World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Brandywine Creek (Christina River)

Brandywine Creek
Hagley mill race on the Brandywine
Country United States
States Pennsylvania, Delaware
Cities Chadds Ford, PA, Wilmington, DE
Source West Branch Brandywine Creek
 - location Honey Brook Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania
 - elevation 850 ft (259 m)
 - coordinates
Secondary source East Branch Brandywine Creek
 - location Honey Brook Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania
 - elevation 686 ft (209 m)
 - coordinates
Source confluence
 - location East Bradford and Pocopson Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, USA
 - elevation 184 ft (56 m)
 - coordinates
Mouth Christina River
 - location Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware, USA
 - elevation 0 ft (0 m)
 - coordinates
Length 20 mi (32 km)
Basin 300 sq mi (777 km2)
Discharge for Wilmington
 - average 408 cu ft/s (12 m3/s)
Christina River Basin, including Brandywine Creek

Brandywine Creek[1][2] (also called the Brandywine River) is a tributary of the Christina River in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware in the United States. The Lower Brandywine (the main stem) is 20.4 miles (32.8 km) long[3] and is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River with several tributary streams. The East Branch and West Branch of the creek originate within 2 miles (3 km) of each other on the slopes of Welsh Mountain in Honey Brook Township, Pennsylvania, about 20 miles (32 km) northwest of their confluence.

The mouth of the creek on the Christina River in present-day Wilmington, Delaware, is the site of the New Sweden colony, where colonists first landed on March 29, 1638. The Battle of Brandywine was fought around the creek near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, on September 11, 1777, during the American Revolution. Water powered gristmills in Brandywine Village, near the creek mouth, and the nearby DuPont gunpowder mill were important in developing American industry before the introduction of steam power.


  • Course 1
  • History 2
    • Brandywine Village and early industrialization 2.1
    • Historic preservation 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6


The headwater region, for both the East Branch[4] and West Branch[5] of Brandywine Creek, is located in western Chester County, Pennsylvania, near Honey Brook. The East Branch and West Branch flow southeast for 27.4 miles (44.1 km) and 33.1 miles (53.3 km), respectively,[3] to their confluence about 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Coatesville, between East Bradford Township and Pocopson Township. The combined drainage of the East Branch and West Branch, downstream of the confluence, is defined as Brandywine Creek and continues to flow southeast through Chester County, past Chadds Ford,[6] Delaware County, Pennsylvania then enters the northern portion of the state of Delaware approximately 5 miles (8 km) north of Wilmington.

Brandywine Creek in Brandywine Park near downtown Wilmington in February 2007, looking downstream toward Washington Street Bridge

The creek continues its flow south through First State National Historical Park and Brandywine Creek State Park, into Wilmington,[7] where it flows through Brandywine Park near the city center. Brandywine Creek joins the Christina River 1 mile (1.6 km) east of downtown Wilmington and approximately 2 miles (3 km) upstream from the mouth of the Christina, which also includes flows from the White Clay Creek[8] and Red Clay Creek[9] basins, and finally discharges into the Delaware River estuary.[10] The confluence of the Christina and Delaware rivers is the approximate dividing point between the freshwater Delaware River and the saltwater Delaware Bay.[11]

In Pennsylvania, Chadds Ford, Elam, Downingtown, Unionville, and parts of West Chester, are all in the Brandywine Valley, as well as the Delaware towns of Centreville, Greenville, Montchanin, Hockessin, and Yorklyn. Nearby Avondale (in the White Clay Creek basin) and Kennett Square, Pennsylvania (in the Red Clay Creek basin) are often considered part of the Brandywine Valley.[12]


Native Americans of the Algonquian-speaking Lenape (or Delaware) Nation lived in the area between the Hudson River Valley and southern Delaware before the European settlement. They lived by hunting, farming corn, beans, and squash, and by fishing. The Brandywine had an especially rich shad fishery. The Lenape called the creek Wauwaset, Wawasiungh, or Wawassan, and other Native American names for it included Suspecough and Trancocopanican.[13][14]

