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Title: Birûn  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kapi Agha, Kandovan District, Kaghazkonan District, Torkamanchay District, Central District (Meyaneh County)
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Birûn, from the Persian word for "outside", was the term used in the Ottoman Empire to refer to the Outer Courtyard of the Topkapi Palace, as opposed to the Inner ones (Enderûn), which were only accessible to the Ottoman Sultan and his servants and family members. By extension, it was also applied to the Outer Service of the palace, including also the administrative, military, and religious elite of the empire, as opposed to the Inner Service clustered around the Sultan's person.

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