World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Belmont University

Belmont University
Motto "From here to anywhere"
Established 1890
Type Private
Affiliation Christian (nondenominational)
Endowment $90.9 million[1]
President Robert Fisher
Academic staff
745 (2015) [2]
Students 7,244 (2015) [3]
Undergraduates 5,837 [3]
Postgraduates 1,407[3]
Location Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
Campus Urban, 75 acres (263,000 m²)
Colors Red and Blue
Athletics NCAA Division IOVC
Sports 15 varsity teams
(7 men's and 8 women's)
Nickname Bruins
Mascot Bruiser the Bruin
Website .edu.belmontwww
Belmont (Acklen Hall)
Location Belmont Blvd.
Nashville, Tennessee
Built 1850
Architect William Strickland
Architectural style Greek Revival; Italianate
Governing body Belmont University
NRHP Reference # 71000816
Added to NRHP May 6, 1971

Belmont University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts university located in Nashville, Tennessee, United States. It is the largest Christian university in Tennessee and the second largest private university in the state, behind nearby Vanderbilt University.


  • History 1
    • Belmont Mansion 1.1
    • Nashville's first radio station 1.2
  • Academics 2
    • Rankings and recognition 2.1
    • Academic programs 2.2
    • Music and music business programs 2.3
    • Schools and colleges 2.4
  • Campuses 3
    • Main campus (Nashville) 3.1
    • Regional campus 3.2
    • National campuses 3.3
  • Student life 4
  • Points of interest 5
    • Main campus attractions 5.1
    • Off-campus facilities 5.2
  • Athletics 6
  • Presidential debate 7
  • Separation from the Tennessee Baptist Convention 8
  • Lisa Howe controversy 9
  • Notable alumni 10
  • Notable faculty 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13


Belmont Mansion

Belmont Mansion was the home of Adelicia Hayes Franklin Acklen Cheatham,[4] a wealthy Nashville socialite and businesswoman. Built starting in 1849, it was one of the most elaborate antebellum homes in the South, with 36 rooms and 19,000 sq ft (1,800 m2) in size. The estate contained an art gallery, conservatories, bowling alley, lavish gardens, aviary, lake and a zoo (which was then subsequently opened to the public). In 1887 Acklen Cheatham sold the estate to a group which intended to develop it into a subdivision, but in 1889 the mansion and 13 acres of its grounds became the home of Belmont Seminary for Women, run by Miss Susan Heron and Miss Ida Hood.[5] This school merged with Ward Seminary in 1913 and was known as Ward—Belmont College, which included both a junior college and college-prep (or high) school for women.[6][7] Today it is owned by Belmont University but maintained by the Belmont Mansion Association, a non-profit group. The mansion is open for tours and features Victorian art and furnishings. The water tower, gardens, with surviving gazebos and outdoor statuary from the Acklen era, are part of the college campus.[8]

Nashville's first radio station

The first radio station in Nashville went on air in May 1922 when John "Jack" DeWitt, Jr., a 16-year-old high school student, installed a twenty-watt transmitter at Belmont. The station, WDAA, was born when Doctor C. E. Crosland, Associate President, realized the potential advertising value to the college of a radio station. The WDAA program on April 18, 1922, marked the first time a music program was broadcast in Nashville. The broadcast could be heard 150 to 200 miles (320 km) from the school.[9] DeWitt later became WSM (AM) radio station's chief engineer, 1932–1942, and president, 1947–1968.[10]


Rankings and recognition

Belmont was cited as "School to Watch" in 2009 for its innovative programs.[11] U.S. News & World Report ranked it number 5 of masters-degree universities[12] in the South.[13] For the applicant class of 2008–09, Belmont admitted 63% of its applicants[14] (only 35% of business students admitted as freshman[15]), and half of those students matriculated. The average ACT score for the 2012–2013 admitted class is 26.43. 35% of new freshmen at Belmont were in the top 10 percent of their graduating class, and 62 percent were in the top quarter.[3] This includes 33 valedictorians and 19 salutatorians with the incoming class holding an average cumulative high school GPA of 3.5.[16] Approximately 81% of entering freshman return for their sophomore year. The overall graduation rate for Belmont is 66%.[17] Rolling Stone and Time Magazine have both ranked Belmont University as having one of the "top music business schools" in the United States.[18]

