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Brazilian hemorrhagic fever

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Brazilian hemorrhagic fever

Sabiá virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Family: Arenaviridae
Genus: Arenavirus
Species

Sabiá virus

Brazilian hemorrhagic fever
Classification and external resources
Specialty Infectious disease
ICD-10 A96.8

Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (BzHF) is an infectious disease caused by the Sabiá virus, an Arenavirus.[1] The Sabiá virus is one of the arenoviruses from South America to cause hemorrhagic fever.[2] It shares a common progenitor with the Junin virus, Machupo virus, Tacaribe virus, and Guanarito virus.[2] It is an enveloped RNA virus and is highly infectious and lethal.[3] Very little is known about this disease, but it is thought to have be transmitted by the excreta of rodents.[1][3]

There have only been three documented infections of the Sabiá virus, only one of which occurred naturally and the other two cases occurred in the clinical setting.[1] The only naturally occurring case was in 1990, when a female agricultural engineer who was staying in the neighborhood of Jardim Sabiá near São Paulo, Brazil contracted the disease. She presented with hemorrhagic fever and died.[1] Her autopsy showed liver necrosis.[1] A virologist who was studying the woman's disease contracted the virus but survived.[1] Ribavirin was not given in these first two cases.[1] Four years later, in 1994, a researcher was exposed to the virus in a level 3 biohazard facility at Yale University when a centrifuge bottle cracked, leaked, and released aerosolized virus particle.[1][4] He was successfully treated with ribavirin.[1][5]

Ribavirin is thought to be effective in treating the illness, similar to other arenaviruses.[1][5] Compared to the patients who did not receive ribavirin, the patient who was treated with it had a shorter and less severe clinical course.[1] Symptomatic control such as fluids to address dehydration and bleeding may also be required.[5]

The Sabiá virus is a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen.[3]

This virus has also been implicated as a means for bioterrorism, as it can be spread through aerosols.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ a b c NRT Quick Reference Guide: Brazilian Hemorrhagic Fever (BzHF)
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b c http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/arena/2005/SabiaVirus.htm Sabia Virus
  6. ^ http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/acd/bioterrorism/backvhf.pdf Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Bioterrorism
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