The first European settlement on the Brandywine was Swedish. On March 29, 1638, Peter Minuit, who had earlier explored the area for the Dutch, founded the colony of New Sweden near the confluence of the Christina and Brandywine, at Fort Christina, in present-day Wilmington. About 600 Swedes, Finns, and Dutch settled in New Sweden.[15] They tended to settle along the Delaware River rather than move inland along the Brandywine and are credited with introducing the log cabin into America.[12] They called the creek Fiskiekylen, or "Fish Creek", and the Dutch heritage is also reflected in Fiske Creek and variant names using the Dutch word "Kill" or stream, Bainwend Kill, Brandewyn Kill, and Brandywine Kill. The creek’s current name may be from an old Dutch word for brandy or gin, brandewijn, or from the name of an early mill owner, Andreas Brainwende or Brantwyn.[12] A 1681 map labels the creek Brande wine Cr.[16][17] Thomas Holme's 1687 map of Pennsylvania gives the name as simply Brandy Wine and shows it flowing into Christian Creek and then the Dellaware River.

The Swedes, Dutch and English disputed possession of the area until 1674, when the English gained control. William Penn was granted a charter for Pennsylvania in 1681 and gained control over the "lower three counties," as Delaware was then known, soon thereafter.[15] The population of New Sweden had only reached about 1,000, on the western shore of the Delaware, by the time of Penn's arrival.[18] By 1687, a Swedish colonist, Tyman Stidham, opened the first mill on the Brandywine, near Wilmington. Holme's 1687 map shows only five land claims along the Brandywine, all near present-day Chadds Ford. Land claims of the earlier Swedish and Dutch colonists were not noted on this map.

Photo of wide tree-lined Brandywine Creek
Brandywine Creek looking upstream from the Brandywine River Museum at Chadds Ford

While the Lenape still remained along the Brandywine, they had by this time been decimated by European diseases and wars with Susquehannock and later Iroquois tribes over control of the fur trade with Europeans. Their estimated population had fallen from 10,000–20,000 in 1600 to 2,000 in 1682.[13][14] The Lenape signed a series of treaties with the Europeans, beginning with a 1682 treaty with William Penn, but were forced out of eastern Pennsylvania by the time of the French and Indian War. During the 1720s and 1730s, the Lenape claimed that William Penn had granted them all the land 1 mile on each side of the creek, and complained that mill dams on the creek were ruining their shad fishery.[19] Hannah Freeman (1730–1802), known as Indian Hannah, is believed to be the last Lenape to have lived in Chester County and is buried in Embreeville, near the forks of the creek.[20][21]

Nation Makers depicts a scene from the Battle of Brandywine, by Howard Pyle, a summer resident of Chadds Ford. The painting is displayed in the Brandywine River Museum[22]

The valley was settled by Quakers, and other dissident Protestants, following Penn’s Charter. Their activities were mainly farming and milling. Quaker influence is still felt with over 16 Quaker Meetings and several Quaker schools operating in the area.[23] The Quaker millers near the mouth of the Brandywine cooperated in maintaining quality and branding the flour. "Brandywine Superfine" flour was shipped all along the Atlantic coast and to the West Indies even before the American Revolution.

A base point for surveying the Mason-Dixon line, known as the Stargazers’ Stone, was established in Embreeville 31 miles (50 km) west of Philadelphia and 15 miles (24 km) north of the Maryland-Pennsylvania border by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon in 1764. They used the adjoining John Harlan house as their center of operations until 1768.[24][25]

The creek lends its name to the 1777 Brandywine Battlefield Park covers only 50 acres (200,000 m2), but during the battle British troops marched about 6 miles (9.7 km) north, fording the creek above the forks, to outflank Washington's forces.[26] Before the battle, General Anthony Wayne had his headquarters in Brandywine Village, across the creek from Wilmington, and Continental troops camped nearby, near Lovering Avenue.[27]

Early paper mills were located along the creek, during the Revolution. They supplied Benjamin Franklin's print shop and also supplied the paper to print Continental currency and the Declaration of Independence.[12]

The Conestoga wagon was first built to haul grain from the Conestoga Valley to Brandywine flour mills.[28]

A group of painters, including N.C. Wyeth, Andrew Wyeth, Jamie Wyeth and Howard Pyle, are referred to as the "Brandywine School" especially for their landscape works which depict the Brandywine valley. Many of their works are on view at the Brandywine River Museum in Chadds Ford.[29][30]

Brandywine Village and early industrialization

Oliver Evans's design for automated flour milling[31]

The Brandywine crosses the fall line just north of Wilmington. The elevation falls from about 160 feet (49 m) above sea level in Chadds Ford, to just a few feet above sea level in Wilmington. The steep descent powered many early industrial activities, including flour milling and the original DuPont gunpowder mills, while the navigable channel to the Delaware River and Delaware Bay allowed manufacturers to load ocean-going ships from near their mills.

