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College cheerleaders performing a liberty stunt
All-Star cheerleaders performing a prep double

Cheerleading ranges from yelling to intense tumbling, dance, jumps, cheers and stunting in order to direct spectators of events to cheer for sports teams at games or to participate in cheerleading competitions. The yellers, dancers and athletes involved in cheerleading are called cheerleaders. Cheerleading originated in the United States, and remains predominantly American, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. The presentation of cheerleading as a sport to a global audience was led by the 1997 start of broadcasts of cheerleading competition by ESPN International and the worldwide release of the 2000 film Bring It On. Due in part to this recent exposure, there are now an estimated 100,000 participants scattered around the rest of the world in countries including Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, France, Germany, Japan,[1] the Netherlands, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.[2]


Before Organized Cheerleading

The roots of cheerleading can be found in the rebellion of male students during the late seventeen hundreds. In the 1860s students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at athletic events soon having the gesture of support cross over seas and begin the roots of cheerleading to sprout in the United States.[3][4] College students in America were dealing with living in the post-Revolutionary War era and were having to deal with harsh, severe authority that was being burdened upon them by their teachers. In response to faculty’s abuse towards students, college kids began to act out maliciously. The undergraduates began to burn down buildings located on their college campuses, assault faculty members, and riot spitefully. As a more subtle way to gain independence, students began to invent and organize their own extracurricular activities outside their professors’ control. This brought America both sports and cheerleading to participate in, beginning first with college teams.[5]

In 1860 the United States of America witnessed its very first intercollegiate football game. It took place between Princeton and Rutgers University, and marked the day the original “Sis Boom Rah!” cheer was shouted out by student fans.[6]

The Beginning of Organized Cheer

Minnesota Gopher cheerleader Johnny Campbell

Organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity.[7] As early as 1877, Princeton University had a "Princeton Cheer", documented in the February 22, 1877, March 12, 1880, and November 4, 1881, issues of the Daily Princetonian.[8][9][10] This cheer was yelled from the stands by students at games, as well as by the baseball and football athletes themselves. The cheer, "Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! Tiger! S-s-s-t! Boom! A-h-h-h!" remains in use with slight modifications today and is now referred to as the "Locomotive".[11]

Princeton class of 1882 graduate University of Minnesota.[12][13] The term "Cheer Leader" had been used as early as 1897, with Princeton's football officials having named three students as Cheer Leaders: Thomas, Easton and Guerin from Princeton's classes of 1897, 1898 and 1899, respectively, on October 26, 1897; these students would cheer for the team also at football practices, and special cheering sections were designated in the stands for the games themselves for both the home and visiting teams.[14][15]

It was not until 1898 that University of Minnesota student Johnny Campbell directed a crowd in cheering "Rah, Rah, Rah! Ski-u-mah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah!", making Campbell the very first cheerleader and November 2, 1898 the official birth date of organized cheerleading. Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a "yell leader" squad of six male students, who still use Campbell's original cheer today.[16] In 1903 the first cheerleading fraternity, Gamma Sigma, was founded.[17]

Cheerleaders at the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1948

Women Making Their Mark

In 1923, at the University of Minnesota, women were finally admitted into cheerleading after the first squad formed nearly forty something years prior.[18][19] Although this seemed like a huge step towards women joining cheerleading it was a long and lengthy process for other schools to follow in Minnesota’s footsteps. As the late twenties began to approach, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders by using words like “chap,” fellow,” and “man”.[20] The fact that women had begun to take part in cheer was very much overlooked until the 1940s. When the 40’s emerged World War II was just beginning, forcing collegiate men to be drafted and sparking the chance for more women to make their way onto sporting event sidelines. This is the war that prompted cheerleading to become female dominate.[21] As noted by Kieran Scott in Ultimate Cheerleading: “Girls really took over for the first time."[22] An overview written on behalf of cheerleading in 1955 explained that in larger schools “occasionally boys as well as girls are included,” and in smaller schools “boys can usually find their place in the athletic program, and cheerleading is likely to remain solely a feminine occupation.” By this time, in many instances, if you asked a high school teacher how they would identify extracurricular activities, as far as gender was concerned, many stated that sports were strictly male and that cheering (and sewing) was very much classified as a female extracurricular.[23] During the 1950s cheerleading in America also reached a new spike in popularity. By the 60’s, Americans began to consider the activity a “sissy” extracurricular for boys and when the 1970s approached, girls primarily cheered at public school games.[24] However this didn't stop it's growth, cheer could be found in virtually every school ranging from adolescent to grade school level across the entire country, and pee wee and youth leagues had even began to appear.[25][26]