Academic programs

Belmont University offers bachelor's degrees in over 75 academic majors in seven colleges with 20 master’s and four doctoral programs.[19] Belmont and HCA created a health sciences consortium with local universities to alleviate the shortage of nurses and health care professionals in the local community,[20] and provides students with shared office space and mentoring from faculty, local entrepreneurs and attorneys.[21] New Century Journalism students have gained work experience at The Oprah Winfrey Show, The Daily Show, CBS Evening News, and British Broadcasting Corp.[22]

Music and music business programs

Belmont is home to the only AACSB International accredited Music Business program in the world.[23]

Belmont's Mike Curb College of Entertainment & Music Business (CEMB) consists of current/former authors, performers, expert witnesses (for industry lawsuits), artist managers, lawyers, record label executives, songwriters, and others. Mike Curb is the CEO of Curb Records. He was a producer, songwriter and company executive and one of the most successful record men of the sixties and seventies. He is the department's namesake.[24] The former dean of the CEMB, Jim Van Hook, is a legendary Nashville label head, especially as part of the Christian music industry. One of the hallmarks of the program is its internship program, which sends hundreds of students annually out into the Nashville, New York, and Los Angeles music industries to intern for record labels, management companies, publishing companies, booking agencies, publicists, recording studios, law firms, and other businesses. Belmont recently began a university-affiliated publishing company, Bruin Publishing, to give student songwriters, engineers, and musicians the chance to create and publish student music directly funneled into the music industry and to give students a genuine industry experience. Bruin Publishing was founded by student Kevin Grosch.[25]

Besides having three professional-quality recording studios on campus, Belmont owns the Belmont Studios (including Ocean Way Nashville), part of which is operated for-profit (used by such artists as Dave Matthews, Sheryl Crow, and Bob Seger), and part of which is used by students. Belmont also operates historic RCA Studio B (formerly used by Elvis Presley, Roy Orbison, and Dolly Parton), in conjunction with the Country Music Hall of Fame and the Curb Family Foundation. In addition, the music business program operates Belmont West and Belmont East, which enable students to spend a semester learning about and interning in the entertainment industries in Los Angeles and New York City, respectively.

Schools and colleges

  • College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
  • College of Sciences and Mathematics
  • College of Visual and Performing Arts
  • Gordon E. Inman College of Health Sciences & Nursing
  • Jack C. Massey College of Business
  • The Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business (CEMB)
  • University College
  • Graduate School
  • Massey Graduate School of Business Administration
  • College of Theology and Christian Ministry
  • College of Pharmacy
  • College of Law


Main campus (Nashville)

The Belmont Mansion

In June 2006, Belmont opened the new $18 million Gordon E. Inman Center that now houses the Gordon E. Inman College of Health Sciences and Nursing.[10] A state-of-the-art facility, which was financed primarily by Nashville businessman Gordon E. Inman and the HCA TriStar Health System, the building has three stories of classroom space that contain learning labs equipped with Sim Man mannequins that respond to the actions of the nursing students. Additionally, there are classrooms centered on both adult and pediatric occupational therapy, maternity and neonatal care complete with Sim Man babies and a birthing Sim Woman, orthopedics lab, and many classrooms of various sizes.

Belmont also houses the Curb Event Center, a 5000-seat multi-purpose arena, which is used for basketball games, concerts, and other events like the 2006, 2007[26] and 2008 CMT Awards,[27] and the 2008 Presidential Debate.[28] The facility is connected to the Beaman Student Life Center and Maddox Grand Atrium—collectively, a $52 million development.

Regional campus

  • "Williamson Center" location in Franklin, TN

National campuses

  • Los Angeles, CA (Belmont West)
  • New York City, NY (Belmont East)

Student life

Belmont has over 80 student organizations. These include Student Government, Program Board now SAPB, Greek Life, as well as other special interest organizations.

The largest student organization on campus is Service Corps, which focuses on volunteer work inside the Music Industry and is open only to students enrolled in the Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business.[29]

Belmont's Greek community consists of five sororities and two fraternities. The sororities are Kappa Alpha Psi.[30]

Belmont has a large Music program, and a variety of musical ensembles exist on the campus. There are currently 13 vocal ensembles and 22 instrumental ensembles.[31] In addition, there are two student-run a cappella groups, a coed group named The Beltones, and an all-male group named Pitchmen. Belmont is home to two Greek-lettered music fraternities, Sigma Alpha Iota and Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia, as well as a chapter for the National Theatre fraternity, Alpha Psi Omega.

