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Carlos Arias Navarro

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Subject: Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, Adolfo Suárez, Luis Carrero Blanco, Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos I of Spain
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Carlos Arias Navarro

The Most Excellent
Carlos Arias Navarro
The Marquis of Arias-Navarro

GE
71st President of the Government of Spain
4th of the Francoism (1939–1975)
1st of Democratic Transition (1975–1977)
In office
31 December 1973 – 1 July 1976
Monarch Juan Carlos I
(since 22 November 1975)
Vice President José García Hernández
(1974–1975)
Fernando de Santiago y Díaz
(1975–1976)
Leader Francisco Franco (1973–1975)
Preceded by Torcuato Fernández Miranda
Succeeded by Fernando de Santiago y Díaz
Minister of Government
In office
9 June 1973 – 3 January 1974
President Luis Carrero Blanco
Torcuato Fernández-Miranda
Preceded by Tomás Garicano Goñi
Succeeded by José García Hernández
Mayor of Madrid
In office
5 February 1965 – 12 June 1973
Preceded by José Finat y Escrivá de Romaní
Succeeded by Miguel Ángel García-Lomas
Personal details
Born Carlos Arias Navarro
(1908-12-11)11 December 1908
Madrid, Spain
Died 27 November 1989(1989-11-27) (aged 80)
Madrid, Spain
Nationality Spanish
Political party FET y de las JONS
(1936–1977)
Popular Alliance
(1977–1989)
People's Party
(1989)
Spouse(s) María de la Luz del Valle y Menéndez
Religion Roman Catholicism

Don Carlos Arias Navarro, 1st Marquis of Arias-Navarro, Grandee of Spain (11 December 1908 – 27 November 1989) was one of the best known Spanish politicians during the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco.

Although recycled as a moderate leader in the last phase of Francoism and the beginning of the transition to democracy, Carlos Arias Navarro was in fact a hard-line politician who had been involved in the White Terror, signing thousands of death warrants at the time of the dismantling of the Spanish Republic.[1]

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Later years 2
  • Spain and Portugal 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Biography

Carlos Arias Navarro and Franco in 1975

Arias Navarro was born in Madrid on 11 December 1908.

He served in the Ministry of Justice since 1929 as attorney in Málaga and Madrid. Arias was close to the right-wing sectors and joined the Francoist side during the Spanish Civil War. He was public prosecutor in the trials set up by the triumphant rightists in Málaga[2] after the Conquest of the city. There he earned the nickname "The Butcher of Málaga" (Carnicero de Málaga)[3] for his role in the imposition of the death penalty to true or perceived sympathizers of the Republican side,[4] in one of the harshest repressions following Francoist victory with an estimated total of 17,000 people summarily executed.[5][6][7]

He married María de la Luz del Valle y Menéndez, without issue.[8]

After serving in various positions, including Green March in November 1975 by King Hassan II of Morocco, and the illness and death of Franco (which Arias announced on television), displayed his weaknesses and further eroded his authority.

Franco's successor as head of state, King Juan Carlos I, continued his appointment, so that it was his government (which included Manuel Fraga Iribarne and José María de Areilza) that instituted the first reforms, however unwillingly. He tried to continue Franco's late policies, opposing any change. After a lengthy power struggle, this led to his dismissal by Juan Carlos I, with Arias resigning on 1 July 1976.

The next day, he was granted the hereditary title of marqués de Arias Navarro (English: Marquis of Arias Navarro), together with the dignity Grande de España (English: Grandee of Spain). Since he had no heirs, his title became extinct after he died.

Arias was succeeded by Adolfo Suárez, named general secretary of the Francoist official party Movimiento Nacional in December 1975. In June 1977, during the first free general elections held since 1936, Arias integrated the Alianza Popular, a right-wing party created by Manuel Fraga. He then led the Búnker group of hard-liners opposed to any reforms, along with the leader of the Francoist party Fuerza Nueva, Blas Piñar. Arias, however, never again occupied a relevant position in the later Spanish government.

Both left and extreme right attacked him, calling him by the nickname "The Old Pusillanimous".

Later years

In his first democratic election the party joined Popular Alliance (AP), led by Manuel Fraga, being senate candidate Madrid, but was not elected. He died on 27 November 1989 when he was 80 years of age, and was buried at the cemetery of El Pardo. His wife died in 1997.

Spain and Portugal

According to the Spanish daily El País,[9] files released by the US National Archives and Records Administration show that, following the left-wing Carnation Revolution coup in Portugal on 25 April 1974, Arias met with the United States Deputy Secretary of State Robert S. Ingersoll in March 1975 and offered to invade Portugal in order to stop the spread of Communism. The report Ingersoll forwarded to the then-Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, on 18 March, stated that "appropriate steps" were being taken to ensure that "the events in Portugal did not cross the border into Spain."

Ingersoll went on to add that Spain wanted Washington to support Spain in the event of war, precisely at a time when the US was renegotiating the status of its military bases, and Arias wanted Washington to support Spain's future membership of NATO.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ignacio Fontes; Manuel Ángel Menéndez: El parlamento de papel: La mirada gráfica, el enfoque literario, 2004, p. 126
  2. ^ Beevor, Antony The Battle for Spain (Penguin 2006).
  3. ^ Hugh Thomas: Historia de la Guerra Civil Española; 1976; p. 636
  4. ^ Málaga XX, Historia de un siglo: La Segunda República y la Guerra Civil - Diario Sur
  5. ^ El «holocausto de Málaga» - Málaga Hoy
  6. ^ San Rafael: la mayor fosa del país - La Opinión de Málaga
  7. ^ Málaga, 1937
  8. ^ Cronologia Geneall. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  9. ^ El País 3 November 2008
Political offices
Preceded by
José Finat y Escrivá de Romaní
Mayor of Madrid
1965–1973
Succeeded by
Miguel Angel García-Lomas Mata
Preceded by
Torcuato Fernández-Miranda
(acting)

President of the Government of Spain

1973–1976
Succeeded by
Fernando de Santiago y Díaz
(acting)
Spanish nobility
New title Marquis of Arias-Navarro
1976–1989
Extinct
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