In 1975, it was estimated by a man named Randy Neil that over 500,000 students actively participated in cheerleading in America from grade school all the way up to the collegiate level. He also approximated that roughly ninety-five percent of cheerleaders within America were female.[27] Since 1973 cheerleaders have started to attend female basketball and other all-female sports as well.[28]

As of 2005, statistics have show that overall around 97% of all modern cheerleading participants are female. At the collegiate level, cheerleading is co-ed with about 50% of participants being male.[29]

The Start of the National Cheerleaders Association

In 1948, Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, of Dallas, Texas, a former cheerleader at Collegiate Cheerleading Championships on CBS.[16][17]

Professional Cheerleading

The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders (1983) performing in the USO USO show "America and Her Music" on the deck of the nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser USS Bainbridge (CGN-25)

The 1950s were when the formation of professional cheerleading first started, during this time the first cheer squad in National Football League (NFL) history was recorded. Following this event, perceptions of American cheerleading changed. The Baltimore Colts were the first team to mark the start of the nation’s trend to have cheerleaders present at their sporting events.[31][32] Professional cheerleaders began to be selected on account of two reasons: visual sex appeal, and the ability to dance. Women were exclusively chosen as members because the main marketing group being targeted were male.[33] The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders soon gained the spotlight with their revealing outfits and sophisticated dance moves, which debuted in the 1972–1973 season, but were first seen widely in Super Bowl X (1976). These pro squads of the 70’s established cheerleaders as “American icons of wholesome sex appeal."[34] By 1981, a total of seventeen Nation Football League teams had their own cheerleaders and within these squads there were 580 participants. The only teams that failed to have NFL cheerleaders at this time were New Orleans, New York, Detroit, Cleveland, Denver, Minnesota, Pittsburg, San Francisco, and San Diego. Subsequently professional cheerleading eventually spread to soccer and basketball teams as well.[35] This caused the American view of cheerleading to be blurred during the 1990s. Due to the fact that professional cheerleading is both erotic and feminized forces it to be devalued. On the other hand, college and grade school cheerleaders are coed, ascending to be more athletic and competitive as each year goes by, qualities genuinely valued. This makes for the confusion of both positive and negative stereotypes.[36]

The Advancements and Traditions of Cheerleading

The 1980s saw the beginning of modern cheerleading with more difficult stunt sequences and gymnastics incorporated into routines. All-star teams started to pop up, and with them the creation of the United States All-Star Federation (USASF). ESPN first broadcast the National High School Cheerleading Competition nationwide in 1983. Cheerleading organizations such as the American Association of Cheerleading Coaches and Advisors (AACCA), founded in 1987, started applying universal safety standards to decrease the number of injuries and prevent dangerous stunts, pyramids and tumbling passes from being included in the cheerleading routines.[37] In 2003, the National Council for Spirit Safety and Education (NCSSE) was formed to offer safety training for youth, school, all star and college coaches. The NCAA requires college cheer coaches to successfully complete a nationally recognized safety-training program. The NCSSE or AACCA certification programs are both recognized by the NCAA.

Even with its athletic and competitive development, cheerleading at the school level has retained its ties to the spirit leading traditions started back in the 1890s. Cheerleaders are quite often seen as ambassadors for their schools, and leaders among the student body. At the college level, cheerleaders are often invited to help at university fundraisers.

Cheerleading is very closely associated with American football and basketball. Sports such as association football (soccer), ice hockey, volleyball, baseball and wrestling will sometimes sponsor cheerleading squads. The ICC Twenty20 Cricket World Cup in South Africa in 2007 was the first international cricket event to have cheerleaders. The Florida Marlins were the first Major League Baseball team to have a cheerleading team. Debuting in 2003, the "Marlin Mermaids" gained national exposure and have influenced other MLB teams to develop their own cheer/dance squads.

Types of teams in the United States today

University of Memphis Cheerleaders performing a Co-ed double Cupie


Most American middle schools, high schools, and colleges have organized cheerleading squads made up solely of students. Several colleges that compete at cheerleading competitions offer cheerleading scholarships. School-sponsored cheerleading promotes school spirit and motivate the players and fans as well as enjoyment for the participants. A cheerleading team may compete outside of sporting events (local, regional, and national competitions), and cheer for sporting events and encourage audience participation. Cheerleading is quickly becoming year-round, starting with tryouts during the spring of the preceding school year, organized camp as a team, practices, attendance at various events and ending with National competition season, typically from winter through spring.