Belmont operates four private television stations called BTV (local Comcast stations for its residents), as well as one student newspaper called The Vision, published monthly.[32]

Students may also become involved through special interest organizations including, but not limited to Bolting Belmont Bruins running club, Service Corps, SAPB which hosts "Fall Follies" yearly, the Psychology Club and The M.O.B. (Motivational Organization of Belmont) which supports athletics. Students are encouraged to get involved. If a club does not exist for a student's interests, they are encouraged to start one, though not all student-proposed groups are officially chartered right away. In the 2009 and 2010 academic years, the university decided not to charter Belmont Bridge Builders (whose purpose would have been to explore various LGBT issues and Christian faith), and a university dialogue group was started instead. However, the Bridge Builders group was finally approved in the spring of 2011.[33]

Points of interest

Main campus attractions

Off-campus facilities

  • E.S. Rose Park – Metro Nashville Parks owned property in partnership with Belmont University – hosts NCAA Div.I baseball, soccer, softball, and track.


Belmont Bruins logo

Belmont is a member of the NCAA Division I and is a member of the Ohio Valley Conference in all of Belmont's sports except men's soccer, which the OVC does not sponsor. Until July 1, 2012, Belmont had been a member of the Atlantic Sun Conference, a non-football conference.[35] The men's soccer team was most recently an independent before joining the Horizon League effective with the 2014 season.[36]

In the mid-1990s, Belmont changed its nickname to the "Bruins", replacing the earlier mascot of Rebels due to its association with the Confederacy. Bruin is Middle English for bear from the Dutch fable "History of Reynard the Fox," translated by William Caxton.[24]

In 2011 Belmont student-athletes won the Atlantic Sun Conference Academic Trophy for the eight time in ten years with 76.32 per cent of the student-athletes achieving at least a 3.0 grade-point average.[37] In 2012 Belmont student-athletes won the Ohio Valley Conference Institutional Academic Achievement Award for the first time after joining the conference last year.[38]

Presidential debate

See also Nashville Townhall Debate of the 2008 Presidential Election
One of the on-campus advertisements for the Presidential Debate at Belmont

On November 19, 2007, The Commission on Presidential Debates officially chose Belmont University to host one of three Presidential election debates on October 7, 2008.[39] President Bob Fisher gave a press conference on November 19 announcing the news, expressing great excitement towards the opportunity to be a part of something so historic. He added: "It is an amazing honor, a tremendous responsibility and a fantastic opportunity for all of us. We will be privileged to see the frontlines of the political process and engage with a vast array of professionals and scholars, all while witnessing the significant benefits this event will have on our university and the local Nashville community." Belmont was chosen out of sixteen finalists. The Debate at Belmont was different from the others in that it was a "town-hall" style debate. In a Town-Hall debate, questions are fielded from the audience. Belmont announced in April 2011 that they have applied to host one of the 2012 presidential election debates.[40]

Separation from the Tennessee Baptist Convention

Belmont severed its ties from the Tennessee Baptist Convention in 2007, when the university announced it would be a Christian university without any denominational affiliations.

In 1951, Ward-Belmont College, the finishing school operated in Nashville by Ward-Belmont, Inc., was facing severe financial difficulties. To relieve those problems, the school entered into a relationship with the TBC. Under the terms of that relationship, the Tennessee Baptist Convention provided the school with financial support and in exchange was granted certain management rights related to the school. In particular, all of the members of the school's Board of Trustees were required to hold membership in a Baptist church.

In 2005 Belmont's Board of Trustees sought to remove Belmont University from the control of the Tennessee Baptist Convention while remaining in a "fraternal relationship" with it. Advocates of this plan presented a blueprint for change in which all board members would be Christians but only 60 percent would be Baptists in order to affirm a Christian affinity while acknowledging the diversity of both the faculty and the student body. The head of the TBC would continue to be an ex officio board member. The TBC rejected this plan.

In November 2005 The Tennessean reported that the TBC would increase its funding of two other institutions, Union University and Carson-Newman College by the amount previously given to Belmont and Belmont would replace the three percent of its budget that was funded by the TBC; this announcement seemed to mark the end of the matter. However, on April 7, 2006 The Tennessean reported that the TBC would seek to oust the existing board and replace it with one consisting entirely of Southern Baptists and amenable to ongoing TBC control.

