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Bruce K. Holloway

 

Bruce K. Holloway

Bruce K. Holloway
General Bruce K. Holloway
Born September 1, 1912
Knoxville, Tennessee
Died

September 30, 1999(1999-09-30) (aged 87#REDIRECT

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Place of burial Knoxville, Tennessee
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Air Force
Years of service 1937–1972
Rank General
Commands held Strategic Air Command
(1968-72)
U.S. Air Forces in Europe
(1965-66)
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Silver Star
Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross
Air Medal

General Bruce Keener Holloway (September 1, 1912 – September 30, 1999) was an American Air Force general. A West Point graduate, a World War II fighter ace, and the commander-in-chief of the Strategic Air Command (SAC).

Early life and career

Holloway was one of two children born to Frank P. Holloway, a mill owner, and Elizabeth Keener, a homemaker. He graduated from Knoxville High School in 1929 and studied engineering for two years at the University of Tennessee before attending Marion Military Institute, preparing for appointment to the United States Military Academy, where he graduated in 1937. Assigned to the Army Air Corps, he received his pilot wings in 1938 at Kelly Field, San Antonio, Texas, then served two years with the Sixth Pursuit Squadron and 18th Pursuit Group in Hawaii before taking a postgraduate course in aeronautical engineering at the California Institute of Technology.[1][2]

World War II

Claire Chennault's fighter commanders in China. Holloway is standing right.

After The US entered World War II in December 1941, Holloway was sent to China to observe Chennault's American Volunteer Group (AVG), the Flying Tigers. He became the commander of the 23rd Fighter Group USAAF. During his China tour, Holloway earned status as a fighter ace, shooting down 13 Japanese planes.[3][4] He returned to the US in 1944.

Post-War

As commander of the Army Air Forces' first jet-equipped fighter group in 1946, Holloway pioneered in this new field of tactical jet air operations.

After graduation from the National War College in 1951, he progressed through key staff assignments in both operations and development fields at Headquarters U.S. Air Force. Later, as director of operational requirements, he played a key role in preparing and evaluating proposals for many aircraft and missiles.

Holloway spent four years in Tactical Air Command (TAC) as deputy commander of both the 9th and 12th Air Forces, and in 1961 he was named deputy commander in chief of the U.S. Strike Command at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. Later in that assignment, he also fulfilled additional responsibilities as deputy commander in chief of the Middle East/Southern Asia and Africa South of the Sahara Command.[5]

Commands

General Holloway assumed command of the U.S. Air Forces in Europe in July 1965, serving in that capacity until his appointment as vice chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force August 1, 1966 at The Pentagon. He became commander-in-chief of the Strategic Air Command at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, on August 1, 1968, and remained in that position until retiring from the Air Force on 30 April 1972.

Awards and decorations

Holloway's decorations include the Army Distinguished Service Medal, Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Medal, and foreign decorations which include the Order of the Sacred Tripod (China), Order of the Cloud and Banner, Chinese Air Force Pilot Wings, The Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany with Star and Sash, German Air Force Command Pilot Wings, The Most Noble Order of the Crown of Thailand-First Class—Knight Grand Cross, Honorary Royal Thai Air Force Wings, the Order of Aeronautical Merit (Brazil), and Commander of the French Légion d'honneur.

Holloway died of heart failure at age 87 in Orlando, Florida on 30 September 1999. His remains were cremated and interred in his hometown of Knoxville, Tennessee.

See also

Len Blaylock

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "[1]".


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ Marion Military Institute - archives - April 2009 - Bruce K. Holloway '33 - accessed 31 October 2010
  2. ^ books.google.com Jackson, Kenneth T.; Markoe, Karen; Markoe, Arnie, The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives: 1997-1999, p. 267. Accessed 31 October 2010
  3. ^ Air Force magazine - "Valor: Flying Tiger" - Bruce Holloway - April 1993 - accessed 31 October 2010
  4. ^ One memorable flight over Kunming on 15 May 1943 is described in Edward H. Sims' book American Aces in Great Fighter Battles of World War II as the third chapter of that documentary.
  5. ^ - General Bruce K. Holloway - official USAF biography - 1968 - accessed 31 October 2010

External links

  • The New York Times - obituary - Bruce K. Holloway - 9 October 1999-10-09. Accessed 31 October 2010
Military offices
Preceded by
Gen. Joseph J. Nazzaro
Commander, Strategic Air Command
1968-1972
Succeeded by
John C. Meyer

Legion of Honor - Order of Commander


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