School cheerleaders also compete with recreational-style routines at many competitions year-round. They practice hardly for them and come up with a no greater than 2 minute 30 second routine to show off at the competitions. Like other school-level athletes they compete to win their league title and move on to bigger competitions eventually reaching nationals the ultimate title for a school squad. The advantages to a school squad versus an all-star squad is cheering at various games. For some squads the level of competition on the weekends can equal that of an all-star squad.

The tryout process sometimes takes place over many days. The cheerleading coach usually will arrange for a cheerleading clinic, during which basic materials are taught or reviewed before the final day of tryouts. The clinic gives returning cheerleaders and new cheerleaders an equal chance of becoming familiar with the material. Skills that coaches look for include jumps, tumbling, motions, and dance ability. Tryouts often take place during the spring, so that the coach has the team chosen in time to attend summer camp as a team.

Middle school

Middle school cheerleading evolved shortly after high school squads started. In middle school, the squads serve mostly the same functions as high school squads and usually follow the same rules and regulations. Depending on how advanced the squad is, they usually do similar stunts to high school cheer squads.[38] The cheerleaders cheer for basketball teams, football teams, and other sports teams in their school. They also perform at pep rallies and compete against other schools from local competitions all the way to nationals.[39] Cheerleading in middle school sometimes can be a two-season activity: fall and winter. However, many middle school cheer squads will go all year round like high school squads. Middle school cheerleaders use the same cheerleading movements as their older counterparts, yet they perform less extreme stunts, ranging from simple elevators, knee stands, extensions to harder stunts such as the heel stretch and scorpion.

High school cheerleaders

High school

In high school, there are usually two squads per school: varsity and a junior varsity. Some schools also include a freshman level of cheering in order to develop skills as the athletes continue to mature. High school cheerleading contains aspects of school spirit as well as competition. These squads have become a part of a year-round cycle, starting with tryouts in the spring, to year-round practice, to cheering on teams in the autumn and winter, and to cheerleading competitions. Most squads practice at least three days a week for about two hours each practice during the summer. Many teams also attend separate tumbling sessions outside of practice. During the school year, cheerleading is usually practiced five- to six-days-a-week. During competition season it often becomes seven days with practice twice a day sometimes. The school spirit aspect of cheerleading involves cheering, supporting, and "pumping up" the crowd at football games, basketball games, and even at wrestling meets. With this they also make posters, perform at pep rallies, and bring school spirit to the other students. In May 2009, the National Federation of State High School Associations released the results of their first true high school participation study. They estimated that the number of high school cheerleaders from public high schools is around 394,700.[40]

Collegiate cheerleaders for the University of Florida perform a high splits pyramid during a Gators college football game

There is year-round practice, cheer camps, and competitions throughout the winter. There are different cheerleading organizations that put on these competitions, some of the major ones include state competitions and regional competitions. Many high schools will often host cheerleading competitions, bringing in IHSA judges. The regional competitions are the qualifiers for the national competitions, such as the UCA (Universal Cheerleaders Association) in Orlando, Florida every year.[41] The competition aspect of cheerleading can be very enduring; styles and rules changing every year make it important and difficult to find the newest and hottest routines.[42] Most teams have a professional choreographer choreograph their routine in order to ensure they are not breaking any rules and they will be up to par with the other teams. For a list of rules visit AACCA (American Association of Cheerleading Coaches and Administrators). All high school coaches are required to attend an IHSA rules meeting at the beginning of the season. This ensures their knowledge of rules changes and their compliance with these rules. Routines usually last around 2 minutes and 30 seconds and always require cheer, dance, jumps, tumbling, and stunting portions.

Not all high school cheerleading squads compete in competitions. Cheerleaders dress in matching uniforms, to look like a team while they are performing.[43]

Youth Cheerleaders during a football halftime show. Youth Cheer—high school ages and younger—make up the vast majority of cheerleaders and cheer teams.