After settlement talks failed, the Tennessee Baptist Convention Executive Board filed a lawsuit on September 29, 2006 against Belmont seeking the return of approximately $58,000,000.

On November 14, 2007, Nashville media reported that a settlement of this suit had been reached before trial. Under its terms, the TBC and Belmont would disaffiliate amicably, with Belmont agreeing to pay one million dollars to the convention immediately, and $250,000 annually for the next forty years, for a total cost of $11,000,000. The University has stated its intent to maintain a Christian identity, but no longer a specifically Baptist one.[41]

Lisa Howe controversy

Belmont University became a catalyst for anti-discrimination protests in December 2010, when women's soccer coach Lisa Howe allegedly lost her job at the university on the 2nd of December after announcing that she was having 3 children with her same sex partner.[42] Howe's dismissal sparked protests from students and from local and national gay-rights advocates. These events led to a city-wide anti-discrimination ordinance being passed by the Nashville City Council in January 2011.[43] On January 26, 2011, President Bob Fisher announced that Belmont has added sexual orientation to the university's non-discrimination policies.[44] Belmont is a Christian university which was widely regarded for its progressive ideals until the controversy broke out over Howe's departure.[42] The college was criticized for not allowing a group with a mission to support gay students and explore the intersection of Christianity and homosexuality called Bridge Builders to officially form as a student group. At a news conference, Fisher stated that they had resubmitted the application.[42] On February 27, 2011, Belmont University officially recognized the gay student organization for the first time. Belmont Provost Thomas Burns and Bridge Builders President Robbie Maris announced the decision to recognize the student group in a joint statement.[42]

Notable alumni

Notable faculty

  • Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General, is the Doyle Rogers Distinguished Chair of Law.[88]
  • Mark Volman, a founding member of the Turtles, is an Associate Professor of Entertainment Industry Studies.


