World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Cannabis in pregnancy

Article Id: WHEBN0040897289
Reproduction Date:

Title: Cannabis in pregnancy  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cannabis, Marijuana vending machine, Autoflowering cannabis, Cannabis foods, Cannabis in Uruguay
Collection: Cannabis, Cannabis and Health, Obstetrics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Cannabis in pregnancy

Cannabis consumption in pregnancy might be associated with restrictions in growth of the fetus, miscarriage, and cognitive deficits in offspring based on animal studies, however there is limited evidence for this in humans at this time.[1] The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended that cannabis use be stopped before and during pregnancy.[2]

Contents

  • Health effects 1
  • Endocannabinoid system 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5

Health effects

Although it is difficult to draw firm conclusions, there is some evidence that prenatal exposure to marijuana is associated with deficits in language, attention, cognitive performance, and delinquent behaviors.[3] THC exposure in rats during the prenatal developmental phase may cause epigenetic changes in gene expression, but there is limited knowledge about the risk for psychiatric disorders because of ethical barriers to studying the developing human brain.[4] While animal studies cannot take into account factors that could influence the effects of cannabis on human maternal exposure, such as environmental and social factors,[5] a 2011 review of rodent studies by Campolongo et al. said there was "... increasing evidence from animal studies showing that cannabinoid drugs ... induce enduring neurobehavioral abnormalities in the exposed offspring ..."[5] Campolongo et al. added that "clinical studies report hyperactivity, cognitive impairments and altered emotionality in humans exposed in utero to cannabis".[5]

Endocannabinoid system

A role in female fertility has long been suspected and studied.[6] Most studies through 2013 linking development of the fetus and cannabis show effects of consumption during the gestational period, but problems in the endocannabinoid system (ECS) during the phase of placental development are also linked with problems in pregnancy.[1] According to Sun and Dey (2012), endocannabinoid signaling plays a role in "female reproductive events, including preimplantation embryo development, oviductal embryo transport, embryo implantation, placentation, and parturition".[6] Karusu et al (2011) said that a "clear correlation ... in the actual reproductive tissues of miscarrying versus healthy women has yet to be established. However, the adverse effects of marijuana smoke and THC on reproductive functions point to processes that are modulated by ECS."[7]

Keimpema and colleagues (2011) said, "Prenatal cannabis exposure can lead to growth defects during formation of the nervous system"; "[c]annabis impacts the formation and functions of neuronal circuitries by targeting cannabinoid receptors ... By indiscriminately prolonging the "switched-on" period of cannabinoid receptors, cannabis can hijack endocannabinoid signals to evoke molecular rearrangements, leading to the erroneous wiring of neuronal networks".[8] A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs concluded cannabis and other cannabinoids are contraindicated in pregnancy as they may interact with the endocannabinoid system.[1][9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b c
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^

Further reading

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.