By 1687, a Swedish colonist, Tyman Stidham opened the first mill on the Brandywine, near Wilmington. About 1735, Brandywine Village was founded across the creek from Wilmington. Quakers Elizabeth Levis Shipley, her husband William Shipley,[32] and Thomas Canby were important in establishing the village and its supporting flour mills. By 1743, a dam and a millrace south of the creek had been built.

The Brandywine Academy building

In 1760, a bridge was built at the current site of the Market Street Bridge, and the north race and two more flour mills were built by Joseph Tatnall.

Oliver Evans in the 1780s helped local mills increase their efficiency, ushering in the industrial revolution.[33]

The first paper mill in Delaware, Gilpin's mill in north Wilmington, opened in 1787. This site was later used by one of the largest textile mills in the world, Bancroft Mills, which is now closed.[34]

In 1796, the village contained 12 mills that could grind 400,000 bushels of grain per year.

By 1806, there were "about fifty or sixty snug brick, stone, and frame houses" in the village.[35]

"Gilpin's Mill on the Brandywine" attributed to Thomas Doughty circa 1827.

In 1795, Jacob Broom built the first cotton mill on the Brandywine, a few miles north of the village, but it burned down two years later.[34] In 1802, Broom sold the site, complete with a working dam and millrace, to Eleuthère Irénée du Pont, who paid $6,740 for the 95 acres (380,000 m2).[36] Gunpowder mills, known as the Eleutherian Mills, operated on the site from 1802, and by 1810, the site was the largest gunpowder producer in the country. During the Civil War alone, over 4 million barrels of gunpowder were produced here. The mills, which operated until 1921, are now part of the Hagley Museum and Library.[37] The creek is located at the midpoint of the DuPont Historic Corridor.

By 1815, several toll roads connected the village with Pennsylvania's grain-growing regions, including the Lancaster, Kennett and Concord Pikes.[27] These roads later became Delaware Route 41, Delaware Route 52, and parts of US 202 combined with Delaware Route 202.

Brandywine flour mills about 1840, painted by Bass Otis. The north bank (to the right) is Brandywine Village.

The millers cooperated in maintaining quality and branding the flour. "Brandywine Superfine" flour was shipped all along the Atlantic coast and to the West Indies before the American Revolution.

A mill race once used to provide water power is still in working condition in Brandywine Park, designed in the 1890s by Frederick Law Olmsted, near downtown Wilmington.

To the north, Downingtown on the east branch was originally known as Milltown. Its first building, the Downingtown Log House, was built about 1700 where the road between Philadelphia and Lancaster, later known as the Lancaster Pike, crossed the east branch. Thomas Moore built a grist mill in 1716 and Roger Hunt built another in 1739, which operated through at least 1908. Both the Downingtown Log House and the Roger Hunt Mill still stand today.[38]

Milltown was the halfway point on the journey between Philadelphia and Lancaster, so several inns served travelers, including the Ship Inn (c. 1730), the King-in-Armes or Washington Inn (1761), the Half-Way House (1790), and the Swan Hotel (1800).[38]

In the 1880s, Downingtown became known for its paper mills.[39]

Coatesville on the west branch became famous for producing iron goods as early as 1810, and later, rolling steel plate.[40] Lukens Steel Company has dominated the economy of the town since 1810; today, Mittal continues to make steel there.

Historic preservation

These places near the Brandywine are on the National Register of Historic Places.[41]