  1. ^ "College, university endowments grow in Middle TN, nationwide | The Tennessean". 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2015-07-12. 
  2. ^ "Office of Assessment and Institutional Research Home – Belmont University | Belmont University | Nashville, TN" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-09-24. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Belmont University - Common Data Set" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-09-24. 
  4. ^ Victor J. Danilov (2005). Women And Museums: A Comprehensive Guide. Rowman Altamira. pp. 161–.  
  5. ^ Belmont Mansion Timeline. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  6. ^ Ward-Belmont Alumnae Gather for Reunion.
  7. ^ Margaret Binnicker, "Harpeth Hall School and Ward-Belmont," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture (Tennessee Historical Society)
  8. ^ About Us. Belmont Mansion. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  9. ^ Education's own stations – Google Books. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  10. ^ "Nashville > Page Not Found". Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  11. ^ "News and Media: Belmont Cited Most as 'School to Watch' in 2009 U.S. News & World Report Rankings". 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  12. ^ A masters-degree university is a university which offers several masters degrees but not does not offer a full slate of doctoral programs.
  13. ^ US News 2015 Best Colleges.
  14. ^ "Belmont University :: 2008 Freshman Profile". Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  15. ^ "Belmont University: Undergraduate Profile – BusinessWeek". 2010-03-09. Archived from the original on 29 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  16. ^ "News & Media: Belmont Announces Record Fall Enrollment". 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  17. ^ "College Navigator – Belmont University". National Center for Education Statistics. 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-06. 
  18. ^ Mike Curb College of Entertainment and Music Business – Belmont University.
  19. ^ "Belmont University Catalog". Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  20. ^ Blake Farmer Belmont nurses will get HCA training., June 12, 2006
  21. ^ Spors, Kelly K. (2007-03-19). "Entrepreneurship 101 -". Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  22. ^ "Out & About – Living: Woolley heads to CBS New York". 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  23. ^ "Accreditation – Belmont University". Archived from the original on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  24. ^ a b "Mike Curb". Faber and Faber Ltd. 
  25. ^ "Bruin Publishing". Joomla. Retrieved 2010-10-10. 
  26. ^ Greg Pillon (April 17, 2007). "Belmont University Hosts CMT Music Awards Second Year In a Row". Belmont University. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Sugarland to take the stage at CMT Awards". Universal Music Nashville. February 19, 2008. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Belmont University Prepares for Presidential Debate". NewsChannel5 Nashville. August 20, 2008. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  29. ^ "Student Organizations – Belmont University". Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  30. ^ "Belmont Greek Life". Belmont University. Retrieved 2010-12-15. 
  31. ^ "Ensembles in the School of Music". Belmont University. Archived from the original on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-15. 
  32. ^ "'"About 'The Belmont Vision. Belmont Vision.Com. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-02. 
  33. ^ "Proposal for student organization prompts Belmont dialogue group on LGBT issues". Belmont Vision.Com. Archived from the original on 7 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-02. 
  34. ^ "Belmont Carillon – Belmont University". 1986-09-05. Retrieved 2010-03-23. 
  35. ^ Bruins' new conference. (2011-05-13). Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  36. ^ "Belmont University to Join Horizon League as Affiliate Member" (Press release). Horizon League. April 21, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2014. 
  37. ^ Bruins Win Trophy. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  38. ^ Belmont University Claims OVC Academic Award. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  39. ^ Belmont University Prepares for Presidential Debate. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  40. ^ Belmont applies for 2012 Presidential Debate Archived April 10, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Belmont, Tennessee Baptists, Settle Lawsuit, End Relationship. Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  42. ^ a b c d "Belmont changes policy after gay coach protest". The Associated Press State & Local Wire. 27 January 2011. 
  43. ^ [2] Archived February 1, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Archive » Belmont adds ‘sexual orientation’ to nondiscrimination policies. (2011-01-26). Retrieved on 2012-05-09.
  45. ^ "Jay Ayres". 2013 Zoom Information, Inc. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  46. ^ "Diane Black". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  47. ^ "Jimmy Bowen". 2012 Viacom International Inc. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  48. ^ "Sarah Buxton". Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  49. ^ "Chuck Cannon". Durango Songwriters Expo!. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  50. ^ "Steven Curtis Chapman". Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  51. ^ Clark, Ian. "Ian Clark – Belmont Men's Basketball". Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  52. ^ "Travis Cottrell". Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  53. ^ "Denver and the Mile High Orchestra". Belmont University. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  54. ^ "Jace Everett". Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  55. ^ "Elizabeth P. Farrington". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  56. ^ "Sharon Gilchrist". Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  57. ^ "Andrew Greer". Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  58. ^ "Ashley Gorley". Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  59. ^ "Stu Grimson". Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  60. ^ "Helen Hemphill". Retrieved 24 April 2013. 
  61. ^ Corrections Corp Of America : Damon T. Hininger, Bloomberg Business
  62. ^ "Ashlyne Huff". 2013 Rovi Corp. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  63. ^ "Julienne Irwin". Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  64. ^ "R. Milton Johnson". Retrieved 10 August 2015. 
  65. ^ "Tamara Johnson-George". LinkedIn Corporation. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  66. ^ Giving Southern Baptist sissies a voice: Singer/songwriter Levi Kreis speaks page 2
  67. ^ "Jesse Lee". © 2013 Scripps Networks. LLC. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  68. ^ Biography for Kimberley Locke at the Internet Movie Database
  69. ^ "Willie Mack". 2007Key West Songwriters' Festival 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  70. ^ "Mary Virginia Martin". Answers Corporation. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  71. ^ "Josh McAdams". 2001–2013 USA Track & Field,. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  72. ^ "Sandra McCracken". Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  73. ^ "Mikeschair". Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  74. ^ "Ginny Owens". Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  75. ^ "John Mark Painter". 2013 Ltd. All rights. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  76. ^ "Ricardo Patton". University of Colorado Buffaloes 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  77. ^ "Jill Phillips". 2000–2013 Entertainment Resource Group, Inc. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  78. ^ "Masood Ashraf Raja". 2013 Zoom Information, Inc. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  79. ^ "J. P. Rodrigues". 2013 Zoom Information, Inc. Retrieved 30 April 2013. 
  80. ^ "Frank Rogers". 2013, SCNow, Florence, SC. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  81. ^ "Duane Simolke". Yatedo Inc. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  82. ^ "Todd Smith". Retrieved 1 May 2013. 
  83. ^ "Larry Stewart". ©2013 Rovi Corp. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  84. ^ Jamie Teachenor. "Jamie Teachenor | Discography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-07-12. 
  85. ^ "Troy Verges". 1994–2013, Broadcast Music, Inc. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  86. ^ "Lila Acheson Wallace". Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  87. ^ "Lisa Williams". Retrieved 2 May 2013. 
  88. ^ "Alberto Gonzales". American Academy of Achievement. Retrieved 2 May 2013. 

External links

  • Official website
  • Belmont University Athletics website

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.