Youth league/athletic association

Organizations that sponsor youth cheer teams are usually sponsors for either youth league football or basketball teams as well. This allows for the two, under the same sponsor, to be intermingled. Both teams will hold the same mascot name and the cheerleaders will cheer/perform at the football or basketball team's game that they share a sponsorship with. Examples of such sponsors include Pop Warner and Pasco Police Athletic League (PPAL). The YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) is also a well-known sponsor for youth cheerleading leagues. [44]


During the early 1980s, cheerleading squads not associated with a school or sports leagues, whose main objective was competition, began to emerge. The first organization to call themselves all stars and go to competitions were the Q94 Rockers from [46]

The USASF was formed in 2003 by the competition companies to act as the national governing body for all star cheerleading and to create a standard set of rules and judging standards to be followed by all competitions sanctioned by the Federation, ultimately leading to the Cheerleading Worlds. The USASF hosted the first Cheerleading Worlds on April 24, 2004.[46] In 2009, the first All-Level Worlds was held. It included teams from all levels, with each winner continuing to the online championships, where teams from across the nation competed to win the Worlds Title. At the same time, cheerleading coaches from all over the country organized themselves for the same rule making purpose, calling themselves the National All Star Cheerleading Coaches Congress (NACCC). In 2005, the NACCC was absorbed by the USASF to become their rule making body.[45] In late 2006, the USASF facilitated the creation of the International All-Star Federation (IASF).

Competitive Cheer - Paramount Cheerleaders doing a scale

As of 2012 all-star cheerleading as sanctioned by the USASF involves a squad of 6–36 females and/or males. The squad prepares year-round for many different competition appearances, but they only actually perform for up to 2½ minutes during their team's routines. The numbers of competitions a team participates in varies from team to team, but generally, most teams tend to participate in eight to twelve competitions a year. These competitions include locals, which are normally taken place in school gymnasiums or local venues, nationals, hosted in big venues all around the U.S. with national champions, and the Cheerleading Worlds, taken place at Disney World in Orlando, Florida. During a competition routine, a squad performs carefully choreographed stunting, tumbling, jumping, and dancing to their own custom music. Teams create their routines to an eight-count system and apply that to the music so that the team members execute the elements with precise timing and synchronization.

There are many different organizations that host their own state and national competitions. Some major companies include: Universal Spirit, AmeriCheer, Cheersport, Planet Spirit, Eastern Cheer and Dance Association, and the JAM Brands. This means that many gyms within the same area could be state and national champions for the same year and never have competed against each other. Currently, there is no system in place that awards only one state or national title.

Judges at the competition watch closely for illegal moves from the group or any individual member. Here, an illegal move is something that is not allowed in that division due to difficulty and/or safety restrictions. They look out for deductions, or things that go wrong, such as a dropped stunt. They also look for touch downs in tumbling for deductions. More generally, judges look at the difficulty and execution of jumps, stunts and tumbling, synchronization, creativity, the sharpness of the motions, showmanship, and overall routine execution.

All-star cheerleaders are placed into divisions, which are grouped based upon age, size of the team, gender of participants, and ability level. The age levels vary from under 4 year of age to 18 years and over. The divisions used by the USASF/IASF are currently Tiny, Mini, Youth, Junior, Junior International, Junior Coed, Senior, Senior Coed, Special Needs, and Open International. It originally began with "all girl" teams and later co-ed teams began to gain popularity. That being said, the all-girl squad remains the most prevalent.[47]

If a team places high enough at selected USASF/IASF sanctioned national competitions, they could be included in the Cheerleading Worlds and compete against teams from all over the world, as well as receive money for placing.[2] Each team receives a bid from another cheerleading company and goes in the name of that company. One must get a bid from a company in order to compete at the Cheerleading Worlds. For example, a team could get a bid from Cheersport, and they compete as a team representing that company. Cheerleading companies give out three types of bids to go to Cheerleading Worlds, Full Paid Bid, Partial Bid, or an Un-paid bid. The Cheerleading Worlds are only for teams that are level 5 and up.

Each NFL team had one of their cheerleaders present at the 2006 Pro Bowl to represent their team.


Professional cheerleaders and dancers cheer for sports such as football, basketball, baseball, wrestling, or hockey. There are only a small handful of professional cheerleading leagues around the world; some professional leagues include the NBA Cheerleading League, the NFL Cheerleading League, the Canadian Football League Cheerleading|CFL Cheerleading League, the MLS Cheerleading|MLS Cheerleading League, the MLB Cheerleading|MLB Cheerleading League, and the NHL Ice Dancers. Although professional cheerleading leagues exist in multiple countries, there are no Olympic Teams.

In addition to cheering at games and competing, professional cheerleaders also, as teams, can often do a lot of philanthropy and charity work, modeling, motivational speaking, television performances, and advertising.[48]

Associations, Federations, Organizations

Cheerleaders associated with the Borregos Salvajes, called "Borreguitas" at the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City.