Site Address Listed
Fort Christina[42] E. 7th Street, Wilmington, Delaware
Near mouth of creek
1961, 1966
Old Swedes Church[43] E. 7th Street at Church Street
1961, 1966
Dr. John A. Brown House 4 7th Ave
Howard High School[44] 13th Street at Poplar Street
Brandywine Village[45] North and east of Market Street Bridge
1971, 1976
Baynard Boulevard Historic District[46] Baynard Blvd. between 18th St. and Concord Ave
Brandywine Park[47] North of Market Street Bridge to Augustine Bridge
Old First Presbyterian Church of Wilmington[48] West Street at Brandywine Park Drive
Continental Army Encampment Site[49] Lovering Avenue, near Broom Street
Augustine Paper Mill N. Brandywine Park Dr.
Bancroft Mills[50] Rockford Road at the Brandywine
Rockford Park[51] West of Rockford Road, south of creek
Brandywine Manufacturers Sunday School North of Wilmington on Hagley Rd.
Eleutherian Mills[52] Rt. 141 at Brandywine Creek Bridge
Brandywine Powder Mills District Rt. 141 at the Brandywine
Breck's Mill Area Breck's Lane and Creek Rd.
Rockland Historic District[46] Rockland, DE
N.C. Wyeth House and Studio[53] Murphy Rd. near Rt. 100,
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania
Chadds Ford Historic District[54] U.S. Route 1 at PA 100,
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania
Brandywine Battlefield[55] U.S. Route 1 east of Brandywine Creek,
Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania
Brinton's Mill[56] PA 100, north of Chadds Ford
Lenape Bridge[57] Rt 52 at Rt 100, Lenape
Gibson's Covered Bridge[58] East Branch
US 322 and Harmony Hill Rd, west of West Chester
Downingtown Log House[59] 15 E. Lancaster Ave., Downingtown, Pennsylvania
on East Branch Brandywine Creek
Roger Hunt Mill[60] Race Street, Downingtown, PA
Embreeville Historic District[61] West Branch
Rt. 162 at Cannery Rd.
Coatesville Historical District[62] 1st–6th Streets and East Lincoln Highway
at West Branch Brandywine Creek,
Coatesville, Pennsylvania
Brandywine Building & Loan Assoc. Development[63] Hephzibah Hill Rd, Coatesville, PA

