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Blacklisted

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Blacklisted

For information on World Heritage Encyclopedia's spam blacklist, see World Heritage Encyclopedia:Spam blacklist.
For other uses, see Blacklist (disambiguation).

A blacklist (or black list) is a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition. As a verb, to blacklist can mean to deny someone work in a particular field, or to ostracize a person from a certain social circle.

Conversely, a whitelist is a list or compilation identifying entities that are accepted, recognized, or privileged. "Whitelist" and "blacklist" are widely considered controversial terms by some because of how they reinforce an implicit association in language between "black" and "bad" on the one hand, and "white" and "good" on the other. Many institutions including colleges and universities have abandoned the terms for less charged alternatives (like "safelist," or "watchlist").

The term blacklisting may be used in a pejorative sense, implying that a person has been prevented from having legitimate access to something due to inappropriate covert actions of those who control access. For example, a person being served with a restraining order for having threatened another person would not be considered a case of blacklisting. However, somebody who is fired for exposing poor working conditions in a particular company, and is subsequently systematically blocked from finding work in that industry, is described as having been inappropriately and often illegally blacklisted. Blacklisting can and has been accomplished informally by consensus of authority figures, and does not necessarily require a physical list or overt written record.

Blacklisting can be formal or informal. In the employment setting, applicants who apply to numerous positions regardless of being qualified or not can soon be ignored during some or all subsequent applicant processes, This can be an informal choice made by one person or a shared formal response taken up by one office, and not an issue that would be described as blacklisting. In the past, blacklists of union members have been shared or circulated between multiple organizations to prevent hiring of employees who, rather than being incompetent, have been critical of management actions. People have been prevented from working for decades due to being on a blacklist; in some cases the information on the blacklist was false. [1]


History

According to the Henry Holt Encyclopedia of Word and Phrase Origins the word "blacklist" originated with a list England's King Charles II made of fifty-eight judges and court officers who sentenced his father, Charles I, to death in 1649. When Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, thirteen of these regicides were put to death and twenty-five sentenced to life imprisonment, while others escaped.

They also point out that "whitelist" is not the opposite of a blacklist, but rather a list, often kept by unions, of people suitable for employment.

Employment context

Main article: Blacklist (employment)

Fraud control

Retail

Main article: Returning

In the United States, a private agency known as The Retail Equation blacklists those who make excessive returns to participating retailers.

Credit card merchant accounts

Companies which have a payment card merchant account terminated, and their directors, are often added to a list referred to when companies apply for an account; they are then unlikely to be granted a new account by any provider. In the US the list is called TMF/MATCH.

Medical context

Blacklisting by multiple providers is a systematic act by doctors to deny care to a certain Both are physical lists that blacklist patients who either have complained or sued their healthcare providers.

In West London, Rafat Saeed had difficulty finding a GP and says, “… it is very easy for a doctor to blacklist a patient through the Family Health Services Authority”.[4]

The term "blacklist" connotes systematic efforts to exclude persons. A new and unrecognized disease resulting in patients being unable to find treatment might not be considered blacklisting unless a group of like-minded persons united by inclination or personal belief or the equivalent systematically controlled why treatment either was not found or was unreasonably difficult to find.

NHS prescriptions

In the UK the NHS maintains a list of blacklisted medicines that are not allowed to be prescribed on NHS prescriptions.

Computing

Main article: Blacklist (computing)

In computing, a blacklist is an access control system that denies entry to a specific list (or a defined range) of users, programs, or network addresses.

Nazi blacklist

Main article: The Black Book

The Nazi blacklist was the list in The Black Book that was drawn up of 2,820 prominent British citizens such as Winston Churchill and Bertrand Russell who would have been sent to concentration camps if the United Kingdom had not won the Battle of Britain and Nazi Germany's Operation Sea Lion had succeeded in conquering Great Britain.[5]

Hollywood Anti-Communist blacklist

A famous systematic blacklist was the Hollywood blacklist, instituted by the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1947 to block screenwriters and other Hollywood professionals who were purported to have Communist sympathies from obtaining employment. It started by listing 151 entertainment industry professionals and lasted until 1960 when it was effectively broken by the acknowledgement that blacklisted professionals had been working under assumed names for many years.[6][7]

California Proposition 8 supporter blacklist

Following the passage of California's Proposition 8, Proposition 8 opponents obtained donation lists of those who had supported the ballot measure by contributing to the "Yes on 8" campaign, published the list, organized an activism group, and began calling for boycotts of the places of work of the supporters[8] to force the firing or resignation of employees. Chad Griffin, a political adviser to Hollywood executives and same-sex marriage supporter explained the intent of the campaign by saying, "Any individual who has held homophobic views and who has gone public by writing a check, you can expect to be publicly judged. Many can expect to pay a price for a long time to come."[9] There has been controversy as to whether this is appropriate response to the passage of Proposition 8 on the part of those opposed to it.[10]

See also

References

Further reading

External links

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