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Bosal

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Title: Bosal  
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Subject: Hackamore, Fiador (tack), Bitless bridle, Glossary of equestrian terms, Spade bit (horse)
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Bosal

An intermediate-level rawhide bosal on leather headstall, showing attached mecate of synthetic rope. No fiador.

A bosal (, , or ) is a type of noseband used on the classic hackamore of the vaquero tradition. It is usually made of braided rawhide and is fitted to the horse in a manner that allows it to rest quietly until the rider uses the reins to give a signal. It acts upon the horse's nose and jaw. Though seen in both the "Texas" and the "California" cowboy traditions, it is most closely associated with the "California" style of western riding.[1] Sometimes the term bosal is used to describe the entire classic hackamore or jaquima. Technically, however, the term refers only to the noseband portion of the equipment.[2]

Bosals come in varying diameters and weights, allowing a more skilled horse to "graduate" into ever lighter equipment. Once a young horse is solidly trained with a bosal, a bit is added and the horse is gradually shifted from the hackamore to a bit.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Uses 2
  • Etymology 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Description

A lightweight bosal made of rawhide, nose button is dark brown leather, horsehair mecate tied just in front of heel knot. Thin leather headstall, no fiador

Over the horse's nose the bosal has a thick, stiff wrapper, called a "nose button." Beneath the horse's chin, the ends of the bosal are joined at a heavy heel knot. The bosal is carried on the animal's head by a headstall, sometimes called a "bosal hanger."[3]

The rein system of the hackamore is called the mecate. The mecate ( or ) is a long rope, traditionally of horsehair, approximately 20–25 feet long, tied to the bosal in a specialized manner that adjusts the fit of the bosal around the muzzle of the horse, and creates both a looped rein and a long free end that can be used for a number of purposes.[4] When a rider is mounted, the free end is coiled and attached to the saddle, and is not used to tie the horse to a solid object, but rather is used as a lead rope and a form of longe line when needed.[1]

On a finished horse, a bosal with a properly balanced heel knot and mecate generally does not require additional support beyond the headstall. If needed, however, additional support can be provided by one or two accessories. The first is a throatlatch known as a fiador. If a fiador is used, a browband is added to hold the fiador to the headstall.[5] Less often, the bosal may be further supported by attaching the nose button to the horse's forelock or the crownpiece of the headstall, using a single thin strap of leather called a forelock hanger.[6]

Uses

A pencil bosal worn under the bridle on a finished horse
Three different sizes of bosals for horses in various stages of hackamore training, the thickest (left) is for starting unbroke young horses, the middle is a medium-sized design for horses that are steady under saddle but still "green", often also used for show, and the thinnest (right) is for use on a polished hackamore horse as it transitions into a bit, designed to be worn under a bridle.

Those who advocate use of the bosal-style hackamore note that many young horses' mouths are too sensitive for a bit because they are dealing with tooth eruption, replacing primary molars with permanent teeth. While designed for use on young horses, bosals are equipment intended for use by experienced trainers and should not be used by beginners, as they can be harsh in the wrong hands.

The bosal is ridden with two hands, and uses direct pressure, rather than leverage. It is particularly useful for encouraging flexion and softness in the young horse, though it has a design weakness that it is less useful than a snaffle bit for encouraging lateral flexion.

The classic vaquero and modern practitioners of the "California" cowboy tradition started a young horse in a bosal hackamore, then over time moved to ever-thinner and lighter bosals, then added a spade bit, then eventually transitioning to a spade alone, ridden with romal style reins, often retaining a light "bosalito" without a mecate. This process took many years and required an expert trainer.[1] The "Texas" tradition cowboy, and most modern trainers, will often start a young western riding horse in a bosal, but then move to a snaffle bit, then to a simple curb bit, and may never introduce the spade at all.[7] Other trainers start a horse with a snaffle bit, then once lateral flexion is achieved, move to a bosal to encourage flexion, then transition to a curb. However, this sequence is frowned upon by those who use classic vaquero techniques.

The combination of fiador with either a frentera or a standard headstall or hanger with browband stabilizes the bosal by supporting it with multiple attachment points. However, it also limits the action of the bosal, and thus, particularly in the California tradition, is removed once the horse is comfortable under saddle.[8] On a finished horse, a bosal with a properly balanced heel knot and mecate generally does not require these additions.

A large diameter bosal with fiador attached below mecate in the Texas style

In the Texas tradition, where the bosal is placed low on the horse's face, as well as on very green horses in both the California vaquero and Texas traditions, the fiador is used to stabilize the bosal by attaching it to the headstall along the poll joint behind the ears, running under the jaw, and attaching to the bosal at the heel knot, along with the mecate.[9] In the California vaquero tradition, the fiador is omitted once the horse is able to work without it; in other traditions the fiador is retained.

Etymology

The word bosal is from the Spanish bosal , also spelled bozal , meaning muzzle.

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ a b c Price, Steven D. (ed.) The Whole Horse Catalog: Revised and Updated New York:Fireside 1998 ISBN 0-684-83995-4 p. 158-159
  2. ^ Pages 54-55.
  3. ^ Examples of bosal, hangers and modern mecate
  4. ^ Connell, p. 1
  5. ^ Williamson, pp.13-14
  6. ^ Bennett, p. 61
  7. ^ R.W.MIller
  8. ^ web page accessed August 19, 2007Horse Sense,Jaheil, Jessica. "Bosal, snaffle, spade - why?"
  9. ^ R.W.Miller, pp 127-134
  • Bennett, Deb (1998) Conquerors: The Roots of New World Horsemanship. Amigo Publications Inc; 1st edition. ISBN 0-9658533-0-6
  • Connell, Ed (1952) Hackamore Reinsman. The Longhorn Press, Cisco, Texas. Fifth Printing, August, 1958. (no ISBN in edition consulted; other editions ISBN 0-9648385-0-8)
  • Miller, Robert W. (1974) Horse Behavior and Training. Big Sky Books, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT
  • Williamson, Charles O. (1973) Breaking and Training the Stock Horse. Caxton Printers, Ltd., 6th edition (1st Ed., 1950). ISBN 0-9600144-1-1
  • Segovia (1914)
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