Americheer:[49] Americheer was founded in 1987 by Elizabeth Rossetti. It is the parent company to Ameridance and Eastern Cheer and Dance Association. In 2005, Americheer became one of the founding members of the NLCC. This means that Americheer events offer bids to The U.S. Finals: The Final Destination. AmeriCheer InterNational Championship competition is held every March at the Walt Disney World Resort in Orlando, Florida.

International Cheer Union (ICU):[50] Established on April 26, 2004, the ICU is recognized by the SportAccord as the world governing body of cheerleading and the authority on all matters with relation to it. Including participation from its 105 member national federations reaching 3.5 million athletes globally, the ICU continues to serve as the unified voice for those dedicated to cheerleading's positive development around the world.

Following a positive vote by the SportAccord General Assembly on May 31, 2013, in Saint Petersburg, the International Cheer Union (ICU) became SportAccord's 109th member, and SportAccord's 93rd international sports federation to join the international sports family. In accordance with the SportAccord statutes, the ICU is recognized as the world governing body of cheerleading and the authority on all matters related to it.

The ICU holds training seminars for judges and coaches, global events and the World Cheerleading Championships. The ICU is also fully applied to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and is compliant under the code set by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).

International Federation of Cheerleading (IFC):[51] Established on July 5, 1998, the International Federation of Cheerleading (IFC) is a non-profit federation based in Tokyo, Japan, and is the world governing body of cheerleading. The IFC objectives are to promote cheerleading worldwide, to spread knowledge of cheerleading and to develop friendly relations among the member associations and federations.

National Cheerleaders Association:[52] The NCA was founded in 1948 by Lawrence Herkimer. Every year, the NCA hosts the NCA High School Cheerleading Nationals and the NCA All-Star Cheerleading Nationals in Dallas, Texas. They also host the NCA/NDA Collegiate Cheer & Dance Championship in Daytona Beach, Florida.

United Spirit Association:[53] In 1950 Robert Olmstead directed his first summer training camp, and USA later sprouted from this. USA’s focus is on the game day experience as a way to enhance audience entertainment. This focus led to the first American football half-time shows to reach adolescences from around the world and expose them to American style cheerleading. USA has choreographed material for professional and competitive cheerleaders alike. USA provides competitions for cheerleading squads without prior qualifications needed in order to participate. The organization also allows the opportunity for cheerleaders to become an All-American, participate in the Macy's Thanksgiving Parade, and partake in both the London New Year's Day Parade and other special events much like UCA and NCA allow participants to do.

Universal Cheerleaders Association:[54] Universal Cheerleaders Association was founded in 1974 by Jeff Webb. Since 1980, UCA has hosted the National High School Cheerleading Championship in Walt Disney World Resort. They also host the National All-Star Cheerleading Championship, and the College Cheerleading National Championship at Walt Disney World Resort. To qualify for these events, all teams must submit a video. All of these events air on ESPN.

Competitions and companies

Asian Thailand Cheerleading Invitational (ATCI):[55] Organised by the Cheerleading Association of Thailand (CAT) in accordance with the rules and regulations of the International Federation of Cheerleading (IFC). The ATCI is held every year since 2009. At the ATCI many teams from all over Thailand compete, joining them are many invited neighbouring nations who also send cheer squads.

Cheerleading Asia International Open Championships (CAIOC): Hosted by the Foundation of Japan Cheerleading Association (FJCA) in accordance with the rules and regulations of the IFC. The CAIOC has been a yearly event since 2007. Every year many teams from all over Asia converge in Tokyo to compete.[56]

Cheerleading World Championships (CWC):[57] Organised by the IFC. The IFC is a non-profit organisation founded in 1998 and based in Tokyo, Japan. The CWC has been held every two years since 2001, and to date the competition has been held in Japan, the United Kingdom, Finland, Germany and Hong Kong. The 6th CWC was held at the Hong Kong Coliseum on November 26–27, 2011.[58]

ICU World Championships:[59] The International Cheer Union currently encompasses 105 National Federations from countries across the globe. Every year the ICU host the World Cheerleading Championship. Unlike the USASF Worlds, this competition uses Level 6/ Collegiate style rules. Countries assemble and send only one team to represent them.

National Cheerleading Championships (NCC):[60] The NCC is the annual IFC-sanctioned national cheerleading competition in Indonesia organised by the Indonesian Cheerleading Community (ICC).[61] Since the NCC2010 the event is now open to international competition, representing a significant step forward for the ICC. Teams from many countries such as Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, participated in the ground breaking event.

