World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Chang (instrument)

Article Id: WHEBN0010976419
Reproduction Date:

Title: Chang (instrument)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Harp, List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 322.12, Persian people, Çeng, Karnay
Collection: Angular Harps, Harps, Iranian Musical Instruments
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Chang (instrument)

Chang (instrument)
A Sassanid era mosaic excavated at Bishapur
Classification
Related instruments
Taq-e Bostan carving, Women playing Chang (instrument) while the king is standing in a boat holding his bow and arrows, from 6th century Sassanid Iran.

The chang (Persian: چنگ) is a Persian musical instrument similar to harp. It was very popular and used widely during the times of ancient Persia, especially during the Sasanian Dynasty where it was often played in the shahs' court.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Structure 2
  • Musicians 3
  • Other usages in music 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6

History

The chang has appeared in paintings and wall art in Persia since its introduction in about 4000 B.C.[1] In these paintings and mosaics, the chang went from the original arched harp to an angular harp in the early 1900s B.C. with vertical or horizontal sound boxes.[2] By the beginning of the Common Era (1 A.D.), the chang had changed shape to be less of a handheld instrument and more of a large, Hellenistic (which was gaining popularity at that time), standing harp.[3]Sassanian courts were enamored with the more Hellenistic chang and increased its popularity, but by the end of the Sasanian period, the chang had been redesigned to be as light as possible.[4] Becoming more elegant, the chang lost much of its rigidity and structural soundness, but gained a portability that made it the primary harp for what would soon become Iran. The chang that is used today resembles the last documented transformation.[5]

Structure

The chang is essentially an Iranian harp,[6][7] but unlike an eastern harp the strings are made of sheep guts and twisted goat hair and sometimes even nylon,[8] this characteristic gives the chang a unique sound in which it does not have the resonance of most traditional metal strings in other harps.[9] In medieval Azerbaijan, the chang had 18-24 strings but varies based on how far the chang dates back.[10] In the design of some ancient changs, sheep skin or goat skin was used to amplify the sound making it sound closer to an eastern harp,[11] but its unique sound is desirable and typically preserved.[12] The chang is played by plucking the strings with your right hand finger nails or finger picks and using your left hand to apply pressure on the strings to execute glissandos, vibratos and other embellishments and occasionally, plucking techniques.[13] In modern days the chang is made out of special string or the tail of a horse. The past structure of the chang was typically goat or sheep skin. The skins used on the chang also give it a different sound.

Musicians

The chang was predominantly played by women during ancient times.[14] However, the chang is being revived and is now starting to make its way back into the field of contemporary Persian music. There are records from as far back as 4000 B.C. that depict pictures of the chang being played, along with other instruments and a singer.[15] Since the playing style of the chang does not share any similarities with other Persian instruments, it is a difficult instrument to pick up, play and master. As a result, the number of chang players is small. There are a few modern players of the chang including Mrs. Parvin Ruhi and her two daughters Zaynab Baqeri Nejad and Masome Baqeri Nejad.[16] Today the chang is played in small ensembles, such as religious ceremonies and parties.[17] In recent years, the Iranian scholars and instrument makers have been trying to revive the ancient chang back to its former glory.

Other usages in music

The chang (or Chinese chang) is also a name given to the fangxiang, a Chinese metallophone played in China since ancient times.[18]


Notes

  1. ^ Laylazi
  2. ^ Lawergren
  3. ^ Lawergren
  4. ^ Lawergren
  5. ^ Lawergren
  6. ^ Lawergren
  7. ^ http://music.ownthisblog.com/2008/09/07/chang-jing-open-music-%E5%B8%B8%E9%9D%99-%E3%80%8A%E7%A6%BB%E5%BC%A6%E3%80%8B/
  8. ^ Lawergren
  9. ^ Lawergren
  10. ^ http://music.ownthisblog.com/2008/09/07/chang-jing-open-music-%E5%B8%B8%E9%9D%99-%E3%80%8A%E7%A6%BB%E5%BC%A6%E3%80%8B/
  11. ^ Lawergren
  12. ^ Lawergren
  13. ^ http://music.ownthisblog.com/2008/09/07/chang-jing-open-music-%E5%B8%B8%E9%9D%99-%E3%80%8A%E7%A6%BB%E5%BC%A6%E3%80%8B/
  14. ^ Simorq
  15. ^ Simorq
  16. ^ Simorq
  17. ^ Simorq
  18. ^ Scholes, Percy. The Oxford Companion To Music (1956 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 481. 

References

  • Laylazi, Arash, ed. "Chang." farabi. Sout Azin Co. Ltd. , 2012. Web. 4 Oct 2012. .
  • Lawergren, Bo. "IRANIAN MUSIC." The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies. The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS), 2011. Web. 4 Oct 2012.
  • http://music.ownthisblog.com/2008/09/07/chang-jing-open-music-%E5%B8%B8%E9%9D%99-%E3%80%8A%E7%A6%BB%E5%BC%A6%E3%80%8B/.
  • Simorq. "History". Shivateam.com, 2012. Web. 06 Oct. 2012. .
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.