russian) Операция "Эдельвейс". Последняя тайна
  • (Russian) Товарищи под знаком Эдельвейса / Kameraden unterm Edelweiss

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