The competition floor at Final Destination

NLCC Final Destination:[62] Nation's Leading Cheer Companies is a multi brand company, partnered with other companies such as: Americheer/Ameridance, American Cheer & Dance Academy, Eastern Cheer & Dance Association, and Spirit Unlimited. Every year, starting in 2006, the NLCC hosts The US Finals: The Final Destination of Cheerleading and Dance. Every team that attends must qualify and receive a bid at a partner company's competition. In May 2008, the NLCC and The JAM Brands announced a partnership to produce The U.S. Finals - Final Destination. There are nine Final Destination locations across the country. After the regional events, videos of all the teams that competed are sent to a new panel of judges and rescored to rank teams against those against whom they may never have had a chance to compete.

Pan-American Cheerleading Championships (PCC):[63] The PCC was held for the first time in 2009 in the city of Latacunga, Ecuador and is the continental championship organised by the Pan-American Federation of Cheerleading (PFC). The PFC, operating under the umbrella of the IFC, is the non-profit continental body of cheerleading whose aim it is to promote and develop cheerleading in the Americas. The PCC is a biennial event, and was held for the second time in Lima, Peru, in November 2010.

The JAM Brands:[64] The JAM Brands, headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky, provides products and services for the cheerleading and dance industry. It is made up of approximately 12 different brands that produce everything from competitions to camps to uniforms to merchandise and apparel. JAMfest, the original brand of The JAM Brands, has been around since 1996 and was founded by Aaron Flaker and Emmitt Tyler. Dan Kessler has since become a co-owner of The JAM Brands along with Flaker and Tyler.

USASF/IASF Worlds:[65][66] Many United States cheerleading organizations form and register the not-for-profit entity the United States All Star Federation (USASF) and also the International All Star Federation (IASF) to support international club cheerleading and the World Cheerleading Club Championships. The first World Cheerleading Championships, or Cheerleading Worlds, were hosted by the USASF/IASF at the Walt Disney World Resort and taped for an ESPN global broadcast in 2004. This competition is only for All-Star/Club cheer. Only levels Junior 5, Senior 5, Senior Open 5, International 5, International Open 5, International 6, and International Open 6 may attend. Teams must receive a bid from a partner company to attend.

Varsity:[67] Partnered with the UCA, Varsity created the National High School Cheerleading Championship in 1980. Varsity All-Star owns or partners with many of the largest cheerleading events in the country.

Title IX sports status

There is a large debate on whether or not cheerleading should be considered a sport for Title IX purposes. Supporters consider cheerleading, as a whole, a sport, citing the heavy use of athletic talents[68][69] while critics see it as a physical activity because a "sport" implies a competition among all squads and not all squads compete, along with subjectivity of competitions where—as with gymnastics, diving, and figure skating—scores are assessed based on human judgment and not an objective goal or measurement of time.[70][71][72]

On January 27, 2009, in a lawsuit involving an accidental injury sustained during a cheerleading practice, the [75]

Cheerleading can be a dangerous activity. There is much contact in this activity as there is lifting and tumbling.

Dangers of cheerleading

The risks of cheerleading were highlighted when Kristi Yamaoka, a cheerleader for Southern Illinois University, suffered a fractured vertebra when she hit her head after falling from a human pyramid.[76] She also suffered from a concussion, and a bruised lung.[77] The fall occurred when Yamaoka lost her balance during a basketball game between Southern Illinois University and Bradley University at the Savvis Center in St. Louis on March 5, 2006.[77] The fall gained "national attention",[77] because Yamaoka continued to perform from a stretcher as she was moved away from the game.[77] Yamaoka has since made a full recovery.

The accident caused the [78] On July 11, 2006, the bans were made permanent by the AACCA rules committee:

The committee unanimously voted for sweeping revisions to cheerleading safety rules, the most major of which restricts specific upper-level skills during basketball games. Basket tosses, 2½ high pyramids, one-arm stunts, stunts that involve twisting or flipping, and twisting tumbling skills may only be performed during halftime and post-game on a matted surface and are prohibited during game play or time-outs.[78]

Of the United States' 2.9 million female high school athletes, only 3% are cheerleaders, yet cheerleading accounts for nearly 65% of all catastrophic injuries in girls' high school athletics.[79] The NCAA does not recognize cheerleading as a collegiate sport; there are no solid numbers on college cheerleading, yet when it comes to injuries, 67% of female athlete injuries at the college level are due to cheerleading mishaps. Another study found that between 1982 and 2007, there were 103 fatal, disabling or serious injuries recorded among female high school athletes, with the vast majority (67) occurring in cheerleading.[80]