See also

Canoeing near Pocopson


The Brandywine and its East Branch from Thomas Holme's 1687 map of Pennsylvania
  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Brandywine Creek (Christina River)
  2. ^ United States Geological Survey Hydrological Unit Code: 02-04-02-05- Brandywine-Christina Watershed
  3. ^ a b U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map, accessed April 1, 2011
  4. ^ USGS Station 01480700] & 01480870]
  5. ^ USGS Station 01480300], 01480500] & 01480617]
  6. ^ 01481000] (USGS Station
  7. ^ 01481500] USGS Station
  8. ^ USGS Station 01478120] & 01478245]
  9. ^ 01479820 USGS Station
  10. ^ 01482800] USGS Station
  11. ^ "The Estuary". The Delaware Riverkeeper. Archived from the original on August 3, 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c d "History of the Brandywine Valley". Retrieved 2007-04-29. 
  13. ^ a b "Native Americans, Introduction to the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware Indians". Penn Treaty Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  14. ^ a b "Lenni Lenape Native Americans". Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  15. ^ a b "A Brief History of New Sweden in America". Swedish Colonial Society. Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  16. ^ "A Map of the South and East Bounds of Pennsylvania in America Being partly inhabited". 1681. Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  17. ^ Cramer, Harold. "Placing Pennsylvania on the Map: The Seventeenth Century". Articles on Historical Maps of Pennsylvania. 
  18. ^ "RG-17, RECORDS OF THE LAND OFFICE,Series Descriptions". Records of Pre-Penn Settlement. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Bureau of Archives and History, Pennsylvania State Archives. Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  19. ^ Smith, George (1862). History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania. Media, PA: H.B. Ashmead. pp. 231–240.  
  20. ^ "History of Kennett Township". Kennett Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Indian Hannah (1730–1802)". Historical Markers. Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  22. ^ Nation Makers', by Howard Pyle"'" (mp3). Brandywine River Museum Audio Tours. Brandywine River Museum. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Quaker Meetingsin Southern Chester County, PA and New Castle County, DE". Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  24. ^ Danson, Edwin (2001). Drawing the Line: How Mason and Dixon Surveyed the Most Famous Border in America. John Wiley and Sons.  
  25. ^ Ecenbarger, William (2000). Walkin' the Line: A Journey from Past to Present Along the Mason-Dixon. M.Evans. pp. 120–122.  
  26. ^ "History of the Battle of the Brandywine". Brandywine Battle Historic Site. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  27. ^ a b "Greater Brandywine Village". 1730–1820 Milling, the Revolutionary War and Industrial Innovation. Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  28. ^ "About the Brandywine Valley". Retrieved January 15, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Chadds Ford History". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-10-21. 
  30. ^ Mummert, Roger (November 3, 2006). "Brandywine, a Valley of History, Nature and Art".  
  31. ^  
  32. ^ Milford, Maureen (August 27, 2000). "WHAT'S DOING IN; Brandywine Valley".  
  33. ^ Gies, Joseph (Fall 1990). "The Genius of Oliver Evans". American Heritage. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  34. ^ a b Delaware Federal Writers' Project (1991) [1938]. Delaware: A Guide to the First State. Scholarly Press. p. 562.  
  35. ^ "Description of Wilmington". The Literary magazine, and American register (John Conrad & Co): 180–181. 1806. 
  36. ^ Kinnane, Adrian (2002). DuPont: From the Banks of the Brandywine to Miracles of Science. Wilmington: E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. ISBN 0-8018-7059-3
  37. ^ Greenwood, Richard (January 26, 1979). "Eleutherian Mills" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places Inventory — Nomination Form. National Park Service. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  38. ^ a b "History Of Downingtown". Downingtown Historical Society. Retrieved January 16, 2009. 
  39. ^ Pennypacker, Charles H. (1909). History of Downingtown, Chester County, Pa. Downingtown Publishing Co. pp. 144–146. 
  40. ^ John Thomas, Faris (1919). Seeing Pennsylvania. J.B. Lippincott company. p. 347. 
  41. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places.  
  42. ^ "Fort Christina". National Historic Landmarks Program.  
  43. ^ "Holy Trinity Church (Old Swedes)". National Historic Landmarks Program.  
  44. ^ "Howard High School". National Historic Landmarks Program.  
  45. ^ "DELAWARE — New Castle County — Historic Districts". Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  46. ^ a b "DELAWARE — New Castle County — Historic Districts". Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  47. ^ "Brandywine Park" (PDF). NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES INVENTORY-NOMINATION FORM. Delaware State Parks. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  48. ^ "Old First Presbyterian Church of Wilmington" (PDF). NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES INVENTORY-NOMINATION FORM. Delaware State Parks. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  49. ^ "Continental Army Encampment Site" (PDF). NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES INVENTORY-NOMINATION FORM. Delaware State Parks. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  50. ^ "Bancroft Mills" (PDF). NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES INVENTORY-NOMINATION FORM. Delaware State Parks. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  51. ^ "Rockford Park" (PDF). NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES INVENTORY-NOMINATION FORM. Delaware State Parks. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  52. ^ "Eleutherian Mills". National Historic Landmarks Program.  
  53. ^ "PENNSYLVANIA — Delaware County". Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  54. ^ "PENNSYLVANIA — Delaware County". Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  55. ^ "Brandywine Battlefield". National Historic Landmarks Program.  
  56. ^ "Brinton's Mill" (PDF). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  57. ^ "Lenape Bridge" (PDF). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  58. ^ "Gibson's Covered Bridge" (PDF). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  59. ^ "Downingtown Log House" (PDF). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  60. ^ "Roger Hunt Mill" (PDF). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  61. ^ "Embreeville Historic District" (PDF). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  62. ^ "Coatesville Historical District" (PDF). ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 
  63. ^ "Search form". ARCH: Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture and Archaeology. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 

Further reading

  • Henry Seidel Canby (1941). The Brandywine, illustrated by Andrew Wyeth, Schiffer Publishing, Atglen, PA. ISBN 0-916838-06-4
  • MacElree, Wilmer (1912). Down the eastern and up the Black Brandywine. West Chester, PA: F.S.Hickman. 
  • Maynard, W. Barksdale. The Brandywine: An Intimate Portrait (University of Pennsylvania Press; 2014) 253 pages; Traces the history of the Delaware and Pennsylvania region around the Brandywine River since first European settlement.
  • Bruce Mowday. (2001). Along the Brandywine River, Postcard History Series. Arcadia Publishing.
  • Badertscher, Vera Marie, " Brandywine Valley, Pennsylvania and Delaware", in National Geographic Traveler. Accessed 2010-02-18

External links

  • U.S. Geological Survey: PA Continuous Streamflow Gaging Stations
  • Brandywine Conservancy
  • Brandywine School (art review)
  • Brandywine Valley Association
  • Chadds Ford History
  • 11 LIFE Photographs by Walker Evans of the DuPont gunpowder mills, 1957
  • Pennsylvania Scenic Rivers website
  • The Historic Christina Basin
  • Historic images of the Brandywine from the Hagley Digital Archives
  • Delaware's Industrial Brandywine
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.