In the early 2000s, cheerleading was considered one of the most dangerous school activities. The main source of injuries comes from stunting, also known as pyramids. These stunts are performed at games and pep rallies, as well as competitions. Sometimes competition routines are focused solely around the use of difficult and risky stunts. These stunts usually include a flyer (the person on top), along with one or two bases (the people on the bottom) and, one or two spotters in the front and back on the bottom. The most common cheerleading related injuries are: sprained ankles, sprained wrists, back injuries, head injuries (sometimes concussions), broken arms, elbow injuries, knee injuries, broken noses, and broken collarbones.[81][82] Sometimes, however, injuries can be as serious as whiplash, broken necks, broken vertebrae, and death.

The journal Pediatrics has reportedly said that the number of cheerleaders suffering from broken bones, concussions, and sprains has increased by over 100 percent between the years of 1990 and 2002, and that in 2001 there were 25,000 hospital visits reported for cheerleading injuries dealing with the shoulder, ankle, head, and neck.[83] Meanwhile, in the USA, cheerleading accounted for 65.1% of all major physical injuries to high school females, and to 66.7% of major injuries to college students due to physical activity from 1982 to 2007, with 22,900 minors being admitted to hospital with cheerleading-related injuries in 2002.[84][85]

In October 2009, the American Association of Cheerleading Coaches and Advisors (AACCA), a subsidiary of Varsity Brands, released a study that analyzed the data from Emergency Room visits of all high school athletes. The study asserted that contrary to many perceptions, cheerleading injuries are in line with female sports.[86]

Cheerleading (for both girls and boys) was one of the sports studied in the Pediatric Injury Prevention, Education and Research Program of the Colorado School of Public Health in 2009/10–2012/13.[87] Data on cheerleading injuries is included in the report for 2012–13.[88]

In popular culture

Movies and television

The revamped and provocative Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders of the 1970s—and the many imitators that followed—firmly established the cheerleader as an American icon of wholesome sex appeal. In response, a new subgenre of exploitation films suddenly sprang up with titles such as The Cheerleaders (1972), The Swinging Cheerleaders (1974), Revenge of the Cheerleaders (1975), The Pom Pom Girls (1976), Satan's Cheerleaders (1977), and Cheerleaders's Wild Weekend (1979). In addition to R-rated sex comedies and horror films, cheerleaders became a staple of the adult film industry, starting with Debbie Does Dallas (1978) and its four sequels.

On television, the made-for-TV movie The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders (which aired January 14, 1979) starring Jane Seymour was a highly rated success, spawning the 1980 sequel The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders II.

The Dallas squad was in high demand during the late '70s with frequent appearances on network specials, awards shows, variety programs, commercials, the game show Family Feud and sitcoms such as The Love Boat. The sci-fi sitcom Mork & Mindy also based a 1979 episode around the Denver Broncos cheerleaders with Mork (Robin Williams) trying out for the squad.

Cheerleading's increasing popularity in recent decades has made it a prominent feature in high-school themed movies and television shows. The 2000 film Bring It On, about a San Diego high school cheerleading squad called "The Toros", starred real-life former cheerleader Kirsten Dunst. Bring It On was a surprise hit and earned nearly $70 million domestically. It spawned five direct-to-video sequels: Bring It On Again in 2003, Bring It On: All or Nothing in 2006, Bring It On: In It to Win It in 2007, and Bring It On: Fight to the Finish. Bring It On was followed in 2001 by another teen cheerleading comedy, Sugar & Spice. In 1993, The Positively True Adventures of the Alleged Texas Cheerleader-Murdering Mom was a TV movie which told the true story of Wanda Holloway, the Texas mother whose obsession with her daughter's cheerleading career made headline news.

In 2006, Hayden Panettiere, star of Bring It On: All or Nothing, took another cheerleading role as Claire Bennet, the cheerleader with an accelerated healing factor on NBC's hit sci-fi TV series Heroes, launching cheerleading back into the limelight of pop culture. Claire was the main focus of the show's first story arc, featuring the popular catchphrase, "Save the cheerleader, save the world". Her prominent, protagonist role in Heroes was supported by a strong fan-base and provided a positive image for high school cheerleading.

In 2009, Panettiere starred again as a cheerleader, this time as Beth Cooper in the film adaptation of the novel I Love You, Beth Cooper.

In 2006, the reality show Cheerleader Nation was featured on the Lifetime television channel. Cheerleader Nation is a 60 minute television series based on the Paul Laurence Dunbar High School cheerleading team's ups and downs on the way to nationals, of which they are the three time champions. The show also believes that cheerleading is tough. The show takes place in Lexington, Kentucky.

The 2007 series Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders: Making the Team shows the process of getting on the pro squad of the Dallas Cowboy cheerleaders. Everything from initial tryouts to workout routines and the difficulties involved is shown. The series was extended a year to show the process of getting the 2008 Cheerleaders ready.

In 2009, Universal Pictures signed music video and film director Billie Woodruff (Barbershop, Honey) to direct the fifth film in the Bring It On series titled Bring It On: Fight to the Finish. The film stars Christina Milian (who previously played cheerleaders in Love Don't Cost a Thing and Man of the House) and Rachelle Brook Smith, and was released directly to DVD and Blu-ray on September 1, 2009.

The series Glee, which began in 2009, features Dianna Agron as Quinn Fabray, the captain of her high school cheerleading squad, the Cheerios. Quinn becomes pregnant, leading to her expulsion from the squad, but two of the other Cheerios, Santana Lopez and Brittany Pierce also feature heavily in the show. In "The Power of Madonna" Kurt Hummel joins the Cheerios along with Mercedes Jones.

The CW Television Network created the short-lived Hellcats series (2010–11). This drama was about the ups and downs of being a college cheerleader. It starred Alyson Michalka as Marty (a former gymnast forced to become a cheerleader after her academic scholarship is canceled) and Ashley Tisdale from High School Musical.

Video games

Nintendo has released a pair of video games in Japan for the Nintendo DS, Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan and its sequel Moero! Nekketsu Rhythm Damashii that star teams of male cheer squads, or Ouendan that practice a form of cheerleading. Each of the games' most difficult modes replaces the male characters with female cheer squads that dress in western cheerleading uniforms. The games task the cheer squads with assisting people in desperate need of help by cheering them on and giving them the motivation to succeed. There are also a All Star Cheerleader and We Cheer for the Wii in which one does routines at competitions with the Wiimote & Nunchuck. All Star Cheerleader is also available for Nintendo DS.

Cheerleading in Canada

High school cheerleaders in Montreal in 1943

Cheerleading in Canada is rising in popularity among the youth in co-curricular programs. Cheerleading has grown from the sidelines to a competitive activity throughout the world and in particular Canada. Cheerleading has a few streams in Canadian sports culture. It is available at the middle-school, high-school, collegiate and best known for all-star. There are multiple regional, provincial and national championship opportunities for all athletes participating in cheerleading. Canada does not have a provincial teams, just a national program referred to as CCU or Team Canada. Their first year as a National team was in 2009 when they represented Canada at the International Cheer Union World Cheerleading Championships International Cheer Union (ICU).[89]

Canada as a competition

There is no official governing body for Canadian Cheerleading. The rules and guidelines for cheerleading used in Canada are the ones set out by the [92]

Canada at the World Championships of Cheerleading (USASF/ICU)

There are two world championship competitions that Canada participates in. There is the ICU World Championships where the National Teams compete against each other and then there are the Club team World Championships. These club teams are referred to as "All-star" teams who compete at the USASF World Championships of Cheerleading. This is where teams must have earned a bid from their own country to attend. National team members who compete at the ICU Worlds can also compete with their "All-Star Club" teams.[93] Although athletes can compete in both International Cheer Union (ICU) and USASF, crossovers between teams at each individual competition are not permitted. Teams compete against the other teams from their countries on the first day of competition and the top three teams from each country in each division continue to Finals. At the end of finals, the top team scoring the highest for their country earns the "Nations Cup". Canada has multiple teams across their country that compete in the USASF Cheerleading Worlds Championship.[94]

The International Cheer Union (ICU) is built of 103 countries that compete against each other in four divisions; Coed Premier, All-girl Premier, Coed Elite and All-girl Elite. Canada has a national team ran by the Canadian Cheer Union (CCU). Their Coed Elite Level 5 Team and their All-girl Elite Level 5 team are 4-time world champions. They are found from all over the country. In 2013, they have added two more teams to their roster. A new division that will compete head-to-head with the United States: in both the All-girl and Coed Premier Level 6 divisions. Members tryout and are selected on the basis of their skills and potential to succeed. Athletes are selected from all over. Canada's national program has grown to be one of the most successful programs.[95]

Cheerleading in the United Kingdom

Notable former cheerleaders

See also



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External links

  • Cheerleading at DMOZ
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